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salt(7)

2019.2.0
Jan 08, 2019

salt-master

Management component for salt, a parallel remote execution system

salt-common

shared libraries that salt requires for all packages

salt-doc

additional documentation for salt, the distributed remote execution system

salt

Central system and configuration manager

NAME

salt - Salt Documentation

INTRODUCTION TO SALT

We’re not just talking about NaCl..SS The 30 second summary
Salt is:
o a configuration management system, capable of maintaining remote nodes in defined states (for example, ensuring that specific packages are installed and specific services are running)
o a distributed remote execution system used to execute commands and query data on remote nodes, either individually or by arbitrary selection criteria
It was developed in order to bring the best solutions found in the world of remote execution together and make them better, faster, and more malleable. Salt accomplishes this through its ability to handle large loads of information, and not just dozens but hundreds and even thousands of individual servers quickly through a simple and manageable interface.

Simplicity

Providing versatility between massive scale deployments and smaller systems may seem daunting, but Salt is very simple to set up and maintain, regardless of the size of the project. The architecture of Salt is designed to work with any number of servers, from a handful of local network systems to international deployments across different data centers. The topology is a simple server/client model with the needed functionality built into a single set of daemons. While the default configuration will work with little to no modification, Salt can be fine tuned to meet specific needs.

Parallel execution

The core functions of Salt:
o enable commands to remote systems to be called in parallel rather than serially
o use a secure and encrypted protocol
o use the smallest and fastest network payloads possible
o provide a simple programming interface
Salt also introduces more granular controls to the realm of remote execution, allowing systems to be targeted not just by hostname, but also by system properties.

Builds on proven technology

Salt takes advantage of a number of technologies and techniques. The networking layer is built with the excellent ZeroMQ networking library, so the Salt daemon includes a viable and transparent AMQ broker. Salt uses public keys for authentication with the master daemon, then uses faster AES encryption for payload communication; authentication and encryption are integral to Salt. Salt takes advantage of communication via msgpack, enabling fast and light network traffic.

Python client interface

In order to allow for simple expansion, Salt execution routines can be written as plain Python modules. The data collected from Salt executions can be sent back to the master server, or to any arbitrary program. Salt can be called from a simple Python API, or from the command line, so that Salt can be used to execute one-off commands as well as operate as an integral part of a larger application.

Fast, flexible, scalable

The result is a system that can execute commands at high speed on target server groups ranging from one to very many servers. Salt is very fast, easy to set up, amazingly malleable and provides a single remote execution architecture that can manage the diverse requirements of any number of servers. The Salt infrastructure brings together the best of the remote execution world, amplifies its capabilities and expands its range, resulting in a system that is as versatile as it is practical, suitable for any network.

Open

Salt is developed under the Apache 2.0 license, and can be used for open and proprietary projects. Please submit your expansions back to the Salt project so that we can all benefit together as Salt grows. Please feel free to sprinkle Salt around your systems and let the deliciousness come forth.

Salt Community

Join the Salt!
There are many ways to participate in and communicate with the Salt community.
Salt has an active IRC channel and a mailing list.

Mailing List

Join the salt-users mailing list. It is the best place to ask questions about Salt and see whats going on with Salt development! The Salt mailing list is hosted by Google Groups. It is open to new members.

IRC

The #salt IRC channel is hosted on the popular Freenode network. You can use the Freenode webchat client right from your browser.
Logs of the IRC channel activity are being collected courtesy of Moritz Lenz.
If you wish to discuss the development of Salt itself join us in #salt-devel.

Follow on Github

The Salt code is developed via Github. Follow Salt for constant updates on what is happening in Salt development:

Blogs

SaltStack Inc. keeps a blog with recent news and advancements:

Example Salt States

Follow on ohloh

Other community links

o Salt Stack Inc.
o Subreddit
o Google+
o YouTube
o Facebook
o Twitter
o Wikipedia page

Hack the Source

If you want to get involved with the development of source code or the documentation efforts, please review the contributing documentation!

INSTALLATION

This section contains instructions to install Salt. If you are setting up your environment for the first time, you should install a Salt master on a dedicated management server or VM, and then install a Salt minion on each system that you want to manage using Salt. For now you don\(aqt need to worry about your architecture, you can easily add components and modify your configuration later without needing to reinstall anything.
The general installation process is as follows:
1. Install a Salt master using the instructions for your platform or by running the Salt bootstrap script. If you use the bootstrap script, be sure to include the -M option to install the Salt master.
2. Make sure that your Salt minions can find the Salt master.
3. Install the Salt minion on each system that you want to manage.
4. Accept the Salt minion keys after the Salt minion connects.
After this, you should be able to run a simple command and receive returns from all connected Salt minions.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping

Quick Install

On most distributions, you can set up a Salt Minion with the Salt bootstrap.

Platform-specific Installation Instructions

These guides go into detail how to install Salt on a given platform.

Arch Linux

Installation

Salt (stable) is currently available via the Arch Linux Official repositories. There are currently -git packages available in the Arch User repositories (AUR) as well.

Stable Release

Install Salt stable releases from the Arch Linux Official repositories as follows:
pacman -S salt

Tracking develop

To install the bleeding edge version of Salt (may include bugs!), use the -git package. Installing the -git package as follows:
wget https://aur.archlinux.org/packages/sa/salt-git/salt-git.tar.gz
tar xf salt-git.tar.gz
cd salt-git/
makepkg -is

NOTE: yaourt
If a tool such as Yaourt is used, the dependencies will be gathered and built automatically.
The command to install salt using the yaourt tool is:
yaourt salt-git

Post-installation tasks

systemd
Activate the Salt Master and/or Minion via systemctl as follows:
systemctl enable salt-master.service
systemctl enable salt-minion.service

Start the Master
Once you\(aqve completed all of these steps you\(aqre ready to start your Salt Master. You should be able to start your Salt Master now using the command seen here:
systemctl start salt-master

Now go to the Configuring Salt page.

Debian GNU/Linux / Raspbian

Debian GNU/Linux distribution and some derivatives such as Raspbian already have included Salt packages to their repositories. However, current stable Debian release contains old outdated Salt releases. It is recommended to use SaltStack repository for Debian as described below.
Installation from official Debian and Raspbian repositories is described here.

Installation from the Official SaltStack Repository

Packages for Debian 9 (Stretch) and Debian 8 (Jessie) are available in the Official SaltStack repository.
NOTE: Regular security support for Debian 7 ended on April 25th 2016. As a result, 2016.3.1 and 2015.8.10 will be the last Salt releases for which Debian 7 packages are created.

Installation from the Debian / Raspbian Official Repository

The Debian distributions contain mostly old Salt packages built by the Debian Salt Team. You can install Salt components directly from Debian but it is recommended to use the instructions above for the packages from the official Salt repository.
On Jessie there is an option to install Salt minion from Stretch with python-tornado dependency from jessie-backports repositories.
To install fresh release of Salt minion on Jessie:
1. Add jessie-backports and stretch repositories:
Debian:
echo \(aqdeb http://httpredir.debian.org/debian jessie-backports main\(aq >> /etc/apt/sources.list
echo \(aqdeb http://httpredir.debian.org/debian stretch main\(aq >> /etc/apt/sources.list

Raspbian:
echo \(aqdeb http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ stretch main\(aq >> /etc/apt/sources.list

2. Make Jessie a default release:
echo \(aqAPT::Default-Release "jessie";\(aq > /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/10apt

3. Install Salt dependencies:
Debian:
apt-get update
apt-get install python-zmq python-systemd/jessie-backports python-tornado/jessie-backports salt-common/stretch

Raspbian:
apt-get update
apt-get install python-zmq python-tornado/stretch salt-common/stretch

4. Install Salt minion package from Latest Debian Release:
apt-get install salt-minion/stretch

Install Packages

Install the Salt master, minion or other packages from the repository with the apt-get command. These examples each install one of Salt components, but more than one package name may be given at a time:
o apt-get install salt-api
o apt-get install salt-cloud
o apt-get install salt-master
o apt-get install salt-minion
o apt-get install salt-ssh
o apt-get install salt-syndic

Post-installation tasks

Now, go to the Configuring Salt page.

Arista EOS Salt minion installation guide

The Salt minion for Arista EOS is distributed as a SWIX extension and can be installed directly on the switch. The EOS network operating system is based on old Fedora distributions and the installation of the salt-minion requires backports. This SWIX extension contains the necessary backports, together with the Salt basecode.
NOTE: This SWIX extension has been tested on Arista DCS-7280SE-68-R, running EOS 4.17.5M and vEOS 4.18.3F.

Important Notes

This package is in beta, make sure to test it carefully before running it in production.
If confirmed working correctly, please report and add a note on this page with the platform model and EOS version.
If you want to uninstall this package, please refer to the uninstalling section.

Installation from the Official SaltStack Repository

Download the swix package and save it to flash.
veos#copy https://salt-eos.netops.life/salt-eos-latest.swix flash:
veos#copy https://salt-eos.netops.life/startup.sh flash:

Install the Extension

Copy the Salt package to extension
veos#copy flash:salt-eos-latest.swix extension:

Install the SWIX
veos#extension salt-eos-latest.swix force

Verify the installation
veos#show extensions | include salt-eos
     salt-eos-2017-07-19.swix      1.0.11/1.fc25        A, F                27

Change the Salt master IP address or FQDN, by edit the variable (SALT_MASTER)
veos#bash vi /mnt/flash/startup.sh

Make sure you enable the eAPI with unix-socket
veos(config)#management api http-commands
         protocol unix-socket
         no shutdown

Post-installation tasks

Generate Keys and host record and start Salt minion
veos#bash
#sudo /mnt/flash/startup.sh

salt-minion should be running
Copy the installed extensions to boot-extensions
veos#copy installed-extensions boot-extensions

Apply event-handler to let EOS start salt-minion during boot-up
veos(config)#event-handler boot-up-script
   trigger on-boot
   action bash sudo /mnt/flash/startup.sh

For more specific installation details of the salt-minion, please refer to Configuring Salt.

Uninstalling

If you decide to uninstall this package, the following steps are recommended for safety:
1. Remove the extension from boot-extensions
veos#bash rm /mnt/flash/boot-extensions

2. Remove the extension from extensions folder
veos#bash rm /mnt/flash/.extensions/salt-eos-latest.swix

2. Remove boot-up script
veos(config)#no event-handler boot-up-script

Additional Information

This SWIX extension contains the following RPM packages:
libsodium-1.0.11-1.fc25.i686.rpm
libstdc++-6.2.1-2.fc25.i686.rpm
openpgm-5.2.122-6.fc24.i686.rpm
python-Jinja2-2.8-0.i686.rpm
python-PyYAML-3.12-0.i686.rpm
python-babel-0.9.6-5.fc18.noarch.rpm
python-backports-1.0-3.fc18.i686.rpm
python-backports-ssl_match_hostname-3.4.0.2-1.fc18.noarch.rpm
python-backports_abc-0.5-0.i686.rpm
python-certifi-2016.9.26-0.i686.rpm
python-chardet-2.0.1-5.fc18.noarch.rpm
python-crypto-1.4.1-1.noarch.rpm
python-crypto-2.6.1-1.fc18.i686.rpm
python-futures-3.1.1-1.noarch.rpm
python-jtextfsm-0.3.1-0.noarch.rpm
python-kitchen-1.1.1-2.fc18.noarch.rpm
python-markupsafe-0.18-1.fc18.i686.rpm
python-msgpack-python-0.4.8-0.i686.rpm
python-napalm-base-0.24.3-1.noarch.rpm
python-napalm-eos-0.6.0-1.noarch.rpm
python-netaddr-0.7.18-0.noarch.rpm
python-pyeapi-0.7.0-0.noarch.rpm
python-salt-2017.7.0_1414_g2fb986f-1.noarch.rpm
python-singledispatch-3.4.0.3-0.i686.rpm
python-six-1.10.0-0.i686.rpm
python-tornado-4.4.2-0.i686.rpm
python-urllib3-1.5-7.fc18.noarch.rpm
python2-zmq-15.3.0-2.fc25.i686.rpm
zeromq-4.1.4-5.fc25.i686.rpm

Fedora

Beginning with version 0.9.4, Salt has been available in the primary Fedora repositories and EPEL. It is installable using yum or dnf, depending on your version of Fedora.
NOTE: Released versions of Salt starting with 2015.5.2 through 2016.3.2 do not have Fedora packages available though EPEL. To install a version of Salt within this release array, please use SaltStack\(aqs Bootstrap Script and use the git method of installing Salt using the version\(aqs associated release tag.
Release 2016.3.3 and onward will have packaged versions available via EPEL.
WARNING: Fedora 19 comes with systemd 204. Systemd has known bugs fixed in later revisions that prevent the salt-master from starting reliably or opening the network connections that it needs to. It\(aqs not likely that a salt-master will start or run reliably on any distribution that uses systemd version 204 or earlier. Running salt-minions should be OK.

Installation

Salt can be installed using yum and is available in the standard Fedora repositories.

Stable Release

Salt is packaged separately for the minion and the master. It is necessary only to install the appropriate package for the role the machine will play. Typically, there will be one master and multiple minions.
yum install salt-master
yum install salt-minion

Installing from updates-testing

When a new Salt release is packaged, it is first admitted into the updates-testing repository, before being moved to the stable repo.
To install from updates-testing, use the enablerepo argument for yum:
yum --enablerepo=updates-testing install salt-master
yum --enablerepo=updates-testing install salt-minion

Installation Using pip

Since Salt is on PyPI, it can be installed using pip, though most users prefer to install using a package manager.
Installing from pip has a few additional requirements:
o Install the group \(aqDevelopment Tools\(aq, dnf groupinstall \(aqDevelopment Tools\(aq
o Install the \(aqzeromq-devel\(aq package if it fails on linking against that afterwards as well.
A pip install does not make the init scripts or the /etc/salt directory, and you will need to provide your own systemd service unit.
Installation from pip:
pip install salt

WARNING: If installing from pip (or from source using setup.py install), be advised that the yum-utils package is needed for Salt to manage packages. Also, if the Python dependencies are not already installed, then you will need additional libraries/tools installed to build some of them. More information on this can be found here.

Post-installation tasks

Master
To have the Master start automatically at boot time:
systemctl enable salt-master.service

To start the Master:
systemctl start salt-master.service

Minion
To have the Minion start automatically at boot time:
systemctl enable salt-minion.service

To start the Minion:
systemctl start salt-minion.service

Now go to the Configuring Salt page.

FreeBSD

Installation

Salt is available in the FreeBSD ports tree at sysutils/py-salt.

FreeBSD binary repo

pkg install py27-salt

FreeBSD ports

By default salt is packaged using python 2.7, but if you build your own packages from FreeBSD ports either by hand or with poudriere you can instead package it with your choice of python. Add a line to /etc/make.conf to choose your python flavour:
echo "DEFAULT_VERSIONS+= python=3.6" >> /etc/make.conf

Then build the port and install:
cd /usr/ports/sysutils/py-salt
make install

Post-installation tasks

Master
Copy the sample configuration file:
cp /usr/local/etc/salt/master.sample /usr/local/etc/salt/master

rc.conf
Activate the Salt Master in /etc/rc.conf:
sysrc salt_master_enable="YES"

Start the Master
Start the Salt Master as follows:
service salt_master start

Minion
Copy the sample configuration file:
cp /usr/local/etc/salt/minion.sample /usr/local/etc/salt/minion

rc.conf
Activate the Salt Minion in /etc/rc.conf:
sysrc salt_minion_enable="YES"

Start the Minion
Start the Salt Minion as follows:
service salt_minion start

Now go to the Configuring Salt page.

Gentoo

Salt can be easily installed on Gentoo via Portage:
emerge app-admin/salt

Post-installation tasks

Now go to the Configuring Salt page.

