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GNU coreutils 8.32
March 2020


The basic file, shell and text manipulation utilities of the GNU operating system


coreutils common optional components


Documentation for the GNU Core Utilities


tr - translate or delete characters


tr [\,OPTION\/]... \,SET1 \/[\,SET2\/]


Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters from standard input, writing to standard output.
-c, -C, --complement
use the complement of SET1
-d, --delete
delete characters in SET1, do not translate
-s, --squeeze-repeats
replace each sequence of a repeated character that is listed in the last specified SET, with a single occurrence of that character
-t, --truncate-set1
first truncate SET1 to length of SET2
--help display this help and exit
output version information and exit
SETs are specified as strings of characters. Most represent themselves. Interpreted sequences are:
\NNN character with octal value NNN (1 to 3 octal digits)
\\ backslash
\a audible BEL
\b backspace
\f form feed
\n new line
\r return
\t horizontal tab
\v vertical tab
all characters from CHAR1 to CHAR2 in ascending order
in SET2, copies of CHAR until length of SET1
REPEAT copies of CHAR, REPEAT octal if starting with 0
all letters and digits
all letters
all horizontal whitespace
all control characters
all digits
all printable characters, not including space
all lower case letters
all printable characters, including space
all punctuation characters
all horizontal or vertical whitespace
all upper case letters
all hexadecimal digits
all characters which are equivalent to CHAR
Translation occurs if -d is not given and both SET1 and SET2 appear. -t may be used only when translating. SET2 is extended to length of SET1 by repeating its last character as necessary. Excess characters of SET2 are ignored. Only [:lower:] and [:upper:] are guaranteed to expand in ascending order; used in SET2 while translating, they may only be used in pairs to specify case conversion. -s uses the last specified SET, and occurs after translation or deletion.


Written by Jim Meyering.


GNU coreutils online help: <>
Report any translation bugs to <>


Copyright © 2020 Free Software Foundation, Inc. License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <>.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.


Full documentation <>
or available locally via: info \(aq(coreutils) tr invocation\(aq
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