IEEE/The Open Group

2013

Aliases: sinf(3p), sinl(3p)

### man-pages

Linux kernel and C library user-space interface documentation

### man-pages-posix

POSIX Manual Pages

## PROLOG

This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer’s Manual. The Linux implementation of this interface may differ (consult the corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface may not be implemented on Linux.

## NAME

sin, sinf, sinl — sine function

## SYNOPSIS

#include <math.h>

double sin(doublex); float sinf(floatx); long double sinl(long doublex);

## DESCRIPTION

The functionality described on this reference page is aligned with the ISO C standard. Any conflict between the requirements described here and the ISO C standard is unintentional. This volume of POSIX.1-2008 defers to the ISO C standard.

These functions shall compute the sine of their argument

*x*, measured in radians.An application wishing to check for error situations should set

*errno*to zero and call*feclearexcept*(FE_ALL_EXCEPT) before calling these functions. On return, if*errno*is non-zero or*fetestexcept*(FE_INVALID | FE_DIVBYZERO | FE_OVERFLOW | FE_UNDERFLOW) is non-zero, an error has occurred.## RETURN VALUE

Upon successful completion, these functions shall return the sine of

*x*.If

*x*is NaN, a NaN shall be returned.If

*x*is ±0,*x*shall be returned.If

and

*x*is subnormal, a range error may occurand

*x*should be returned.If

*x*is not returned,*sin*(),*sinf*(), and*sinl*() shall return an implementation-defined value no greater in magnitude than DBL_MIN, FLT_MIN, and LDBL_MIN, respectively.If

*x*is ±Inf, a domain error shall occur, and a NaN shall be returned.## ERRORS

These functions shall fail if:

These functions may fail if:

Domain Error | The x argument is ±Inf.
If the integer expression (
math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [EDOM]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the invalid floating-point exception shall be raised. |

Range Error | The value of x is subnormal
If the integer expression (
math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [ERANGE]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the underflow floating-point exception shall be raised. |

*The following sections are informative.*## EXAMPLES

### Taking the Sine of a 45-Degree Angle

#include <math.h> ... double radians = 45.0 * M_PI / 180; double result; ... result = sin(radians);

## APPLICATION USAGE

These functions may lose accuracy when their argument is near a multiple of pi or is far from 0.0.

On error, the expressions (

*math_errhandling*& MATH_ERRNO) and (*math_errhandling*& MATH_ERREXCEPT) are independent of each other, but at least one of them must be non-zero.## RATIONALE

None.

## FUTURE DIRECTIONS

None.

## SEE ALSO

*asin*(),

*feclearexcept*(),

*fetestexcept*(),

*isnan*()

The Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1-2008,

*Section 4.19*,*Treatment of Error Conditions for Mathematical Functions*,**<math.h>**## COPYRIGHT

Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2013 Edition, Standard for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 7, Copyright (C) 2013 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. (This is POSIX.1-2008 with the 2013 Technical Corrigendum 1 applied.) In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original Standard can be obtained online at http://www.unix.org/online.html .

Any typographical or formatting errors that appear in this page are most likely to have been introduced during the conversion of the source files to man page format. To report such errors, see https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/reporting_bugs.html .