OpenBSD

Salt was added to the OpenBSD ports tree on Aug 10th 2013. It has been tested on OpenBSD 5.5 onwards.
Salt is dependent on the following additional ports. These will be installed as dependencies of the sysutils/salt port:
devel/py-futures
devel/py-progressbar
net/py-msgpack
net/py-zmq
security/py-crypto
security/py-M2Crypto
textproc/py-MarkupSafe
textproc/py-yaml
www/py-jinja2
www/py-requests
www/py-tornado

Installation

To install Salt from the OpenBSD pkg repo, use the command:
pkg_add salt

Post-installation tasks

Master
To have the Master start automatically at boot time:
rcctl enable salt_master

To start the Master:
rcctl start salt_master

Minion
To have the Minion start automatically at boot time:
rcctl enable salt_minion

To start the Minion:
rcctl start salt_minion

Now go to the Configuring Salt page.

macOS

Installation from the Official SaltStack Repository

Latest stable build from the selected branch:
The output of md5 <salt pkg> should match the contents of the corresponding md5 file.
Earlier builds from supported branches
Archived builds from unsupported branches

Installation from Homebrew

brew install saltstack

It should be noted that Homebrew explicitly discourages the use of sudo: Homebrew is designed to work without using sudo. You can decide to use it but we strongly recommend not to do so. If you have used sudo and run into a bug then it is likely to be the cause. Please don’t file a bug report unless you can reproduce it after reinstalling Homebrew from scratch without using sudo

Installation from MacPorts

Macports isolates its dependencies from the OS, and installs salt in /opt/local by default, with config files under /opt/local/etc/salt. For best results, add /opt/local/bin to your PATH.
sudo port install salt

Variants allow selection of python version used to run salt, defaulting to python27, but also supporting python34, python35, and python36. To install salt with Python 3.6, use the python36 variant, for example:
sudo port install salt @python36

Startup items (for master, minion, and rest-cherrypy API gateway, respectively) are installed by subport targets. These will register launchd LaunchDaemons as org.macports.salt-minion, for example, to trigger automatic startup of the salt-minion through launchd. LaunchDaemons for salt can be started and stopped without reboot using the macprots load and unload commands.
sudo port install salt-master salt-minion salt-api
sudo port load salt-master salt-minion salt-api

Installation from Pip

When only using the macOS system\(aqs pip, install this way:
sudo pip install salt

Salt-Master Customizations

NOTE: Salt master on macOS is not tested or supported by SaltStack. See SaltStack Platform Support for more information.
To run salt-master on macOS, sudo add this configuration option to the /etc/salt/master file:
max_open_files: 8192

On versions previous to macOS 10.10 (Yosemite), increase the root user maxfiles limit:
sudo launchctl limit maxfiles 4096 8192

NOTE: On macOS 10.10 (Yosemite) and higher, maxfiles should not be adjusted. The default limits are sufficient in all but the most extreme scenarios. Overriding these values with the setting below will cause system instability!
Now the salt-master should run without errors:
sudo salt-master --log-level=all

Post-installation tasks

Now go to the Configuring Salt page.

RHEL / CentOS / Scientific Linux / Amazon Linux / Oracle Linux

Salt should work properly with all mainstream derivatives of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, including CentOS, Scientific Linux, Oracle Linux, and Amazon Linux. Report any bugs or issues on the issue tracker.

Installation from the Official SaltStack Repository

Packages for Redhat, CentOS, and Amazon Linux are available in the SaltStack Repository.
o Red Hat / CentOS
o Amazon Linux
NOTE: As of 2015.8.0, EPEL repository is no longer required for installing on RHEL systems. SaltStack repository provides all needed dependencies.
WARNING: If installing on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 with disabled (not subscribed on) \(aqRHEL Server Releases\(aq or \(aqRHEL Server Optional Channel\(aq repositories, append CentOS 7 GPG key URL to SaltStack yum repository configuration to install required base packages:
[saltstack-repo]
name=SaltStack repo for Red Hat Enterprise Linux $releasever
baseurl=https://repo.saltstack.com/yum/redhat/$releasever/$basearch/latest
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=https://repo.saltstack.com/yum/redhat/$releasever/$basearch/latest/SALTSTACK-GPG-KEY.pub
       https://repo.saltstack.com/yum/redhat/$releasever/$basearch/latest/base/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-7

NOTE: systemd and systemd-python are required by Salt, but are not installed by the Red Hat 7 @base installation or by the Salt installation. These dependencies might need to be installed before Salt.

Installation from the Community-Maintained Repository

Beginning with version 0.9.4, Salt has been available in EPEL.
NOTE: Packages in this repository are built by community, and it can take a little while until the latest stable SaltStack release become available.

RHEL/CentOS 6 and 7, Scientific Linux, etc.

WARNING: Salt 2015.8 is currently not available in EPEL due to unsatisfied dependencies: python-crypto 2.6.1 or higher, and python-tornado version 4.2.1 or higher. These packages are not currently available in EPEL for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 and 7.

Enabling EPEL

If the EPEL repository is not installed on your system, you can download the RPM for RHEL/CentOS 6 or for RHEL/CentOS 7 and install it using the following command:
rpm -Uvh epel-release-X-Y.rpm

Replace epel-release-X-Y.rpm with the appropriate filename.

Installing Stable Release

Salt is packaged separately for the minion and the master. It is necessary to install only the appropriate package for the role the machine will play. Typically, there will be one master and multiple minions.
o yum install salt-master
o yum install salt-minion
o yum install salt-ssh
o yum install salt-syndic
o yum install salt-cloud

Installing from epel-testing

When a new Salt release is packaged, it is first admitted into the epel-testing repository, before being moved to the stable EPEL repository.
To install from epel-testing, use the enablerepo argument for yum:
yum --enablerepo=epel-testing install salt-minion

Installation Using pip

Since Salt is on PyPI, it can be installed using pip, though most users prefer to install using RPM packages (which can be installed from EPEL).
Installing from pip has a few additional requirements:
o Install the group \(aqDevelopment Tools\(aq, yum groupinstall \(aqDevelopment Tools\(aq
o Install the \(aqzeromq-devel\(aq package if it fails on linking against that afterwards as well.
A pip install does not make the init scripts or the /etc/salt directory, and you will need to provide your own systemd service unit.
Installation from pip:
pip install salt

WARNING: If installing from pip (or from source using setup.py install), be advised that the yum-utils package is needed for Salt to manage packages. Also, if the Python dependencies are not already installed, then you will need additional libraries/tools installed to build some of them. More information on this can be found here.

ZeroMQ 4

We recommend using ZeroMQ 4 where available. SaltStack provides ZeroMQ 4.0.5 and pyzmq 14.5.0 in the SaltStack Repository.
If this repository is added before Salt is installed, then installing either salt-master or salt-minion will automatically pull in ZeroMQ 4.0.5, and additional steps to upgrade ZeroMQ and pyzmq are unnecessary.

Package Management

Salt\(aqs interface to yum makes heavy use of the repoquery utility, from the yum-utils package. This package will be installed as a dependency if salt is installed via EPEL. However, if salt has been installed using pip, or a host is being managed using salt-ssh, then as of version 2014.7.0 yum-utils will be installed automatically to satisfy this dependency.

Post-installation tasks

Master

To have the Master start automatically at boot time:
RHEL/CentOS 5 and 6
chkconfig salt-master on

RHEL/CentOS 7
systemctl enable salt-master.service

To start the Master:
RHEL/CentOS 5 and 6
service salt-master start

RHEL/CentOS 7
systemctl start salt-master.service

Minion

To have the Minion start automatically at boot time:
RHEL/CentOS 5 and 6
chkconfig salt-minion on

RHEL/CentOS 7
systemctl enable salt-minion.service

To start the Minion:
RHEL/CentOS 5 and 6
service salt-minion start

RHEL/CentOS 7
systemctl start salt-minion.service

Now go to the Configuring Salt page.

Solaris

Salt is known to work on Solaris but community packages are unmaintained.
It is possible to install Salt on Solaris by using setuptools.
For example, to install the develop version of salt:
git clone https://github.com/saltstack/salt
cd salt
sudo python setup.py install --force

NOTE: SaltStack does offer commercial support for Solaris which includes packages.

Ubuntu

Installation from the Official SaltStack Repository

Packages for Ubuntu 16 (Xenial), Ubuntu 14 (Trusty), and Ubuntu 12 (Precise) are available in the SaltStack repository.

Install Packages

Install the Salt master, minion or other packages from the repository with the apt-get command. These examples each install one of Salt components, but more than one package name may be given at a time:
o apt-get install salt-api
o apt-get install salt-cloud
o apt-get install salt-master
o apt-get install salt-minion
o apt-get install salt-ssh
o apt-get install salt-syndic

Post-installation tasks

Now go to the Configuring Salt page.

Windows

Salt has full support for running the Salt minion on Windows. You must connect Windows Salt minions to a Salt master on a supported operating system to control your Salt Minions.
Many of the standard Salt modules have been ported to work on Windows and many of the Salt States currently work on Windows as well.

Installation from the Official SaltStack Repository

Latest stable build from the selected branch:
The output of md5sum <salt minion exe> should match the contents of the corresponding md5 file.
Earlier builds from supported branches
Archived builds from unsupported branches
NOTE: The installation executable installs dependencies that the Salt minion requires.
The 64bit installer has been tested on Windows 7 64bit and Windows Server 2008R2 64bit. The 32bit installer has been tested on Windows 2008 Server 32bit. Please file a bug report on our GitHub repo if issues for other platforms are found.
There are installers available for Python 2 and Python 3.
The installer will detect previous installations of Salt and ask if you would like to remove them. Clicking OK will remove the Salt binaries and related files but leave any existing config, cache, and PKI information.

Salt Minion Installation

If the system is missing the appropriate version of the Visual C++ Redistributable (vcredist) the user will be prompted to install it. Click OK to install the vcredist. Click Cancel to abort the installation without making modifications to the system.
If Salt is already installed on the system the user will be prompted to remove the previous installation. Click OK to uninstall Salt without removing the configuration, PKI information, or cached files. Click Cancel to abort the installation before making any modifications to the system.
After the Welcome and the License Agreement, the installer asks for two bits of information to configure the minion; the master hostname and the minion name. The installer will update the minion config with these options.
If the installer finds an existing minion config file, these fields will be populated with values from the existing config, but they will be grayed out. There will also be a checkbox to use the existing config. If you continue, the existing config will be used. If the checkbox is unchecked, default values are displayed and can be changed. If you continue, the existing config file in c:\salt\conf will be removed along with the c:\salt\conf\minion.d directory. The values entered will be used with the default config.
The final page allows you to start the minion service and optionally change its startup type. By default, the minion is set to Automatic. You can change the minion start type to Automatic (Delayed Start) by checking the \(aqDelayed Start\(aq checkbox.
NOTE: Highstates that require a reboot may fail after reboot because salt continues the highstate before Windows has finished the booting process. This can be fixed by changing the startup type to \(aqAutomatic (Delayed Start)\(aq. The drawback is that it may increase the time it takes for the \(aqsalt-minion\(aq service to actually start.
The salt-minion service will appear in the Windows Service Manager and can be managed there or from the command line like any other Windows service.
sc start salt-minion
net start salt-minion

Installation Prerequisites

Most Salt functionality should work just fine right out of the box. A few Salt modules rely on PowerShell. The minimum version of PowerShell required for Salt is version 3. If you intend to work with DSC then Powershell version 5 is the minimum.

Silent Installer Options

The installer can be run silently by providing the /S option at the command line. The installer also accepts the following options for configuring the Salt Minion silently:
Option Description
/master= A string value to set the IP address or hostname of the master. Default value is \(aqsalt\(aq. You can pass a single master or a comma-separated list of masters. Setting the master will cause the installer to use the default config or a custom config if defined.
/minion-name= A string value to set the minion name. Default value is \(aqhostname\(aq. Setting the minion name causes the installer to use the default config or a custom config if defined.
/start-minion= Either a 1 or 0. \(aq1\(aq will start the salt-minion service, \(aq0\(aq will not. Default is to start the service after installation.
/start-minion-delayed Set the minion start type to Automatic (Delayed Start).
/default-config Overwrite the existing config if present with the default config for salt. Default is to use the existing config if present. If /master and/or /minion-name is passed, those values will be used to update the new default config.
/custom-config= A string value specifying the name of a custom config file in the same path as the installer or the full path to a custom config file. If /master and/or /minion-name is passed, those values will be used to update the new custom config.
/S Runs the installation silently. Uses the above settings or the defaults.
/? Displays command line help.
NOTE: /start-service has been deprecated but will continue to function as expected for the time being.
NOTE: /default-config and /custom-config= will backup an existing config if found. A timestamp and a .bak extension will be added. That includes the minion file and the minion.d directory.
Here are some examples of using the silent installer:
# Install the Salt Minion
# Configure the minion and start the service

Salt-Minion-2017.7.1-Py2-AMD64-Setup.exe /S /master=yoursaltmaster /minion-name=yourminionname
# Install the Salt Minion
# Configure the minion but don\(aqt start the minion service

Salt-Minion-2017.7.1-Py3-AMD64-Setup.exe /S /master=yoursaltmaster /minion-name=yourminionname /start-minion=0
# Install the Salt Minion
# Configure the minion using a custom config and configuring multimaster

Salt-Minion-2017.7.1-Py3-AMD64-Setup.exe /S /custom-config=windows_minion /master=prod_master1,prod_master2

Running the Salt Minion on Windows as an Unprivileged User

Notes:
o These instructions were tested with Windows Server 2008 R2
o They are generalizable to any version of Windows that supports a salt-minion

Create the Unprivileged User that the Salt Minion will Run As

1. Click Start > Control Panel > User Accounts.
2. Click Add or remove user accounts.
3. Click Create new account.
4. Enter salt-user (or a name of your preference) in the New account name field.
5. Select the Standard user radio button.
6. Click the Create Account button.
7. Click on the newly created user account.
8. Click the Create a password link.
9. In the New password and Confirm new password fields, provide a password (e.g "SuperSecretMinionPassword4Me!").
10. In the Type a password hint field, provide appropriate text (e.g. "My Salt Password").
11. Click the Create password button.
12. Close the Change an Account window.

Add the New User to the Access Control List for the Salt Folder

1. In a File Explorer window, browse to the path where Salt is installed (the default path is C:\Salt).
2. Right-click on the Salt folder and select Properties.
3. Click on the Security tab.
4. Click the Edit button.
5. Click the Add button.
6. Type the name of your designated Salt user and click the OK button.
7. Check the box to Allow the Modify permission.
8. Click the OK button.
9. Click the OK button to close the Salt Properties window.

Update the Windows Service User for the salt-minion Service

1. Click Start > Administrative Tools > Services.
2. In the Services list, right-click on salt-minion and select Properties.
3. Click the Log On tab.
4. Click the This account radio button.
5. Provide the account credentials created in section A.
6. Click the OK button.
7. Click the OK button to the prompt confirming that the user has been granted the Log On As A Service right.
8. Click the OK button to the prompt confirming that The new logon name will not take effect until you stop and restart the service.
9. Right-Click on salt-minion and select Stop.
10. Right-Click on salt-minion and select Start.

Building and Developing on Windows

This document will explain how to set up a development environment for Salt on Windows. The development environment allows you to work with the source code to customize or fix bugs. It will also allow you to build your own installation.
There are several scripts to automate creating a Windows installer as well as setting up an environment that facilitates developing and troubleshooting Salt code. They are located in the pkg\windows directory in the Salt repo (here).

Scripts:

Script Description
build_env_2.ps1 A PowerShell script that sets up a Python 2 build environment
build_env_3.ps1 A PowerShell script that sets up a Python 3 build environment
build_pkg.bat A batch file that builds a Windows installer based on the contents of the C:\Python27 directory
build.bat A batch file that fully automates the building of the Windows installer using the above two scripts
NOTE: The build.bat and build_pkg.bat scripts both accept a parameter to specify the version of Salt that will be displayed in the Windows installer. If no version is passed, the version will be determined using git.
Both scripts also accept an additional parameter to specify the version of Python to use. The default is 2.

Prerequisite Software

The only prerequisite is Git for Windows.

Create a Build Environment

1. Working Directory

Create a Salt-Dev directory on the root of C:. This will be our working directory. Navigate to Salt-Dev and clone the Salt repo from GitHub.
Open a command line and type:
cd \
md Salt-Dev
cd Salt-Dev
git clone https://github.com/saltstack/salt

Go into the salt directory and checkout the version of salt to work with (2016.3 or higher).
cd salt
git checkout 2017.7.2

2. Setup the Python Environment

Navigate to the pkg\windows directory and execute the build_env.ps1 PowerShell script.
cd pkg\windows
powershell -file build_env_2.ps1

NOTE: You can also do this from Explorer by navigating to the pkg\windows directory, right clicking the build_env_2.ps1 powershell script and selecting Run with PowerShell
This will download and install Python 2 with all the dependencies needed to develop and build Salt.
NOTE: If you get an error or the script fails to run you may need to change the execution policy. Open a powershell window and type the following command:
Set-ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned

3. Salt in Editable Mode

Editable mode allows you to more easily modify and test the source code. For more information see the Pip documentation.
Navigate to the root of the salt directory and install Salt in editable mode with pip
cd \Salt-Dev\salt
pip install -e .

NOTE: The . is important
NOTE: If pip is not recognized, you may need to restart your shell to get the updated path
NOTE: If pip is still not recognized make sure that the Python Scripts folder is in the System %PATH%. (C:\Python2\Scripts)

4. Setup Salt Configuration

Salt requires a minion configuration file and a few other directories. The default config file is named minion located in C:\salt\conf. The easiest way to set this up is to copy the contents of the salt\pkg\windows\buildenv directory to C:\salt.
cd \
md salt
xcopy /s /e \Salt-Dev\salt\pkg\windows\buildenv\* \salt\

Now go into the C:\salt\conf directory and edit the minion config file named minion (no extension). You need to configure the master and id parameters in this file. Edit the following lines:
master: <ip or name of your master>
id: <name of your minion>

Create a Windows Installer

To create a Windows installer, follow steps 1 and 2 from Create a Build Environment above. Then proceed to 3 below:

3. Install Salt

To create the installer for Window we install Salt using Python instead of pip. Navigate to the root salt directory and install Salt.
cd \Salt-Dev\salt
python setup.py install

4. Create the Windows Installer

Navigate to the pkg\windows directory and run the build_pkg.bat with the build version (2017.7.2) and the Python version as parameters.
cd pkg\windows
build_pkg.bat 2017.7.2 2
              ^^^^^^^^ ^
                  |    |
# build version --     |
# python version ------

NOTE: If no version is passed, the build_pkg.bat will guess the version number using git. If the python version is not passed, the default is 2.

Creating a Windows Installer: Alternate Method (Easier)

Clone the Salt repo from GitHub into the directory of your choice. We\(aqre going to use Salt-Dev.
cd \
md Salt-Dev
cd Salt-Dev
git clone https://github.com/saltstack/salt

Go into the salt directory and checkout the version of Salt you want to build.
cd salt
git checkout 2017.7.2

Then navigate to pkg\windows and run the build.bat script with the version you\(aqre building.
cd pkg\windows
build.bat 2017.7.2 3
          ^^^^^^^^ ^
              |    |
# build version    |
# python version --

This will install everything needed to build a Windows installer for Salt using Python 3. The binary will be in the salt\pkg\windows\installer directory.

Testing the Salt minion

1. Create the directory C:\salt (if it doesn\(aqt exist already)
2.
Copy the example conf and var directories from
pkg\windows\buildenv into C:\salt
3. Edit C:\salt\conf\minion
master: ipaddress or hostname of your salt-master

4. Start the salt-minion
cd C:\Python27\Scripts
python salt-minion -l debug

5. On the salt-master accept the new minion\(aqs key
sudo salt-key -A

This accepts all unaccepted keys. If you\(aqre concerned about security just accept the key for this specific minion.
6. Test that your minion is responding On the salt-master run:
sudo salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping

You should get the following response: {\(aqyour minion hostname\(aq: True}

Packages Management Under Windows 2003

Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP have both reached End of Support. Though Salt is not officially supported on operating systems that are EoL, some functionality may continue to work.
On Windows Server 2003, you need to install optional component "WMI Windows Installer Provider" to get a full list of installed packages. If you don\(aqt have this, salt-minion can\(aqt report some installed software.

SUSE

Installation from the Official SaltStack Repository

Packages for SUSE 12 SP1, SUSE 12, SUSE 11, openSUSE 13 and openSUSE Leap 42.1 are available in the SaltStack Repository.

Installation from the SUSE Repository

Since openSUSE 13.2, Salt 2014.1.11 is available in the primary repositories. With the release of SUSE manager 3 a new repository setup has been created. The new repo will by systemsmanagement:saltstack, which is the source for newer stable packages. For backward compatibility a linkpackage will be created to the old devel:language:python repo. All development of suse packages will be done in systemsmanagement:saltstack:testing. This will ensure that salt will be in mainline suse repo\(aqs, a stable release repo and a testing repo for further enhancements.

Installation

Salt can be installed using zypper and is available in the standard openSUSE/SLES repositories.

Stable Release

Salt is packaged separately for the minion and the master. It is necessary only to install the appropriate package for the role the machine will play. Typically, there will be one master and multiple minions.
zypper install salt-master
zypper install salt-minion

Post-installation tasks openSUSE

Master
To have the Master start automatically at boot time:
systemctl enable salt-master.service

To start the Master:
systemctl start salt-master.service

Minion
To have the Minion start automatically at boot time:
systemctl enable salt-minion.service

To start the Minion:
systemctl start salt-minion.service

Post-installation tasks SLES

Master
To have the Master start automatically at boot time:
chkconfig salt-master on

To start the Master:
rcsalt-master start

Minion
To have the Minion start automatically at boot time:
chkconfig salt-minion on

To start the Minion:
rcsalt-minion start

Unstable Release

openSUSE

For openSUSE Tumbleweed run the following as root:
zypper addrepo http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/systemsmanagement:/saltstack/openSUSE_Tumbleweed/systemsmanagement:saltstack.repo
zypper refresh
zypper install salt salt-minion salt-master

For openSUSE 42.1 Leap run the following as root:
zypper addrepo http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/systemsmanagement:/saltstack/openSUSE_Leap_42.1/systemsmanagement:saltstack.repo
zypper refresh
zypper install salt salt-minion salt-master

For openSUSE 13.2 run the following as root:
zypper addrepo http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/systemsmanagement:/saltstack/openSUSE_13.2/systemsmanagement:saltstack.repo
zypper refresh
zypper install salt salt-minion salt-master

SUSE Linux Enterprise

For SLE 12 run the following as root:
zypper addrepo http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/systemsmanagement:/saltstack/SLE_12/systemsmanagement:saltstack.repo
zypper refresh
zypper install salt salt-minion salt-master

For SLE 11 SP4 run the following as root:
zypper addrepo http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/systemsmanagement:/saltstack/SLE_11_SP4/systemsmanagement:saltstack.repo
zypper refresh
zypper install salt salt-minion salt-master

Now go to the Configuring Salt page.

Initial Configuration

Configuring Salt

Salt configuration is very simple. The default configuration for the master will work for most installations and the only requirement for setting up a minion is to set the location of the master in the minion configuration file.
The configuration files will be installed to /etc/salt and are named after the respective components, /etc/salt/master, and /etc/salt/minion.

Master Configuration

By default the Salt master listens on ports 4505 and 4506 on all interfaces (0.0.0.0). To bind Salt to a specific IP, redefine the "interface" directive in the master configuration file, typically /etc/salt/master, as follows:
- #interface: 0.0.0.0
+ interface: 10.0.0.1

After updating the configuration file, restart the Salt master. See the master configuration reference for more details about other configurable options.

Minion Configuration

Although there are many Salt Minion configuration options, configuring a Salt Minion is very simple. By default a Salt Minion will try to connect to the DNS name "salt"; if the Minion is able to resolve that name correctly, no configuration is needed.
If the DNS name "salt" does not resolve to point to the correct location of the Master, redefine the "master" directive in the minion configuration file, typically /etc/salt/minion, as follows:
- #master: salt
+ master: 10.0.0.1

After updating the configuration file, restart the Salt minion. See the minion configuration reference for more details about other configurable options.

Proxy Minion Configuration

A proxy minion emulates the behaviour of a regular minion and inherits their options.
Similarly, the configuration file is /etc/salt/proxy and the proxy tries to connect to the DNS name "salt".
In addition to the regular minion options, there are several proxy-specific - see the proxy minion configuration reference.

Running Salt

1. Start the master in the foreground (to daemonize the process, pass the -d flag):
salt-master

2. Start the minion in the foreground (to daemonize the process, pass the -d flag):
salt-minion

Having trouble?
The simplest way to troubleshoot Salt is to run the master and minion in the foreground with log level set to debug:
salt-master --log-level=debug

For information on salt\(aqs logging system please see the logging document.
Run as an unprivileged (non-root) user
To run Salt as another user, set the user parameter in the master config file.
Additionally, ownership, and permissions need to be set such that the desired user can read from and write to the following directories (and their subdirectories, where applicable):
o /etc/salt
o /var/cache/salt
o /var/log/salt
o /var/run/salt
More information about running salt as a non-privileged user can be found here.
There is also a full troubleshooting guide available.

Key Identity

Salt provides commands to validate the identity of your Salt master and Salt minions before the initial key exchange. Validating key identity helps avoid inadvertently connecting to the wrong Salt master, and helps prevent a potential MiTM attack when establishing the initial connection.

Master Key Fingerprint

Print the master key fingerprint by running the following command on the Salt master:
salt-key -F master

Copy the master.pub fingerprint from the Local Keys section, and then set this value as the master_finger in the minion configuration file. Save the configuration file and then restart the Salt minion.

Minion Key Fingerprint

Run the following command on each Salt minion to view the minion key fingerprint:
salt-call --local key.finger

Compare this value to the value that is displayed when you run the salt-key --finger <MINION_ID> command on the Salt master.

Key Management

Salt uses AES encryption for all communication between the Master and the Minion. This ensures that the commands sent to the Minions cannot be tampered with, and that communication between Master and Minion is authenticated through trusted, accepted keys.
Before commands can be sent to a Minion, its key must be accepted on the Master. Run the salt-key command to list the keys known to the Salt Master:
[root@master ~]# salt-key -L
Unaccepted Keys:
alpha
bravo
charlie
delta
Accepted Keys:

This example shows that the Salt Master is aware of four Minions, but none of the keys has been accepted. To accept the keys and allow the Minions to be controlled by the Master, again use the salt-key command:
[root@master ~]# salt-key -A
[root@master ~]# salt-key -L
Unaccepted Keys:
Accepted Keys:
alpha
bravo
charlie
delta

The salt-key command allows for signing keys individually or in bulk. The example above, using -A bulk-accepts all pending keys. To accept keys individually use the lowercase of the same option, -a keyname.
SEE ALSO: salt-key manpage

Sending Commands

Communication between the Master and a Minion may be verified by running the test.ping command:
[root@master ~]# salt alpha test.ping
alpha:
    True

Communication between the Master and all Minions may be tested in a similar way:
[root@master ~]# salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping
alpha:
    True
bravo:
    True
charlie:
    True
delta:
    True

Each of the Minions should send a True response as shown above.

What\(aqs Next?

Understanding targeting is important. From there, depending on the way you wish to use Salt, you should also proceed to learn about Remote Execution and Configuration Management.

Additional Installation Guides

Salt Bootstrap

The Salt Bootstrap Script allows a user to install the Salt Minion or Master on a variety of system distributions and versions.
The Salt Bootstrap Script is a shell script is known as bootstrap-salt.sh. It runs through a series of checks to determine the operating system type and version. It then installs the Salt binaries using the appropriate methods.
The Salt Bootstrap Script installs the minimum number of packages required to run Salt. This means that in the event you run the bootstrap to install via package, Git will not be installed. Installing the minimum number of packages helps ensure the script stays as lightweight as possible, assuming the user will install any other required packages after the Salt binaries are present on the system.
The Salt Bootstrap Script is maintained in a separate repo from Salt, complete with its own issues, pull requests, contributing guidelines, release protocol, etc.
To learn more, please see the Salt Bootstrap repo links:
o Salt Bootstrap repo
o README: includes supported operating systems, example usage, and more.
o Contributing Guidelines
o Release Process
NOTE: The Salt Bootstrap script can be found in the Salt repo under the salt/cloud/deploy/bootstrap-salt.sh path. Any changes to this file will be overwritten! Bug fixes and feature additions must be submitted via the Salt Bootstrap repo. Please see the Salt Bootstrap Script\(aqs Release Process for more information.

Opening the Firewall up for Salt

The Salt master communicates with the minions using an AES-encrypted ZeroMQ connection. These communications are done over TCP ports 4505 and 4506, which need to be accessible on the master only. This document outlines suggested firewall rules for allowing these incoming connections to the master.
NOTE: No firewall configuration needs to be done on Salt minions. These changes refer to the master only.

Fedora 18 and beyond / RHEL 7 / CentOS 7

Starting with Fedora 18 FirewallD is the tool that is used to dynamically manage the firewall rules on a host. It has support for IPv4/6 settings and the separation of runtime and permanent configurations. To interact with FirewallD use the command line client firewall-cmd.
firewall-cmd example:
firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=<zone> --add-port=4505-4506/tcp

Please choose the desired zone according to your setup. Don\(aqt forget to reload after you made your changes.
firewall-cmd --reload

RHEL 6 / CentOS 6

The lokkit command packaged with some Linux distributions makes opening iptables firewall ports very simple via the command line. Just be careful to not lock out access to the server by neglecting to open the ssh port.
lokkit example:
lokkit -p 22:tcp -p 4505:tcp -p 4506:tcp

The system-config-firewall-tui command provides a text-based interface to modifying the firewall.
system-config-firewall-tui:
system-config-firewall-tui

openSUSE

Salt installs firewall rules in /etc/sysconfig/SuSEfirewall2.d/services/salt. Enable with:
SuSEfirewall2 open
SuSEfirewall2 start

If you have an older package of Salt where the above configuration file is not included, the SuSEfirewall2 command makes opening iptables firewall ports very simple via the command line.
SuSEfirewall example:
SuSEfirewall2 open EXT TCP 4505
SuSEfirewall2 open EXT TCP 4506

The firewall module in YaST2 provides a text-based interface to modifying the firewall.
YaST2:
yast2 firewall

Windows

Windows Firewall is the default component of Microsoft Windows that provides firewalling and packet filtering. There are many 3rd party firewalls available for Windows, some of which use rules from the Windows Firewall. If you are experiencing problems see the vendor\(aqs specific documentation for opening the required ports.
The Windows Firewall can be configured using the Windows Interface or from the command line.
Windows Firewall (interface):
1. Open the Windows Firewall Interface by typing wf.msc at the command prompt or in a run dialog (Windows Key + R)
2. Navigate to Inbound Rules in the console tree
3. Add a new rule by clicking New Rule... in the Actions area
4. Change the Rule Type to Port. Click Next
5. Set the Protocol to TCP and specify local ports 4505-4506. Click Next
6. Set the Action to Allow the connection. Click Next
7. Apply the rule to Domain, Private, and Public. Click Next
8. Give the new rule a Name, ie: Salt. You may also add a description. Click Finish
Windows Firewall (command line):
The Windows Firewall rule can be created by issuing a single command. Run the following command from the command line or a run prompt:
netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="Salt" dir=in action=allow protocol=TCP localport=4505-4506

iptables

Different Linux distributions store their iptables (also known as netfilter) rules in different places, which makes it difficult to standardize firewall documentation. Included are some of the more common locations, but your mileage may vary.
Fedora / RHEL / CentOS:
/etc/sysconfig/iptables

Arch Linux:
/etc/iptables/iptables.rules

Debian
Follow these instructions: https://wiki.debian.org/iptables
Once you\(aqve found your firewall rules, you\(aqll need to add the below line to allow traffic on tcp/4505 and tcp/4506:
-A INPUT -m state --state new -m tcp -p tcp --dport 4505:4506 -j ACCEPT

Ubuntu
Salt installs firewall rules in /etc/ufw/applications.d/salt.ufw. Enable with:
ufw allow salt

pf.conf

The BSD-family of operating systems uses packet filter (pf). The following example describes the addition to pf.conf needed to access the Salt master.
pass in on $int_if proto tcp from any to $int_if port 4505:4506

Once this addition has been made to the pf.conf the rules will need to be reloaded. This can be done using the pfctl command.
pfctl -vf /etc/pf.conf

Whitelist communication to Master

There are situations where you want to selectively allow Minion traffic from specific hosts or networks into your Salt Master. The first scenario which comes to mind is to prevent unwanted traffic to your Master out of security concerns, but another scenario is to handle Minion upgrades when there are backwards incompatible changes between the installed Salt versions in your environment.
Here is an example Linux iptables ruleset to be set on the Master:
# Allow Minions from these networks
-I INPUT -s 10.1.2.0/24 -p tcp --dports 4505:4506 -j ACCEPT
-I INPUT -s 10.1.3.0/24 -p tcp --dports 4505:4506 -j ACCEPT
# Allow Salt to communicate with Master on the loopback interface
-A INPUT -i lo -p tcp --dports 4505:4506 -j ACCEPT
# Reject everything else
-A INPUT -p tcp --dports 4505:4506 -j REJECT

NOTE: The important thing to note here is that the salt command needs to communicate with the listening network socket of salt-master on the loopback interface. Without this you will see no outgoing Salt traffic from the master, even for a simple salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping, because the salt client never reached the salt-master to tell it to carry out the execution.

Preseed Minion with Accepted Key

In some situations, it is not convenient to wait for a minion to start before accepting its key on the master. For instance, you may want the minion to bootstrap itself as soon as it comes online. You may also want to let your developers provision new development machines on the fly.
SEE ALSO: Many ways to preseed minion keys
Salt has other ways to generate and pre-accept minion keys in addition to the manual steps outlined below.
salt-cloud performs these same steps automatically when new cloud VMs are created (unless instructed not to).
salt-api exposes an HTTP call to Salt\(aqs REST API to generate and download the new minion keys as a tarball.
There is a general four step process to do this:
1. Generate the keys on the master:
root@saltmaster# salt-key --gen-keys=[key_name]

Pick a name for the key, such as the minion\(aqs id.
2. Add the public key to the accepted minion folder:
root@saltmaster# cp key_name.pub /etc/salt/pki/master/minions/[minion_id]

It is necessary that the public key file has the same name as your minion id. This is how Salt matches minions with their keys. Also note that the pki folder could be in a different location, depending on your OS or if specified in the master config file.
3. Distribute the minion keys.
There is no single method to get the keypair to your minion. The difficulty is finding a distribution method which is secure. For Amazon EC2 only, an AWS best practice is to use IAM Roles to pass credentials. (See blog post, http://blogs.aws.amazon.com/security/post/Tx610S2MLVZWEA/Using-IAM-roles-to-distribute-non-AWS-credentials-to-your-EC2-instances )
Security Warning
Since the minion key is already accepted on the master, distributing the private key poses a potential security risk. A malicious party will have access to your entire state tree and other sensitive data if they gain access to a preseeded minion key.
4. Preseed the Minion with the keys
You will want to place the minion keys before starting the salt-minion daemon:
/etc/salt/pki/minion/minion.pem
/etc/salt/pki/minion/minion.pub

Once in place, you should be able to start salt-minion and run salt-call state.apply or any other salt commands that require master authentication.

The macOS (Maverick) Developer Step By Step Guide To Salt Installation

This document provides a step-by-step guide to installing a Salt cluster consisting of one master, and one minion running on a local VM hosted on macOS.
NOTE: This guide is aimed at developers who wish to run Salt in a virtual machine. The official (Linux) walkthrough can be found here.

The 5 Cent Salt Intro

Since you\(aqre here you\(aqve probably already heard about Salt, so you already know Salt lets you configure and run commands on hordes of servers easily. Here\(aqs a brief overview of a Salt cluster:
o Salt works by having a "master" server sending commands to one or multiple "minion" servers. The master server is the "command center". It is going to be the place where you store your configuration files, aka: "which server is the db, which is the web server, and what libraries and software they should have installed". The minions receive orders from the master. Minions are the servers actually performing work for your business.
o Salt has two types of configuration files:
1. the "salt communication channels" or "meta" or "config" configuration files (not official names): one for the master (usually is /etc/salt/master , on the master server), and one for minions (default is /etc/salt/minion or /etc/salt/minion.conf, on the minion servers). Those files are used to determine things like the Salt Master IP, port, Salt folder locations, etc.. If these are configured incorrectly, your minions will probably be unable to receive orders from the master, or the master will not know which software a given minion should install.
2. the "business" or "service" configuration files (once again, not an official name): these are configuration files, ending with ".sls" extension, that describe which software should run on which server, along with particular configuration properties for the software that is being installed. These files should be created in the /srv/salt folder by default, but their location can be changed using ... /etc/salt/master configuration file!
NOTE: This tutorial contains a third important configuration file, not to be confused with the previous two: the virtual machine provisioning configuration file. This in itself is not specifically tied to Salt, but it also contains some Salt configuration. More on that in step 3. Also note that all configuration files are YAML files. So indentation matters.
NOTE: Salt also works with "masterless" configuration where a minion is autonomous (in which case salt can be seen as a local configuration tool), or in "multiple master" configuration. See the documentation for more on that.

Before Digging In, The Architecture Of The Salt Cluster

Salt Master

The "Salt master" server is going to be the Mac OS machine, directly. Commands will be run from a terminal app, so Salt will need to be installed on the Mac. This is going to be more convenient for toying around with configuration files.

Salt Minion

We\(aqll only have one "Salt minion" server. It is going to be running on a Virtual Machine running on the Mac, using VirtualBox. It will run an Ubuntu distribution.

Step 1 - Configuring The Salt Master On Your Mac

Official Documentation
Because Salt has a lot of dependencies that are not built in macOS, we will use Homebrew to install Salt. Homebrew is a package manager for Mac, it\(aqs great, use it (for this tutorial at least!). Some people spend a lot of time installing libs by hand to better understand dependencies, and then realize how useful a package manager is once they\(aqre configuring a brand new machine and have to do it all over again. It also lets you uninstall things easily.
NOTE: Brew is a Ruby program (Ruby is installed by default with your Mac). Brew downloads, compiles, and links software. The linking phase is when compiled software is deployed on your machine. It may conflict with manually installed software, especially in the /usr/local directory. It\(aqs ok, remove the manually installed version then refresh the link by typing brew link \(aqpackageName\(aq. Brew has a brew doctor command that can help you troubleshoot. It\(aqs a great command, use it often. Brew requires xcode command line tools. When you run brew the first time it asks you to install them if they\(aqre not already on your system. Brew installs software in /usr/local/bin (system bins are in /usr/bin). In order to use those bins you need your $PATH to search there first. Brew tells you if your $PATH needs to be fixed.
TIP: Use the keyboard shortcut cmd + shift + period in the "open" macOS dialog box to display hidden files and folders, such as .profile.

Install Homebrew

Install Homebrew here http://brew.sh/
Or just type
ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/master/install)"

Now type the following commands in your terminal (you may want to type brew doctor after each to make sure everything\(aqs fine):
brew install python
brew install swig
brew install zmq

NOTE: zmq is ZeroMQ. It\(aqs a fantastic library used for server to server network communication and is at the core of Salt efficiency.

Install Salt

You should now have everything ready to launch this command:
pip install salt

NOTE: There should be no need for sudo pip install salt. Brew installed Python for your user, so you should have all the access. In case you would like to check, type which python to ensure that it\(aqs /usr/local/bin/python, and which pip which should be /usr/local/bin/pip.
Now type python in a terminal then, import salt. There should be no errors. Now exit the Python terminal using exit().

Create The Master Configuration

If the default /etc/salt/master configuration file was not created, copy-paste it from here: http://docs.saltstack.com/ref/configuration/examples.html#configuration-examples-master
NOTE: /etc/salt/master is a file, not a folder.
Salt Master configuration changes. The Salt master needs a few customization to be able to run on macOS:
sudo launchctl limit maxfiles 4096 8192

In the /etc/salt/master file, change max_open_files to 8192 (or just add the line: max_open_files: 8192 (no quote) if it doesn\(aqt already exists).
You should now be able to launch the Salt master:
sudo salt-master --log-level=all

There should be no errors when running the above command.
NOTE: This command is supposed to be a daemon, but for toying around, we\(aqll keep it running on a terminal to monitor the activity.
Now that the master is set, let\(aqs configure a minion on a VM.

Step 2 - Configuring The Minion VM

The Salt minion is going to run on a Virtual Machine. There are a lot of software options that let you run virtual machines on a mac, But for this tutorial we\(aqre going to use VirtualBox. In addition to virtualBox, we will use Vagrant, which allows you to create the base VM configuration.
Vagrant lets you build ready to use VM images, starting from an OS image and customizing it using "provisioners". In our case, we\(aqll use it to:
o Download the base Ubuntu image
o Install salt on that Ubuntu image (Salt is going to be the "provisioner" for the VM).
o Launch the VM
o SSH into the VM to debug
o Stop the VM once you\(aqre done.

Install VirtualBox

Go get it here: https://www.virtualBox.org/wiki/Downloads (click on VirtualBox for macOS hosts => x86/amd64)

Install Vagrant

Go get it here: http://downloads.vagrantup.com/ and choose the latest version (1.3.5 at time of writing), then the .dmg file. Double-click to install it. Make sure the vagrant command is found when run in the terminal. Type vagrant. It should display a list of commands.

Create The Minion VM Folder

Create a folder in which you will store your minion\(aqs VM. In this tutorial, it\(aqs going to be a minion folder in the $home directory.
cd $home
mkdir minion

Initialize Vagrant

From the minion folder, type
vagrant init

This command creates a default Vagrantfile configuration file. This configuration file will be used to pass configuration parameters to the Salt provisioner in Step 3.

Import Precise64 Ubuntu Box

vagrant box add precise64 http://files.vagrantup.com/precise64.box

NOTE: This box is added at the global Vagrant level. You only need to do it once as each VM will use this same file.

Modify the Vagrantfile

Modify ./minion/Vagrantfile to use th precise64 box. Change the config.vm.box line to:
config.vm.box = "precise64"

Uncomment the line creating a host-only IP. This is the ip of your minion (you can change it to something else if that IP is already in use):
config.vm.network :private_network, ip: "192.168.33.10"

At this point you should have a VM that can run, although there won\(aqt be much in it. Let\(aqs check that.

Checking The VM

From the $home/minion folder type:
vagrant up

A log showing the VM booting should be present. Once it\(aqs done you\(aqll be back to the terminal:
ping 192.168.33.10

The VM should respond to your ping request.
Now log into the VM in ssh using Vagrant again:
vagrant ssh

You should see the shell prompt change to something similar to vagrant@precise64:~$ meaning you\(aqre inside the VM. From there, enter the following:
ping 10.0.2.2

NOTE: That ip is the ip of your VM host (the macOS host). The number is a VirtualBox default and is displayed in the log after the Vagrant ssh command. We\(aqll use that IP to tell the minion where the Salt master is. Once you\(aqre done, end the ssh session by typing exit.
It\(aqs now time to connect the VM to the salt master

Step 3 - Connecting Master and Minion

Creating The Minion Configuration File

Create the /etc/salt/minion file. In that file, put the following lines, giving the ID for this minion, and the IP of the master:
master: 10.0.2.2
id: \(aqminion1\(aq
file_client: remote

Minions authenticate with the master using keys. Keys are generated automatically if you don\(aqt provide one and can accept them later on. However, this requires accepting the minion key every time the minion is destroyed or created (which could be quite often). A better way is to create those keys in advance, feed them to the minion, and authorize them once.

Preseed minion keys

From the minion folder on your Mac run:
sudo salt-key --gen-keys=minion1

This should create two files: minion1.pem, and minion1.pub. Since those files have been created using sudo, but will be used by vagrant, you need to change ownership:
sudo chown youruser:yourgroup minion1.pem
sudo chown youruser:yourgroup minion1.pub

Then copy the .pub file into the list of accepted minions:
sudo cp minion1.pub /etc/salt/pki/master/minions/minion1

Modify Vagrantfile to Use Salt Provisioner

Let\(aqs now modify the Vagrantfile used to provision the Salt VM. Add the following section in the Vagrantfile (note: it should be at the same indentation level as the other properties):
# salt-vagrant config
config.vm.provision :salt do |salt|
    salt.run_highstate = true
    salt.minion_config = "/etc/salt/minion"
    salt.minion_key = "./minion1.pem"
    salt.minion_pub = "./minion1.pub"
end

Now destroy the vm and recreate it from the /minion folder:
vagrant destroy
vagrant up

If everything is fine you should see the following message:
"Bootstrapping Salt... (this may take a while)
Salt successfully configured and installed!"

Checking Master-Minion Communication

To make sure the master and minion are talking to each other, enter the following:
sudo salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping

You should see your minion answering the ping. It\(aqs now time to do some configuration.

Step 4 - Configure Services to Install On the Minion

In this step we\(aqll use the Salt master to instruct our minion to install Nginx.

Checking the system\(aqs original state

First, make sure that an HTTP server is not installed on our minion. When opening a browser directed at http://192.168.33.10/ You should get an error saying the site cannot be reached.

Initialize the top.sls file

System configuration is done in /srv/salt/top.sls (and subfiles/folders), and then applied by running the state.apply function to have the Salt master order its minions to update their instructions and run the associated commands.
First Create an empty file on your Salt master (macOS machine):
touch /srv/salt/top.sls

When the file is empty, or if no configuration is found for our minion an error is reported:
sudo salt \(aqminion1\(aq state.apply

This should return an error stating: No Top file or external nodes data matches found.

Create The Nginx Configuration

Now is finally the time to enter the real meat of our server\(aqs configuration. For this tutorial our minion will be treated as a web server that needs to have Nginx installed.
Insert the following lines into /srv/salt/top.sls (which should current be empty).
base:
  \(aqminion1\(aq:
    - bin.nginx

Now create /srv/salt/bin/nginx.sls containing the following:
nginx:
  pkg.installed:
    - name: nginx
  service.running:
    - enable: True
    - reload: True

Check Minion State

Finally, run the state.apply function again:
sudo salt \(aqminion1\(aq state.apply

You should see a log showing that the Nginx package has been installed and the service configured. To prove it, open your browser and navigate to http://192.168.33.10/, you should see the standard Nginx welcome page.
Congratulations!

Where To Go From Here

A full description of configuration management within Salt (sls files among other things) is available here: http://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/index.html#configuration-management

running salt as normal user tutorial

Before continuing make sure you have a working Salt installation by following the installation and the configuration instructions.
Stuck?
There are many ways to get help from the Salt community including our mailing list and our IRC channel #salt.

Running Salt functions as non root user

If you don\(aqt want to run salt cloud as root or even install it you can configure it to have a virtual root in your working directory.
The salt system uses the salt.syspath module to find the variables
If you run the salt-build, it will generated in:
./build/lib.linux-x86_64-2.7/salt/_syspaths.py

To generate it, run the command:
python setup.py build

Copy the generated module into your salt directory
cp ./build/lib.linux-x86_64-2.7/salt/_syspaths.py salt/_syspaths.py

Edit it to include needed variables and your new paths
# you need to edit this
ROOT_DIR = *your current dir* + \(aq/salt/root\(aq

# you need to edit this INSTALL_DIR = *location of source code*
CONFIG_DIR = ROOT_DIR + \(aq/etc/salt\(aq CACHE_DIR = ROOT_DIR + \(aq/var/cache/salt\(aq SOCK_DIR = ROOT_DIR + \(aq/var/run/salt\(aq SRV_ROOT_DIR= ROOT_DIR + \(aq/srv\(aq BASE_FILE_ROOTS_DIR = ROOT_DIR + \(aq/srv/salt\(aq BASE_PILLAR_ROOTS_DIR = ROOT_DIR + \(aq/srv/pillar\(aq BASE_MASTER_ROOTS_DIR = ROOT_DIR + \(aq/srv/salt-master\(aq LOGS_DIR = ROOT_DIR + \(aq/var/log/salt\(aq PIDFILE_DIR = ROOT_DIR + \(aq/var/run\(aq CLOUD_DIR = INSTALL_DIR + \(aq/cloud\(aq BOOTSTRAP = CLOUD_DIR + \(aq/deploy/bootstrap-salt.sh\(aq
Create the directory structure
mkdir -p root/etc/salt root/var/cache/run root/run/salt root/srv
root/srv/salt root/srv/pillar root/srv/salt-master root/var/log/salt root/var/run

Populate the configuration files:
cp -r conf/* root/etc/salt/

Edit your root/etc/salt/master configuration that is used by salt-cloud:
user: *your user name*

Run like this:
PYTHONPATH=`pwd` scripts/salt-cloud

Standalone Minion

Since the Salt minion contains such extensive functionality it can be useful to run it standalone. A standalone minion can be used to do a number of things:
o Use salt-call commands on a system without connectivity to a master
o Masterless States, run states entirely from files local to the minion
NOTE: When running Salt in masterless mode, do not run the salt-minion daemon. Otherwise, it will attempt to connect to a master and fail. The salt-call command stands on its own and does not need the salt-minion daemon.

Minion Configuration

Throughout this document there are several references to setting different options to configure a masterless Minion. Salt Minions are easy to configure via a configuration file that is located, by default, in /etc/salt/minion. Note, however, that on FreeBSD systems, the minion configuration file is located in /usr/local/etc/salt/minion.
You can learn more about minion configuration options in the Configuring the Salt Minion docs.

Telling Salt Call to Run Masterless

The salt-call command is used to run module functions locally on a minion instead of executing them from the master. Normally the salt-call command checks into the master to retrieve file server and pillar data, but when running standalone salt-call needs to be instructed to not check the master for this data. To instruct the minion to not look for a master when running salt-call the file_client configuration option needs to be set. By default the file_client is set to remote so that the minion knows that file server and pillar data are to be gathered from the master. When setting the file_client option to local the minion is configured to not gather this data from the master.
file_client: local

Now the salt-call command will not look for a master and will assume that the local system has all of the file and pillar resources.

Running States Masterless

The state system can be easily run without a Salt master, with all needed files local to the minion. To do this the minion configuration file needs to be set up to know how to return file_roots information like the master. The file_roots setting defaults to /srv/salt for the base environment just like on the master:
file_roots:
  base:
    - /srv/salt

Now set up the Salt State Tree, top file, and SLS modules in the same way that they would be set up on a master. Now, with the file_client option set to local and an available state tree then calls to functions in the state module will use the information in the file_roots on the minion instead of checking in with the master.
Remember that when creating a state tree on a minion there are no syntax or path changes needed, SLS modules written to be used from a master do not need to be modified in any way to work with a minion.
This makes it easy to "script" deployments with Salt states without having to set up a master, and allows for these SLS modules to be easily moved into a Salt master as the deployment grows.
The declared state can now be executed with:
salt-call state.apply

Or the salt-call command can be executed with the --local flag, this makes it unnecessary to change the configuration file:
salt-call state.apply --local

External Pillars

External pillars are supported when running in masterless mode.

Salt Masterless Quickstart

Running a masterless salt-minion lets you use Salt\(aqs configuration management for a single machine without calling out to a Salt master on another machine.
Since the Salt minion contains such extensive functionality it can be useful to run it standalone. A standalone minion can be used to do a number of things:
o Stand up a master server via States (Salting a Salt Master)
o Use salt-call commands on a system without connectivity to a master
o Masterless States, run states entirely from files local to the minion
It is also useful for testing out state trees before deploying to a production setup.

Bootstrap Salt Minion

The salt-bootstrap script makes bootstrapping a server with Salt simple for any OS with a Bourne shell:
curl -L https://bootstrap.saltstack.com -o bootstrap_salt.sh
sudo sh bootstrap_salt.sh

See the salt-bootstrap documentation for other one liners. When using Vagrant to test out salt, the Vagrant salt provisioner will provision the VM for you.

Telling Salt to Run Masterless

To instruct the minion to not look for a master, the file_client configuration option needs to be set in the minion configuration file. By default the file_client is set to remote so that the minion gathers file server and pillar data from the salt master. When setting the file_client option to local the minion is configured to not gather this data from the master.
file_client: local

Now the salt minion will not look for a master and will assume that the local system has all of the file and pillar resources.
Configuration which resided in the master configuration (e.g. /etc/salt/master) should be moved to the minion configuration since the minion does not read the master configuration.
NOTE: When running Salt in masterless mode, do not run the salt-minion daemon. Otherwise, it will attempt to connect to a master and fail. The salt-call command stands on its own and does not need the salt-minion daemon.

Create State Tree

Following the successful installation of a salt-minion, the next step is to create a state tree, which is where the SLS files that comprise the possible states of the minion are stored.
The following example walks through the steps necessary to create a state tree that ensures that the server has the Apache webserver installed.
NOTE: For a complete explanation on Salt States, see the tutorial.
1. Create the top.sls file:
/srv/salt/top.sls:
base:
  \(aq*\(aq:
    - webserver

2. Create the webserver state tree:
/srv/salt/webserver.sls:
apache:               # ID declaration
  pkg:                # state declaration
    - installed       # function declaration

NOTE: The apache package has different names on different platforms, for instance on Debian/Ubuntu it is apache2, on Fedora/RHEL it is httpd and on Arch it is apache
The only thing left is to provision our minion using salt-call.

Salt-call

The salt-call command is used to run remote execution functions locally on a minion instead of executing them from the master. Normally the salt-call command checks into the master to retrieve file server and pillar data, but when running standalone salt-call needs to be instructed to not check the master for this data:
salt-call --local state.apply

The --local flag tells the salt-minion to look for the state tree in the local file system and not to contact a Salt Master for instructions.
To provide verbose output, use -l debug:
salt-call --local state.apply -l debug

The minion first examines the top.sls file and determines that it is a part of the group matched by * glob and that the webserver SLS should be applied.
It then examines the webserver.sls file and finds the apache state, which installs the Apache package.
The minion should now have Apache installed, and the next step is to begin learning how to write more complex states.

Dependencies

Salt should run on any Unix-like platform so long as the dependencies are met.
o Python 2.7 >= 2.7 <3.0
o msgpack-python - High-performance message interchange format
o YAML - Python YAML bindings
o Jinja2 - parsing Salt States (configurable in the master settings)
o MarkupSafe - Implements a XML/HTML/XHTML Markup safe string for Python
o apache-libcloud - Python lib for interacting with many of the popular cloud service providers using a unified API
o Requests - HTTP library
o Tornado - Web framework and asynchronous networking library
o futures - Backport of the concurrent.futures package from Python 3.2
Depending on the chosen Salt transport, ZeroMQ or RAET, dependencies vary:
o ZeroMQ:
o ZeroMQ >= 3.2.0
o pyzmq >= 2.2.0 - ZeroMQ Python bindings
o PyCrypto - The Python cryptography toolkit
o RAET:
o libnacl - Python bindings to libsodium
o ioflo - The flo programming interface raet and salt-raet is built on
o RAET - The worlds most awesome UDP protocol
Salt defaults to the ZeroMQ transport, and the choice can be made at install time, for example:
python setup.py --salt-transport=raet install

This way, only the required dependencies are pulled by the setup script if need be.
If installing using pip, the --salt-transport install option can be provided like:
pip install --install-option="--salt-transport=raet" salt

NOTE: Salt does not bundle dependencies that are typically distributed as part of the base OS. If you have unmet dependencies and are using a custom or minimal installation, you might need to install some additional packages from your OS vendor.

Optional Dependencies

o mako - an optional parser for Salt States (configurable in the master settings)
o gcc - dynamic Cython module compiling

Upgrading Salt

When upgrading Salt, the master(s) should always be upgraded first. Backward compatibility for minions running newer versions of salt than their masters is not guaranteed.
Whenever possible, backward compatibility between new masters and old minions will be preserved. Generally, the only exception to this policy is in case of a security vulnerability.
SEE ALSO: Installing Salt for development and contributing to the project.

Building Packages using Salt Pack

Salt-pack is an open-source package builder for most commonly used Linux platforms, for example: Redhat/CentOS and Debian/Ubuntu families, utilizing SaltStack states and execution modules to build Salt and a specified set of dependencies, from which a platform specific repository can be built.

CONFIGURING SALT

This section explains how to configure user access, view and store job results, secure and troubleshoot, and how to perform many other administrative tasks.

Configuring the Salt Master

The Salt system is amazingly simple and easy to configure, the two components of the Salt system each have a respective configuration file. The salt-master is configured via the master configuration file, and the salt-minion is configured via the minion configuration file.
SEE ALSO: Example master configuration file.
The configuration file for the salt-master is located at /etc/salt/master by default. A notable exception is FreeBSD, where the configuration file is located at /usr/local/etc/salt. The available options are as follows:

Primary Master Configuration

interface

Default: 0.0.0.0 (all interfaces)
The local interface to bind to, must be an IP address.
interface: 192.168.0.1

ipv6

Default: False
Whether the master should listen for IPv6 connections. If this is set to True, the interface option must be adjusted too (for example: interface: \(aq::\(aq)
ipv6: True

publish_port

Default: 4505
The network port to set up the publication interface.
publish_port: 4505

master_id

Default: None
The id to be passed in the publish job to minions. This is used for MultiSyndics to return the job to the requesting master.
NOTE: This must be the same string as the syndic is configured with.
master_id: MasterOfMaster

user

Default: root
The user to run the Salt processes
user: root

enable_ssh_minions

Default: False
Tell the master to also use salt-ssh when running commands against minions.
enable_ssh_minions: True

NOTE: Cross-minion communication is still not possible. The Salt mine and publish.publish do not work between minion types.

ret_port

Default: 4506
The port used by the return server, this is the server used by Salt to receive execution returns and command executions.
ret_port: 4506

pidfile

Default: /var/run/salt-master.pid
Specify the location of the master pidfile.
pidfile: /var/run/salt-master.pid

root_dir

Default: /
The system root directory to operate from, change this to make Salt run from an alternative root.
root_dir: /

NOTE: This directory is prepended to the following options: pki_dir, cachedir, sock_dir, log_file, autosign_file, autoreject_file, pidfile, autosign_grains_dir.

conf_file

Default: /etc/salt/master
The path to the master\(aqs configuration file.
conf_file: /etc/salt/master

pki_dir

Default: /etc/salt/pki/master
The directory to store the pki authentication keys.
pki_dir: /etc/salt/pki/master

extension_modules

Changed in version 2016.3.0: The default location for this directory has been moved. Prior to this version, the location was a directory named extmods in the Salt cachedir (on most platforms, /var/cache/salt/extmods). It has been moved into the master cachedir (on most platforms, /var/cache/salt/master/extmods).
Directory for custom modules. This directory can contain subdirectories for each of Salt\(aqs module types such as runners, output, wheel, modules, states, returners, engines, utils, etc. This path is appended to root_dir.
extension_modules: /root/salt_extmods

extmod_whitelist/extmod_blacklist

New in version 2017.7.0.
By using this dictionary, the modules that are synced to the master\(aqs extmod cache using saltutil.sync_* can be limited. If nothing is set to a specific type, then all modules are accepted. To block all modules of a specific type, whitelist an empty list.
extmod_whitelist:
  modules:
    - custom_module
  engines:
    - custom_engine
  pillars: []

extmod_blacklist: modules: - specific_module
Valid options:
o modules
o states
o grains
o renderers
o returners
o output
o proxy
o runners
o wheel
o engines
o queues
o pillar
o utils
o sdb
o cache
o clouds
o tops
o roster
o tokens

module_dirs

Default: []
Like extension_modules, but a list of extra directories to search for Salt modules.
module_dirs:
  - /var/cache/salt/minion/extmods

cachedir

Default: /var/cache/salt/master
The location used to store cache information, particularly the job information for executed salt commands.
This directory may contain sensitive data and should be protected accordingly.
cachedir: /var/cache/salt/master

verify_env

Default: True
Verify and set permissions on configuration directories at startup.
verify_env: True

keep_jobs

Default: 24
Set the number of hours to keep old job information. Note that setting this option to 0 disables the cache cleaner.
keep_jobs: 24

gather_job_timeout

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: 10
The number of seconds to wait when the client is requesting information about running jobs.
gather_job_timeout: 10

timeout

Default: 5
Set the default timeout for the salt command and api.

loop_interval

Default: 60
The loop_interval option controls the seconds for the master\(aqs maintenance process check cycle. This process updates file server backends, cleans the job cache and executes the scheduler.

output

Default: nested
Set the default outputter used by the salt command.

outputter_dirs

Default: []
A list of additional directories to search for salt outputters in.
outputter_dirs: []

output_file

Default: None
Set the default output file used by the salt command. Default is to output to the CLI and not to a file. Functions the same way as the "--out-file" CLI option, only sets this to a single file for all salt commands.
output_file: /path/output/file

show_timeout

Default: True
Tell the client to show minions that have timed out.
show_timeout: True

show_jid

Default: False
Tell the client to display the jid when a job is published.
show_jid: False

color

Default: True
By default output is colored, to disable colored output set the color value to False.
color: False

color_theme

Default: ""
Specifies a path to the color theme to use for colored command line output.
color_theme: /etc/salt/color_theme

cli_summary

Default: False
When set to True, displays a summary of the number of minions targeted, the number of minions returned, and the number of minions that did not return.
cli_summary: False

sock_dir

Default: /var/run/salt/master
Set the location to use for creating Unix sockets for master process communication.
sock_dir: /var/run/salt/master

enable_gpu_grains

Default: False
Enable GPU hardware data for your master. Be aware that the master can take a while to start up when lspci and/or dmidecode is used to populate the grains for the master.
enable_gpu_grains: True

job_cache

Default: True
The master maintains a temporary job cache. While this is a great addition, it can be a burden on the master for larger deployments (over 5000 minions). Disabling the job cache will make previously executed jobs unavailable to the jobs system and is not generally recommended. Normally it is wise to make sure the master has access to a faster IO system or a tmpfs is mounted to the jobs dir.
job_cache: True

NOTE: Setting the job_cache to False will not cache minion returns, but the JID directory for each job is still created. The creation of the JID directories is necessary because Salt uses those directories to check for JID collisions. By setting this option to False, the job cache directory, which is /var/cache/salt/master/jobs/ by default, will be smaller, but the JID directories will still be present.
Note that the keep_jobs option can be set to a lower value, such as 1, to limit the number of hours jobs are stored in the job cache. (The default is 24 hours.)
Please see the Managing the Job Cache documentation for more information.

minion_data_cache

Default: True
The minion data cache is a cache of information about the minions stored on the master, this information is primarily the pillar, grains and mine data. The data is cached via the cache subsystem in the Master cachedir under the name of the minion or in a supported database. The data is used to predetermine what minions are expected to reply from executions.
minion_data_cache: True

cache

Default: localfs
Cache subsystem module to use for minion data cache.
cache: consul

memcache_expire_seconds

Default: 0
Memcache is an additional cache layer that keeps a limited amount of data fetched from the minion data cache for a limited period of time in memory that makes cache operations faster. It doesn\(aqt make much sense for the localfs cache driver but helps for more complex drivers like consul.
This option sets the memcache items expiration time. By default is set to 0 that disables the memcache.
memcache_expire_seconds: 30

memcache_max_items

Default: 1024
Set memcache limit in items that are bank-key pairs. I.e the list of minion_0/data, minion_0/mine, minion_1/data contains 3 items. This value depends on the count of minions usually targeted in your environment. The best one could be found by analyzing the cache log with memcache_debug enabled.
memcache_max_items: 1024

memcache_full_cleanup

Default: False
If cache storage got full, i.e. the items count exceeds the memcache_max_items value, memcache cleans up it\(aqs storage. If this option set to False memcache removes the only one oldest value from it\(aqs storage. If this set set to True memcache removes all the expired items and also removes the oldest one if there are no expired items.
memcache_full_cleanup: True

memcache_debug

Default: False
Enable collecting the memcache stats and log it on debug log level. If enabled memcache collect information about how many fetch calls has been done and how many of them has been hit by memcache. Also it outputs the rate value that is the result of division of the first two values. This should help to choose right values for the expiration time and the cache size.
memcache_debug: True

ext_job_cache

Default: \(aq\(aq
Used to specify a default returner for all minions. When this option is set, the specified returner needs to be properly configured and the minions will always default to sending returns to this returner. This will also disable the local job cache on the master.
ext_job_cache: redis

event_return

New in version 2015.5.0.
Default: \(aq\(aq
Specify the returner(s) to use to log events. Each returner may have installation and configuration requirements. Read the returner\(aqs documentation.
NOTE: Not all returners support event returns. Verify that a returner has an event_return() function before configuring this option with a returner.
event_return:
  - syslog
  - splunk

event_return_queue

New in version 2015.5.0.
Default: 0
On busy systems, enabling event_returns can cause a considerable load on the storage system for returners. Events can be queued on the master and stored in a batched fashion using a single transaction for multiple events. By default, events are not queued.
event_return_queue: 0

event_return_whitelist

New in version 2015.5.0.
Default: []
Only return events matching tags in a whitelist.
Changed in version 2016.11.0: Supports glob matching patterns.
event_return_whitelist:
  - salt/master/a_tag
  - salt/run/*/ret

event_return_blacklist

New in version 2015.5.0.
Default: []
Store all event returns _except_ the tags in a blacklist.
Changed in version 2016.11.0: Supports glob matching patterns.
event_return_blacklist:
  - salt/master/not_this_tag
  - salt/wheel/*/ret

max_event_size

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: 1048576
Passing very large events can cause the minion to consume large amounts of memory. This value tunes the maximum size of a message allowed onto the master event bus. The value is expressed in bytes.
max_event_size: 1048576

master_job_cache

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: local_cache
Specify the returner to use for the job cache. The job cache will only be interacted with from the salt master and therefore does not need to be accessible from the minions.
master_job_cache: redis

job_cache_store_endtime

New in version 2015.8.0.
Default: False
Specify whether the Salt Master should store end times for jobs as returns come in.
job_cache_store_endtime: False

enforce_mine_cache

Default: False
By-default when disabling the minion_data_cache mine will stop working since it is based on cached data, by enabling this option we explicitly enabling only the cache for the mine system.
enforce_mine_cache: False

max_minions

Default: 0
The maximum number of minion connections allowed by the master. Use this to accommodate the number of minions per master if you have different types of hardware serving your minions. The default of 0 means unlimited connections. Please note that this can slow down the authentication process a bit in large setups.
max_minions: 100

con_cache

Default: False
If max_minions is used in large installations, the master might experience high-load situations because of having to check the number of connected minions for every authentication. This cache provides the minion-ids of all connected minions to all MWorker-processes and greatly improves the performance of max_minions.
con_cache: True

presence_events

Default: False
Causes the master to periodically look for actively connected minions. Presence events are fired on the event bus on a regular interval with a list of connected minions, as well as events with lists of newly connected or disconnected minions. This is a master-only operation that does not send executions to minions.
presence_events: False

ping_on_rotate

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: False
By default, the master AES key rotates every 24 hours. The next command following a key rotation will trigger a key refresh from the minion which may result in minions which do not respond to the first command after a key refresh.
To tell the master to ping all minions immediately after an AES key refresh, set ping_on_rotate to True. This should mitigate the issue where a minion does not appear to initially respond after a key is rotated.
Note that enabling this may cause high load on the master immediately after the key rotation event as minions reconnect. Consider this carefully if this salt master is managing a large number of minions.
If disabled, it is recommended to handle this event by listening for the aes_key_rotate event with the key tag and acting appropriately.
ping_on_rotate: False

transport

Default: zeromq
Changes the underlying transport layer. ZeroMQ is the recommended transport while additional transport layers are under development. Supported values are zeromq, raet (experimental), and tcp (experimental). This setting has a significant impact on performance and should not be changed unless you know what you are doing!
transport: zeromq

transport_opts

Default: {}
(experimental) Starts multiple transports and overrides options for each transport with the provided dictionary This setting has a significant impact on performance and should not be changed unless you know what you are doing! The following example shows how to start a TCP transport alongside a ZMQ transport.
transport_opts:
  tcp:
    publish_port: 4605
    ret_port: 4606
  zeromq: []

master_stats

Default: False
Turning on the master stats enables runtime throughput and statistics events to be fired from the master event bus. These events will report on what functions have been run on the master and how long these runs have, on average, taken over a given period of time.

master_stats_event_iter

Default: 60
The time in seconds to fire master_stats events. This will only fire in conjunction with receiving a request to the master, idle masters will not fire these events.

sock_pool_size

Default: 1
To avoid blocking waiting while writing a data to a socket, we support socket pool for Salt applications. For example, a job with a large number of target host list can cause long period blocking waiting. The option is used by ZMQ and TCP transports, and the other transport methods don\(aqt need the socket pool by definition. Most of Salt tools, including CLI, are enough to use a single bucket of socket pool. On the other hands, it is highly recommended to set the size of socket pool larger than 1 for other Salt applications, especially Salt API, which must write data to socket concurrently.
sock_pool_size: 15

ipc_mode

Default: ipc
The ipc strategy. (i.e., sockets versus tcp, etc.) Windows platforms lack POSIX IPC and must rely on TCP based inter-process communications. ipc_mode is set to tcp by default on Windows.
ipc_mode: ipc

tcp_master_pub_port

Default: 4512
The TCP port on which events for the master should be published if ipc_mode is TCP.
tcp_master_pub_port: 4512

tcp_master_pull_port

Default: 4513
The TCP port on which events for the master should be pulled if ipc_mode is TCP.
tcp_master_pull_port: 4513

tcp_master_publish_pull

Default: 4514
The TCP port on which events for the master should be pulled fom and then republished onto the event bus on the master.
tcp_master_publish_pull: 4514

tcp_master_workers

Default: 4515
The TCP port for mworkers to connect to on the master.
tcp_master_workers: 4515

auth_events

New in version 2017.7.3.
Default: True
Determines whether the master will fire authentication events. Authentication events are fired when a minion performs an authentication check with the master.
auth_events: True

minion_data_cache_events

New in version 2017.7.3.
Default: True
Determines whether the master will fire minion data cache events. Minion data cache events are fired when a minion requests a minion data cache refresh.
minion_data_cache_events: True

http_connect_timeout

New in version Fluorine.
Default: 20
HTTP connection timeout in seconds. Applied when fetching files using tornado back-end. Should be greater than overall download time.
http_connect_timeout: 20

http_request_timeout

New in version 2015.8.0.
Default: 3600
HTTP request timeout in seconds. Applied when fetching files using tornado back-end. Should be greater than overall download time.
http_request_timeout: 3600

Salt-SSH Configuration

roster

Default: flat
Define the default salt-ssh roster module to use
roster: cache

roster_defaults

New in version 2017.7.0.
Default settings which will be inherited by all rosters.
roster_defaults:
  user: daniel
  sudo: True
  priv: /root/.ssh/id_rsa
  tty: True

roster_file

Default: /etc/salt/roster
Pass in an alternative location for the salt-ssh flat roster file.
roster_file: /root/roster

rosters

Default: None
Define locations for flat roster files so they can be chosen when using Salt API. An administrator can place roster files into these locations. Then, when calling Salt API, the roster_file parameter should contain a relative path to these locations. That is, roster_file=/foo/roster will be resolved as /etc/salt/roster.d/foo/roster etc. This feature prevents passing insecure custom rosters through the Salt API.
rosters:
 - /etc/salt/roster.d
 - /opt/salt/some/more/rosters

ssh_passwd

Default: \(aq\(aq
The ssh password to log in with.
ssh_passwd: \(aq\(aq

ssh_priv_passwd

Default: \(aq\(aq
Passphrase for ssh private key file.
ssh_priv_passwd: \(aq\(aq

ssh_port

Default: 22
The target system\(aqs ssh port number.
ssh_port: 22

ssh_scan_ports

Default: 22
Comma-separated list of ports to scan.
ssh_scan_ports: 22

ssh_scan_timeout

Default: 0.01
Scanning socket timeout for salt-ssh.
ssh_scan_timeout: 0.01

ssh_sudo

Default: False
Boolean to run command via sudo.
ssh_sudo: False

ssh_timeout

Default: 60
Number of seconds to wait for a response when establishing an SSH connection.
ssh_timeout: 60

ssh_user

Default: root
The user to log in as.
ssh_user: root

ssh_log_file

New in version 2016.3.5.
Default: /var/log/salt/ssh
Specify the log file of the salt-ssh command.
ssh_log_file: /var/log/salt/ssh

ssh_minion_opts

Default: None
Pass in minion option overrides that will be inserted into the SHIM for salt-ssh calls. The local minion config is not used for salt-ssh. Can be overridden on a per-minion basis in the roster (minion_opts)
ssh_minion_opts:
  gpg_keydir: /root/gpg

ssh_use_home_key

Default: False
Set this to True to default to using ~/.ssh/id_rsa for salt-ssh authentication with minions
ssh_use_home_key: False

ssh_identities_only

Default: False
Set this to True to default salt-ssh to run with -o IdentitiesOnly=yes. This option is intended for situations where the ssh-agent offers many different identities and allows ssh to ignore those identities and use the only one specified in options.
ssh_identities_only: False

ssh_list_nodegroups

Default: {}
List-only nodegroups for salt-ssh. Each group must be formed as either a comma-separated list, or a YAML list. This option is useful to group minions into easy-to-target groups when using salt-ssh. These groups can then be targeted with the normal -N argument to salt-ssh.
ssh_list_nodegroups:
  groupA: minion1,minion2
  groupB: minion1,minion3

thin_extra_mods

Default: None
List of additional modules, needed to be included into the Salt Thin. Pass a list of importable Python modules that are typically located in the site-packages Python directory so they will be also always included into the Salt Thin, once generated.

min_extra_mods

Default: None
Identical as thin_extra_mods, only applied to the Salt Minimal.

Master Security Settings

open_mode

Default: False
Open mode is a dangerous security feature. One problem encountered with pki authentication systems is that keys can become "mixed up" and authentication begins to fail. Open mode turns off authentication and tells the master to accept all authentication. This will clean up the pki keys received from the minions. Open mode should not be turned on for general use. Open mode should only be used for a short period of time to clean up pki keys. To turn on open mode set this value to True.
open_mode: False

auto_accept

Default: False
Enable auto_accept. This setting will automatically accept all incoming public keys from minions.
auto_accept: False

keysize

Default: 2048
The size of key that should be generated when creating new keys.
keysize: 2048

autosign_timeout

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: 120
Time in minutes that a incoming public key with a matching name found in pki_dir/minion_autosign/keyid is automatically accepted. Expired autosign keys are removed when the master checks the minion_autosign directory. This method to auto accept minions can be safer than an autosign_file because the keyid record can expire and is limited to being an exact name match. This should still be considered a less than secure option, due to the fact that trust is based on just the requesting minion id.

autosign_file

Default: not defined
If the autosign_file is specified incoming keys specified in the autosign_file will be automatically accepted. Matches will be searched for first by string comparison, then by globbing, then by full-string regex matching. This should still be considered a less than secure option, due to the fact that trust is based on just the requesting minion id.
Changed in version 2018.3.0: For security reasons the file must be readonly except for it\(aqs owner. If permissive_pki_access is True the owning group can also have write access, but if Salt is running as root it must be a member of that group. A less strict requirement also existed in previous version.

autoreject_file

New in version 2014.1.0.
Default: not defined
Works like autosign_file, but instead allows you to specify minion IDs for which keys will automatically be rejected. Will override both membership in the autosign_file and the auto_accept setting.

autosign_grains_dir

New in version 2018.3.0.
Default: not defined
If the autosign_grains_dir is specified, incoming keys from minions with grain values that match those defined in files in the autosign_grains_dir will be accepted automatically. Grain values that should be accepted automatically can be defined by creating a file named like the corresponding grain in the autosign_grains_dir and writing the values into that file, one value per line. Lines starting with a # will be ignored. Minion must be configured to send the corresponding grains on authentication. This should still be considered a less than secure option, due to the fact that trust is based on just the requesting minion.
Please see the Autoaccept Minions from Grains documentation for more information.
autosign_grains_dir: /etc/salt/autosign_grains

permissive_pki_access

Default: False
Enable permissive access to the salt keys. This allows you to run the master or minion as root, but have a non-root group be given access to your pki_dir. To make the access explicit, root must belong to the group you\(aqve given access to. This is potentially quite insecure. If an autosign_file is specified, enabling permissive_pki_access will allow group access to that specific file.
permissive_pki_access: False

publisher_acl

Default: {}
Enable user accounts on the master to execute specific modules. These modules can be expressed as regular expressions.
publisher_acl:
  fred:
    - test.ping
    - pkg.*

publisher_acl_blacklist

Default: {}
Blacklist users or modules
This example would blacklist all non sudo users, including root from running any commands. It would also blacklist any use of the "cmd" module.
This is completely disabled by default.
publisher_acl_blacklist:
  users:
    - root
    - \(aq^(?!sudo_).*$\(aq   #  all non sudo users
  modules:
    - cmd.*
    - test.echo

sudo_acl

Default: False
Enforce publisher_acl and publisher_acl_blacklist when users have sudo access to the salt command.
sudo_acl: False

external_auth

Default: {}
The external auth system uses the Salt auth modules to authenticate and validate users to access areas of the Salt system.
external_auth:
  pam:
    fred:
      - test.*

token_expire

Default: 43200
Time (in seconds) for a newly generated token to live.
Default: 12 hours
token_expire: 43200

token_expire_user_override

Default: False
Allow eauth users to specify the expiry time of the tokens they generate.
A boolean applies to all users or a dictionary of whitelisted eauth backends and usernames may be given:
token_expire_user_override:
  pam:
    - fred
    - tom
  ldap:
    - gary

keep_acl_in_token

Default: False
Set to True to enable keeping the calculated user\(aqs auth list in the token file. This is disabled by default and the auth list is calculated or requested from the eauth driver each time.
keep_acl_in_token: False

eauth_acl_module

Default: \(aq\(aq
Auth subsystem module to use to get authorized access list for a user. By default it\(aqs the same module used for external authentication.
eauth_acl_module: django

file_recv

Default: False
Allow minions to push files to the master. This is disabled by default, for security purposes.
file_recv: False

file_recv_max_size

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: 100
Set a hard-limit on the size of the files that can be pushed to the master. It will be interpreted as megabytes.
file_recv_max_size: 100

master_sign_pubkey

Default: False
Sign the master auth-replies with a cryptographic signature of the master\(aqs public key. Please see the tutorial how to use these settings in the Multimaster-PKI with Failover Tutorial
master_sign_pubkey: True

master_sign_key_name

Default: master_sign
The customizable name of the signing-key-pair without suffix.
master_sign_key_name: <filename_without_suffix>

master_pubkey_signature

Default: master_pubkey_signature
The name of the file in the master\(aqs pki-directory that holds the pre-calculated signature of the master\(aqs public-key.
master_pubkey_signature: <filename>

master_use_pubkey_signature

Default: False
Instead of computing the signature for each auth-reply, use a pre-calculated signature. The master_pubkey_signature must also be set for this.
master_use_pubkey_signature: True

rotate_aes_key

Default: True
Rotate the salt-masters AES-key when a minion-public is deleted with salt-key. This is a very important security-setting. Disabling it will enable deleted minions to still listen in on the messages published by the salt-master. Do not disable this unless it is absolutely clear what this does.
rotate_aes_key: True

publish_session

Default: 86400
The number of seconds between AES key rotations on the master.
publish_session: Default: 86400

ssl

New in version 2016.11.0.
Default: None
TLS/SSL connection options. This could be set to a dictionary containing arguments corresponding to python ssl.wrap_socket method. For details see Tornado and Python documentation.
Note: to set enum arguments values like cert_reqs and ssl_version use constant names without ssl module prefix: CERT_REQUIRED or PROTOCOL_SSLv23.
ssl:
    keyfile: <path_to_keyfile>
    certfile: <path_to_certfile>
    ssl_version: PROTOCOL_TLSv1_2

preserve_minion_cache

Default: False
By default, the master deletes its cache of minion data when the key for that minion is removed. To preserve the cache after key deletion, set preserve_minion_cache to True.
WARNING: This may have security implications if compromised minions auth with a previous deleted minion ID.
preserve_minion_cache: False

allow_minion_key_revoke

Default: True
Controls whether a minion can request its own key revocation. When True the master will honor the minion\(aqs request and revoke its key. When False, the master will drop the request and the minion\(aqs key will remain accepted.
allow_minion_key_revoke: False

optimization_order

Default: [0, 1, 2]
In cases where Salt is distributed without .py files, this option determines the priority of optimization level(s) Salt\(aqs module loader should prefer.
NOTE: This option is only supported on Python 3.5+.
optimization_order:
  - 2
  - 0
  - 1

Master Large Scale Tuning Settings

max_open_files

Default: 100000
Each minion connecting to the master uses AT LEAST one file descriptor, the master subscription connection. If enough minions connect you might start seeing on the console(and then salt-master crashes):
Too many open files (tcp_listener.cpp:335)
Aborted (core dumped)

max_open_files: 100000

By default this value will be the one of ulimit -Hn, i.e., the hard limit for max open files.
To set a different value than the default one, uncomment, and configure this setting. Remember that this value CANNOT be higher than the hard limit. Raising the hard limit depends on the OS and/or distribution, a good way to find the limit is to search the internet for something like this:
raise max open files hard limit debian

worker_threads

Default: 5
The number of threads to start for receiving commands and replies from minions. If minions are stalling on replies because you have many minions, raise the worker_threads value.
Worker threads should not be put below 3 when using the peer system, but can drop down to 1 worker otherwise.
NOTE: When the master daemon starts, it is expected behaviour to see multiple salt-master processes, even if \(aqworker_threads\(aq is set to \(aq1\(aq. At a minimum, a controlling process will start along with a Publisher, an EventPublisher, and a number of MWorker processes will be started. The number of MWorker processes is tuneable by the \(aqworker_threads\(aq configuration value while the others are not.
worker_threads: 5

pub_hwm

Default: 1000
The zeromq high water mark on the publisher interface.
pub_hwm: 1000

zmq_backlog

Default: 1000
The listen queue size of the ZeroMQ backlog.
zmq_backlog: 1000

Master Module Management

runner_dirs

Default: []
Set additional directories to search for runner modules.
runner_dirs:
  - /var/lib/salt/runners

utils_dirs

New in version 2018.3.0.
Default: []
Set additional directories to search for util modules.
utils_dirs:
  - /var/lib/salt/utils

cython_enable

Default: False
Set to true to enable Cython modules (.pyx files) to be compiled on the fly on the Salt master.
cython_enable: False

Master State System Settings

state_top

Default: top.sls
The state system uses a "top" file to tell the minions what environment to use and what modules to use. The state_top file is defined relative to the root of the base environment. The value of "state_top" is also used for the pillar top file
state_top: top.sls

state_top_saltenv

This option has no default value. Set it to an environment name to ensure that only the top file from that environment is considered during a highstate.
NOTE: Using this value does not change the merging strategy. For instance, if top_file_merging_strategy is set to merge, and state_top_saltenv is set to foo, then any sections for environments other than foo in the top file for the foo environment will be ignored. With state_top_saltenv set to base, all states from all environments in the base top file will be applied, while all other top files are ignored. The only way to set state_top_saltenv to something other than base and not have the other environments in the targeted top file ignored, would be to set top_file_merging_strategy to merge_all.
state_top_saltenv: dev

top_file_merging_strategy

Changed in version 2016.11.0: A merge_all strategy has been added.
Default: merge
When no specific fileserver environment (a.k.a. saltenv) has been specified for a highstate, all environments\(aq top files are inspected. This config option determines how the SLS targets in those top files are handled.
When set to merge, the base environment\(aqs top file is evaluated first, followed by the other environments\(aq top files. The first target expression (e.g. \(aq*\(aq) for a given environment is kept, and when the same target expression is used in a different top file evaluated later, it is ignored. Because base is evaluated first, it is authoritative. For example, if there is a target for \(aq*\(aq for the foo environment in both the base and foo environment\(aqs top files, the one in the foo environment would be ignored. The environments will be evaluated in no specific order (aside from base coming first). For greater control over the order in which the environments are evaluated, use env_order. Note that, aside from the base environment\(aqs top file, any sections in top files that do not match that top file\(aqs environment will be ignored. So, for example, a section for the qa environment would be ignored if it appears in the dev environment\(aqs top file. To keep use cases like this from being ignored, use the merge_all strategy.
When set to same, then for each environment, only that environment\(aqs top file is processed, with the others being ignored. For example, only the dev environment\(aqs top file will be processed for the dev environment, and any SLS targets defined for dev in the base environment\(aqs (or any other environment\(aqs) top file will be ignored. If an environment does not have a top file, then the top file from the default_top config parameter will be used as a fallback.
When set to merge_all, then all states in all environments in all top files will be applied. The order in which individual SLS files will be executed will depend on the order in which the top files were evaluated, and the environments will be evaluated in no specific order. For greater control over the order in which the environments are evaluated, use env_order.
top_file_merging_strategy: same

env_order

Default: []
When top_file_merging_strategy is set to merge, and no environment is specified for a highstate, this config option allows for the order in which top files are evaluated to be explicitly defined.
env_order:
  - base
  - dev
  - qa

master_tops

Default: {}
The master_tops option replaces the external_nodes option by creating a pluggable system for the generation of external top data. The external_nodes option is deprecated by the master_tops option. To gain the capabilities of the classic external_nodes system, use the following configuration:
master_tops:
  ext_nodes: <Shell command which returns yaml>

renderer

Default: jinja|yaml
The renderer to use on the minions to render the state data.
renderer: jinja|json

userdata_template

New in version 2016.11.4.
Default: None
The renderer to use for templating userdata files in salt-cloud, if the userdata_template is not set in the cloud profile. If no value is set in the cloud profile or master config file, no templating will be performed.
userdata_template: jinja

jinja_env

New in version 2018.3.0.
Default: {}
jinja_env overrides the default Jinja environment options for all templates except sls templates. To set the options for sls templates use jinja_sls_env.
NOTE: The Jinja2 Environment documentation is the official source for the default values. Not all the options listed in the jinja documentation can be overridden using jinja_env or jinja_sls_env.
The default options are:
jinja_env:
  block_start_string: \(aq{%\(aq
  block_end_string: \(aq%}\(aq
  variable_start_string: \(aq{{\(aq
  variable_end_string: \(aq}}\(aq
  comment_start_string: \(aq{#\(aq
  comment_end_string: \(aq#}\(aq
  line_statement_prefix:
  line_comment_prefix:
  trim_blocks: False
  lstrip_blocks: False
  newline_sequence: \(aq\n\(aq
  keep_trailing_newline: False

jinja_sls_env

New in version 2018.3.0.
Default: {}
jinja_sls_env sets the Jinja environment options for sls templates. The defaults and accepted options are exactly the same as they are for jinja_env.
The default options are:
jinja_sls_env:
  block_start_string: \(aq{%\(aq
  block_end_string: \(aq%}\(aq
  variable_start_string: \(aq{{\(aq
  variable_end_string: \(aq}}\(aq
  comment_start_string: \(aq{#\(aq
  comment_end_string: \(aq#}\(aq
  line_statement_prefix:
  line_comment_prefix:
  trim_blocks: False
  lstrip_blocks: False
  newline_sequence: \(aq\n\(aq
  keep_trailing_newline: False

Example using line statements and line comments to increase ease of use:
If your configuration options are
jinja_sls_env:
  line_statement_prefix: \(aq%\(aq
  line_comment_prefix: \(aq##\(aq

With these options jinja will interpret anything after a % at the start of a line (ignoreing whitespace) as a jinja statement and will interpret anything after a ## as a comment.
This allows the following more convenient syntax to be used:
## (this comment will not stay once rendered)
# (this comment remains in the rendered template)
## ensure all the formula services are running
% for service in formula_services:
enable_service_{{ service }}:
  service.running:
    name: {{ service }}
% endfor

The following less convenient but equivalent syntax would have to be used if you had not set the line_statement and line_comment options:
{# (this comment will not stay once rendered) #}
# (this comment remains in the rendered template)
{# ensure all the formula services are running #}
{% for service in formula_services %}
enable_service_{{ service }}:
  service.running:
    name: {{ service }}
{% endfor %}

jinja_trim_blocks

Deprecated since version 2018.3.0: Replaced by jinja_env and jinja_sls_env
New in version 2014.1.0.
Default: False
If this is set to True, the first newline after a Jinja block is removed (block, not variable tag!). Defaults to False and corresponds to the Jinja environment init variable trim_blocks.
jinja_trim_blocks: False

jinja_lstrip_blocks

Deprecated since version 2018.3.0: Replaced by jinja_env and jinja_sls_env
New in version 2014.1.0.
Default: False
If this is set to True, leading spaces and tabs are stripped from the start of a line to a block. Defaults to False and corresponds to the Jinja environment init variable lstrip_blocks.
jinja_lstrip_blocks: False

failhard

Default: False
Set the global failhard flag. This informs all states to stop running states at the moment a single state fails.
failhard: False

state_verbose

Default: True
Controls the verbosity of state runs. By default, the results of all states are returned, but setting this value to False will cause salt to only display output for states that failed or states that have changes.
state_verbose: False

state_output

Default: full
The state_output setting controls which results will be output full multi line:
o full, terse - each state will be full/terse
o mixed - only states with errors will be full
o changes - states with changes and errors will be full
full_id, mixed_id, changes_id and terse_id are also allowed; when set, the state ID will be used as name in the output.
state_output: full

state_output_diff

Default: False
The state_output_diff setting changes whether or not the output from successful states is returned. Useful when even the terse output of these states is cluttering the logs. Set it to True to ignore them.
state_output_diff: False

state_aggregate

Default: False
Automatically aggregate all states that have support for mod_aggregate by setting to True. Or pass a list of state module names to automatically aggregate just those types.
state_aggregate:
  - pkg

state_aggregate: True

state_events

Default: False
Send progress events as each function in a state run completes execution by setting to True. Progress events are in the format salt/job/<JID>/prog/<MID>/<RUN NUM>.
state_events: True

yaml_utf8

Default: False
Enable extra routines for YAML renderer used states containing UTF characters.
yaml_utf8: False

runner_returns

Default: False
If set to True, runner jobs will be saved to job cache (defined by master_job_cache).
runner_returns: True

Master File Server Settings

fileserver_backend

Default: [\(aqroots\(aq]
Salt supports a modular fileserver backend system, this system allows the salt master to link directly to third party systems to gather and manage the files available to minions. Multiple backends can be configured and will be searched for the requested file in the order in which they are defined here. The default setting only enables the standard backend roots, which is configured using the file_roots option.
Example:
fileserver_backend:
  - roots
  - gitfs

NOTE: For masterless Salt, this parameter must be specified in the minion config file.

fileserver_followsymlinks

New in version 2014.1.0.
Default: True
By default, the file_server follows symlinks when walking the filesystem tree. Currently this only applies to the default roots fileserver_backend.
fileserver_followsymlinks: True

fileserver_ignoresymlinks

New in version 2014.1.0.
Default: False
If you do not want symlinks to be treated as the files they are pointing to, set fileserver_ignoresymlinks to True. By default this is set to False. When set to True, any detected symlink while listing files on the Master will not be returned to the Minion.
fileserver_ignoresymlinks: False

fileserver_limit_traversal

New in version 2014.1.0.
Deprecated since version 2018.3.4: This option is now ignored. Firstly, it only traversed file_roots, which means it did not work for the other fileserver backends. Secondly, since this option was added we have added caching to the code that traverses the file_roots (and gitfs, etc.), which greatly reduces the amount of traversal that is done.
Default: False
By default, the Salt fileserver recurses fully into all defined environments to attempt to find files. To limit this behavior so that the fileserver only traverses directories with SLS files and special Salt directories like _modules, set fileserver_limit_traversal to True. This might be useful for installations where a file root has a very large number of files and performance is impacted.
fileserver_limit_traversal: False

fileserver_list_cache_time

New in version 2014.1.0.
Changed in version 2016.11.0: The default was changed from 30 seconds to 20.
Default: 20
Salt caches the list of files/symlinks/directories for each fileserver backend and environment as they are requested, to guard against a performance bottleneck at scale when many minions all ask the fileserver which files are available simultaneously. This configuration parameter allows for the max age of that cache to be altered.
Set this value to 0 to disable use of this cache altogether, but keep in mind that this may increase the CPU load on the master when running a highstate on a large number of minions.
NOTE: Rather than altering this configuration parameter, it may be advisable to use the fileserver.clear_file_list_cache runner to clear these caches.
fileserver_list_cache_time: 5

fileserver_verify_config

New in version 2017.7.0.
Default: True
By default, as the master starts it performs some sanity checks on the configured fileserver backends. If any of these sanity checks fail (such as when an invalid configuration is used), the master daemon will abort.
To skip these sanity checks, set this option to False.
fileserver_verify_config: False

hash_type

Default: sha256
The hash_type is the hash to use when discovering the hash of a file on the master server. The default is sha256, but md5, sha1, sha224, sha384, and sha512 are also supported.
hash_type: sha256

file_buffer_size

Default: 1048576
The buffer size in the file server in bytes.
file_buffer_size: 1048576

file_ignore_regex

Default: \(aq\(aq
A regular expression (or a list of expressions) that will be matched against the file path before syncing the modules and states to the minions. This includes files affected by the file.recurse state. For example, if you manage your custom modules and states in subversion and don\(aqt want all the \(aq.svn\(aq folders and content synced to your minions, you could set this to \(aq/.svn($|/)\(aq. By default nothing is ignored.
file_ignore_regex:
  - \(aq/\.svn($|/)\(aq
  - \(aq/\.git($|/)\(aq

file_ignore_glob

Default \(aq\(aq
A file glob (or list of file globs) that will be matched against the file path before syncing the modules and states to the minions. This is similar to file_ignore_regex above, but works on globs instead of regex. By default nothing is ignored.
file_ignore_glob:
  - \(aq\*.pyc\(aq
  - \(aq\*/somefolder/\*.bak\(aq
  - \(aq\*.swp\(aq

NOTE: Vim\(aqs .swp files are a common cause of Unicode errors in file.recurse states which use templating. Unless there is a good reason to distribute them via the fileserver, it is good practice to include \(aq\*.swp\(aq in the file_ignore_glob.

master_roots

Default: /srv/salt-master
A master-only copy of the file_roots dictionary, used by the state compiler.
master_roots: /srv/salt-master

roots: Master\(aqs Local File Server

file_roots

Default:
base:
  - /srv/salt

Salt runs a lightweight file server written in ZeroMQ to deliver files to minions. This file server is built into the master daemon and does not require a dedicated port.
The file server works on environments passed to the master. Each environment can have multiple root directories. The subdirectories in the multiple file roots cannot match, otherwise the downloaded files will not be able to be reliably ensured. A base environment is required to house the top file.
Example:
file_roots:
  base:
    - /srv/salt
  dev:
    - /srv/salt/dev/services
    - /srv/salt/dev/states
  prod:
    - /srv/salt/prod/services
    - /srv/salt/prod/states

NOTE: For masterless Salt, this parameter must be specified in the minion config file.

roots_update_interval

New in version 2018.3.0.
Default: 60
This option defines the update interval (in seconds) for file_roots.
NOTE: Since file_roots consists of files local to the minion, the update process for this fileserver backend just reaps the cache for this backend.
roots_update_interval: 120

gitfs: Git Remote File Server Backend

gitfs_remotes

Default: []
When using the git fileserver backend at least one git remote needs to be defined. The user running the salt master will need read access to the repo.
The repos will be searched in order to find the file requested by a client and the first repo to have the file will return it. Branches and tags are translated into salt environments.
gitfs_remotes:
  - git://github.com/saltstack/salt-states.git
  - file:///var/git/saltmaster

NOTE: file:// repos will be treated as a remote and copied into the master\(aqs gitfs cache, so only the local refs for those repos will be exposed as fileserver environments.
As of 2014.7.0, it is possible to have per-repo versions of several of the gitfs configuration parameters. For more information, see the GitFS Walkthrough.

gitfs_provider

New in version 2014.7.0.
Optional parameter used to specify the provider to be used for gitfs. More information can be found in the GitFS Walkthrough.
Must be either pygit2 or gitpython. If unset, then each will be tried in that same order, and the first one with a compatible version installed will be the provider that is used.
gitfs_provider: gitpython

gitfs_ssl_verify

Default: True
Specifies whether or not to ignore SSL certificate errors when fetching from the repositories configured in gitfs_remotes. The False setting is useful if you\(aqre using a git repo that uses a self-signed certificate. However, keep in mind that setting this to anything other True is a considered insecure, and using an SSH-based transport (if available) may be a better option.
gitfs_ssl_verify: False

NOTE: pygit2 only supports disabling SSL verification in versions 0.23.2 and newer.
Changed in version 2015.8.0: This option can now be configured on individual repositories as well. See here for more info.
Changed in version 2016.11.0: The default config value changed from False to True.

gitfs_mountpoint

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: \(aq\(aq
Specifies a path on the salt fileserver which will be prepended to all files served by gitfs. This option can be used in conjunction with gitfs_root. It can also be configured for an individual repository, see here for more info.
gitfs_mountpoint: salt://foo/bar

NOTE: The salt:// protocol designation can be left off (in other words, foo/bar and salt://foo/bar are equivalent). Assuming a file baz.sh in the root of a gitfs remote, and the above example mountpoint, this file would be served up via salt://foo/bar/baz.sh.

gitfs_root

Default: \(aq\(aq
Relative path to a subdirectory within the repository from which Salt should begin to serve files. This is useful when there are files in the repository that should not be available to the Salt fileserver. Can be used in conjunction with gitfs_mountpoint. If used, then from Salt\(aqs perspective the directories above the one specified will be ignored and the relative path will (for the purposes of gitfs) be considered as the root of the repo.
gitfs_root: somefolder/otherfolder

Changed in version 2014.7.0: This option can now be configured on individual repositories as well. See here for more info.

gitfs_base

Default: master
Defines which branch/tag should be used as the base environment.
gitfs_base: salt

Changed in version 2014.7.0: This option can now be configured on individual repositories as well. See here for more info.

gitfs_saltenv

New in version 2016.11.0.
Default: []
Global settings for per-saltenv configuration parameters. Though per-saltenv configuration parameters are typically one-off changes specific to a single gitfs remote, and thus more often configured on a per-remote basis, this parameter can be used to specify per-saltenv changes which should apply to all remotes. For example, the below configuration will map the develop branch to the dev saltenv for all gitfs remotes.
gitfs_saltenv:
  - dev:
    - ref: develop

gitfs_disable_saltenv_mapping

New in version 2018.3.0.
Default: False
When set to True, all saltenv mapping logic is disregarded (aside from which branch/tag is mapped to the base saltenv). To use any other environments, they must then be defined using per-saltenv configuration parameters.
gitfs_disable_saltenv_mapping: True

NOTE: This is is a global configuration option, see here for examples of configuring it for individual repositories.

gitfs_ref_types

New in version 2018.3.0.
Default: [\(aqbranch\(aq, \(aqtag\(aq, \(aqsha\(aq]
This option defines what types of refs are mapped to fileserver environments (i.e. saltenvs). It also sets the order of preference when there are ambiguously-named refs (i.e. when a branch and tag both have the same name). The below example disables mapping of both tags and SHAs, so that only branches are mapped as saltenvs:
gitfs_ref_types:
  - branch

NOTE: This is is a global configuration option, see here for examples of configuring it for individual repositories.
NOTE: sha is special in that it will not show up when listing saltenvs (e.g. with the fileserver.envs runner), but works within states and with cp.cache_file to retrieve a file from a specific git SHA.

gitfs_saltenv_whitelist

New in version 2014.7.0.
Changed in version 2018.3.0: Renamed from gitfs_env_whitelist to gitfs_saltenv_whitelist
Default: []
Used to restrict which environments are made available. Can speed up state runs if the repos in gitfs_remotes contain many branches/tags. More information can be found in the GitFS Walkthrough.
gitfs_saltenv_whitelist:
  - base
  - v1.*
  - \(aqmybranch\d+\(aq

gitfs_saltenv_blacklist

New in version 2014.7.0.
Changed in version 2018.3.0: Renamed from gitfs_env_blacklist to gitfs_saltenv_blacklist
Default: []
Used to restrict which environments are made available. Can speed up state runs if the repos in gitfs_remotes contain many branches/tags. More information can be found in the GitFS Walkthrough.
gitfs_saltenv_blacklist:
  - base
  - v1.*
  - \(aqmybranch\d+\(aq

gitfs_global_lock

New in version 2015.8.9.
Default: True
When set to False, if there is an update lock for a gitfs remote and the pid written to it is not running on the master, the lock file will be automatically cleared and a new lock will be obtained. When set to True, Salt will simply log a warning when there is an update lock present.
On single-master deployments, disabling this option can help automatically deal with instances where the master was shutdown/restarted during the middle of a gitfs update, leaving a update lock in place.
However, on multi-master deployments with the gitfs cachedir shared via GlusterFS, nfs, or another network filesystem, it is strongly recommended not to disable this option as doing so will cause lock files to be removed if they were created by a different master.
# Disable global lock
gitfs_global_lock: False

gitfs_update_interval

New in version 2018.3.0.
Default: 60
This option defines the default update interval (in seconds) for gitfs remotes. The update interval can also be set for a single repository via a per-remote config option
gitfs_update_interval: 120

GitFS Authentication Options

These parameters only currently apply to the pygit2 gitfs provider. Examples of how to use these can be found in the GitFS Walkthrough.

gitfs_user

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: \(aq\(aq
Along with gitfs_password, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes.
gitfs_user: git

NOTE: This is is a global configuration option, see here for examples of configuring it for individual repositories.

gitfs_password

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: \(aq\(aq
Along with gitfs_user, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes. This parameter is not required if the repository does not use authentication.
gitfs_password: mypassword

NOTE: This is is a global configuration option, see here for examples of configuring it for individual repositories.

gitfs_insecure_auth

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: False
By default, Salt will not authenticate to an HTTP (non-HTTPS) remote. This parameter enables authentication over HTTP. Enable this at your own risk.
gitfs_insecure_auth: True

NOTE: This is is a global configuration option, see here for examples of configuring it for individual repositories.

gitfs_pubkey

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: \(aq\(aq
Along with gitfs_privkey (and optionally gitfs_passphrase), is used to authenticate to SSH remotes. Required for SSH remotes.
gitfs_pubkey: /path/to/key.pub

NOTE: This is is a global configuration option, see here for examples of configuring it for individual repositories.

gitfs_privkey

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: \(aq\(aq
Along with gitfs_pubkey (and optionally gitfs_passphrase), is used to authenticate to SSH remotes. Required for SSH remotes.
gitfs_privkey: /path/to/key

NOTE: This is is a global configuration option, see here for examples of configuring it for individual repositories.

gitfs_passphrase

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: \(aq\(aq
This parameter is optional, required only when the SSH key being used to authenticate is protected by a passphrase.
gitfs_passphrase: mypassphrase

NOTE: This is is a global configuration option, see here for examples of configuring it for individual repositories.

gitfs_refspecs

New in version 2017.7.0.
Default: [\(aq+refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*\(aq, \(aq+refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*\(aq]
When fetching from remote repositories, by default Salt will fetch branches and tags. This parameter can be used to override the default and specify alternate refspecs to be fetched. More information on how this feature works can be found in the GitFS Walkthrough.
gitfs_refspecs:
  - \(aq+refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*\(aq
  - \(aq+refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*\(aq
  - \(aq+refs/pull/*/head:refs/remotes/origin/pr/*\(aq
  - \(aq+refs/pull/*/merge:refs/remotes/origin/merge/*\(aq

hgfs: Mercurial Remote File Server Backend

hgfs_remotes

New in version 0.17.0.
Default: []
When using the hg fileserver backend at least one mercurial remote needs to be defined. The user running the salt master will need read access to the repo.
The repos will be searched in order to find the file requested by a client and the first repo to have the file will return it. Branches and/or bookmarks are translated into salt environments, as defined by the hgfs_branch_method parameter.
hgfs_remotes:
  - /username/reponame" class="out link">https:///username/reponame

NOTE: As of 2014.7.0, it is possible to have per-repo versions of the hgfs_root, hgfs_mountpoint, hgfs_base, and hgfs_branch_method parameters. For example:
hgfs_remotes:
  - /username/repo1" class="out link">https:///username/repo1
    - base: saltstates
  - /username/repo2" class="out link">https:///username/repo2:
    - root: salt
    - mountpoint: salt://foo/bar/baz
  - /username/repo3" class="out link">https:///username/repo3:
    - root: salt/states
    - branch_method: mixed

hgfs_branch_method

New in version 0.17.0.
Default: branches
Defines the objects that will be used as fileserver environments.
o branches - Only branches and tags will be used
o bookmarks - Only bookmarks and tags will be used
o mixed - Branches, bookmarks, and tags will be used
hgfs_branch_method: mixed

NOTE: Starting in version 2014.1.0, the value of the hgfs_base parameter defines which branch is used as the base environment, allowing for a base environment to be used with an hgfs_branch_method of bookmarks.
Prior to this release, the default branch will be used as the base environment.

hgfs_mountpoint

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: \(aq\(aq
Specifies a path on the salt fileserver which will be prepended to all files served by hgfs. This option can be used in conjunction with hgfs_root. It can also be configured on a per-remote basis, see here for more info.
hgfs_mountpoint: salt://foo/bar

NOTE: The salt:// protocol designation can be left off (in other words, foo/bar and salt://foo/bar are equivalent). Assuming a file baz.sh in the root of an hgfs remote, this file would be served up via salt://foo/bar/baz.sh.

hgfs_root

New in version 0.17.0.
Default: \(aq\(aq
Relative path to a subdirectory within the repository from which Salt should begin to serve files. This is useful when there are files in the repository that should not be available to the Salt fileserver. Can be used in conjunction with hgfs_mountpoint. If used, then from Salt\(aqs perspective the directories above the one specified will be ignored and the relative path will (for the purposes of hgfs) be considered as the root of the repo.
hgfs_root: somefolder/otherfolder

Changed in version 2014.7.0: Ability to specify hgfs roots on a per-remote basis was added. See here for more info.

hgfs_base

New in version 2014.1.0.
Default: default
Defines which branch should be used as the base environment. Change this if hgfs_branch_method is set to bookmarks to specify which bookmark should be used as the base environment.
hgfs_base: salt

hgfs_saltenv_whitelist

New in version 2014.7.0.
Changed in version 2018.3.0: Renamed from hgfs_env_whitelist to hgfs_saltenv_whitelist
Default: []
Used to restrict which environments are made available. Can speed up state runs if your hgfs remotes contain many branches/bookmarks/tags. Full names, globs, and regular expressions are supported. If using a regular expression, the expression must match the entire minion ID.
If used, only branches/bookmarks/tags which match one of the specified expressions will be exposed as fileserver environments.
If used in conjunction with hgfs_saltenv_blacklist, then the subset of branches/bookmarks/tags which match the whitelist but do not match the blacklist will be exposed as fileserver environments.
hgfs_saltenv_whitelist:
  - base
  - v1.*
  - \(aqmybranch\d+\(aq

hgfs_saltenv_blacklist

New in version 2014.7.0.
Changed in version 2018.3.0: Renamed from hgfs_env_blacklist to hgfs_saltenv_blacklist
Default: []
Used to restrict which environments are made available. Can speed up state runs if your hgfs remotes contain many branches/bookmarks/tags. Full names, globs, and regular expressions are supported. If using a regular expression, the expression must match the entire minion ID.
If used, branches/bookmarks/tags which match one of the specified expressions will not be exposed as fileserver environments.
If used in conjunction with hgfs_saltenv_whitelist, then the subset of branches/bookmarks/tags which match the whitelist but do not match the blacklist will be exposed as fileserver environments.
hgfs_saltenv_blacklist:
  - base
  - v1.*
  - \(aqmybranch\d+\(aq

hgfs_update_interval

New in version 2018.3.0.
Default: 60
This option defines the update interval (in seconds) for hgfs_remotes.
hgfs_update_interval: 120

svnfs: Subversion Remote File Server Backend

svnfs_remotes

New in version 0.17.0.
Default: []
When using the svn fileserver backend at least one subversion remote needs to be defined. The user running the salt master will need read access to the repo.
The repos will be searched in order to find the file requested by a client and the first repo to have the file will return it. The trunk, branches, and tags become environments, with the trunk being the base environment.
svnfs_remotes:
  - svn://foo.com/svn/myproject

NOTE: As of 2014.7.0, it is possible to have per-repo versions of the following configuration parameters:
o svnfs_root
o svnfs_mountpoint
o svnfs_trunk
o svnfs_branches
o svnfs_tags
For example:
svnfs_remotes:
  - svn://foo.com/svn/project1
  - svn://foo.com/svn/project2:
    - root: salt
    - mountpoint: salt://foo/bar/baz
  - svn//foo.com/svn/project3:
    - root: salt/states
    - branches: branch
    - tags: tag

svnfs_mountpoint

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: \(aq\(aq
Specifies a path on the salt fileserver which will be prepended to all files served by hgfs. This option can be used in conjunction with svnfs_root. It can also be configured on a per-remote basis, see here for more info.
svnfs_mountpoint: salt://foo/bar

NOTE: The salt:// protocol designation can be left off (in other words, foo/bar and salt://foo/bar are equivalent). Assuming a file baz.sh in the root of an svnfs remote, this file would be served up via salt://foo/bar/baz.sh.

svnfs_root

New in version 0.17.0.
Default: \(aq\(aq
Relative path to a subdirectory within the repository from which Salt should begin to serve files. This is useful when there are files in the repository that should not be available to the Salt fileserver. Can be used in conjunction with svnfs_mountpoint. If used, then from Salt\(aqs perspective the directories above the one specified will be ignored and the relative path will (for the purposes of svnfs) be considered as the root of the repo.
svnfs_root: somefolder/otherfolder

Changed in version 2014.7.0: Ability to specify svnfs roots on a per-remote basis was added. See here for more info.

svnfs_trunk

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: trunk
Path relative to the root of the repository where the trunk is located. Can also be configured on a per-remote basis, see here for more info.
svnfs_trunk: trunk

svnfs_branches

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: branches
Path relative to the root of the repository where the branches are located. Can also be configured on a per-remote basis, see here for more info.
svnfs_branches: branches

svnfs_tags

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: tags
Path relative to the root of the repository where the tags are located. Can also be configured on a per-remote basis, see here for more info.
svnfs_tags: tags

svnfs_saltenv_whitelist

New in version 2014.7.0.
Changed in version 2018.3.0: Renamed from svnfs_env_whitelist to svnfs_saltenv_whitelist
Default: []
Used to restrict which environments are made available. Can speed up state runs if your svnfs remotes contain many branches/tags. Full names, globs, and regular expressions are supported. If using a regular expression, the expression must match the entire minion ID.
If used, only branches/tags which match one of the specified expressions will be exposed as fileserver environments.
If used in conjunction with svnfs_saltenv_blacklist, then the subset of branches/tags which match the whitelist but do not match the blacklist will be exposed as fileserver environments.
svnfs_saltenv_whitelist:
  - base
  - v1.*
  - \(aqmybranch\d+\(aq

svnfs_saltenv_blacklist

New in version 2014.7.0.
Changed in version 2018.3.0: Renamed from svnfs_env_blacklist to svnfs_saltenv_blacklist
Default: []
Used to restrict which environments are made available. Can speed up state runs if your svnfs remotes contain many branches/tags. Full names, globs, and regular expressions are supported. If using a regular expression, the expression must match the entire minion ID.
If used, branches/tags which match one of the specified expressions will not be exposed as fileserver environments.
If used in conjunction with svnfs_saltenv_whitelist, then the subset of branches/tags which match the whitelist but do not match the blacklist will be exposed as fileserver environments.
svnfs_saltenv_blacklist:
  - base
  - v1.*
  - \(aqmybranch\d+\(aq

svnfs_update_interval

New in version 2018.3.0.
Default: 60
This option defines the update interval (in seconds) for svnfs_remotes.
svnfs_update_interval: 120

minionfs: MinionFS Remote File Server Backend

minionfs_env

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: base
Environment from which MinionFS files are made available.
minionfs_env: minionfs

minionfs_mountpoint

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: \(aq\(aq
Specifies a path on the salt fileserver from which minionfs files are served.
minionfs_mountpoint: salt://foo/bar

NOTE: The salt:// protocol designation can be left off (in other words, foo/bar and salt://foo/bar are equivalent).

minionfs_whitelist

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: []
Used to restrict which minions\(aq pushed files are exposed via minionfs. If using a regular expression, the expression must match the entire minion ID.
If used, only the pushed files from minions which match one of the specified expressions will be exposed.
If used in conjunction with minionfs_blacklist, then the subset of hosts which match the whitelist but do not match the blacklist will be exposed.
minionfs_whitelist:
  - server01
  - dev*
  - \(aqmail\d+.mydomain.tld\(aq

minionfs_blacklist

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: []
Used to restrict which minions\(aq pushed files are exposed via minionfs. If using a regular expression, the expression must match the entire minion ID.
If used, only the pushed files from minions which match one of the specified expressions will not be exposed.
If used in conjunction with minionfs_whitelist, then the subset of hosts which match the whitelist but do not match the blacklist will be exposed.
minionfs_blacklist:
  - server01
  - dev*
  - \(aqmail\d+.mydomain.tld\(aq

minionfs_update_interval

New in version 2018.3.0.
Default: 60
This option defines the update interval (in seconds) for MinionFS.
NOTE: Since MinionFS consists of files local to the master, the update process for this fileserver backend just reaps the cache for this backend.
minionfs_update_interval: 120

azurefs: Azure File Server Backend

New in version 2015.8.0.
See the azurefs documentation for usage examples.

azurefs_update_interval

New in version 2018.3.0.
Default: 60
This option defines the update interval (in seconds) for azurefs.
azurefs_update_interval: 120

s3fs: S3 File Server Backend

New in version 0.16.0.
See the s3fs documentation for usage examples.

s3fs_update_interval

New in version 2018.3.0.
Default: 60
This option defines the update interval (in seconds) for s3fs.
s3fs_update_interval: 120

Pillar Configuration

pillar_roots

Default:
base:
  - /srv/pillar

Set the environments and directories used to hold pillar sls data. This configuration is the same as file_roots:
pillar_roots:
  base:
    - /srv/pillar
  dev:
    - /srv/pillar/dev
  prod:
    - /srv/pillar/prod

on_demand_ext_pillar

New in version 2016.3.6,2016.11.3,2017.7.0.
Default: [\(aqlibvirt\(aq, \(aqvirtkey\(aq]
The external pillars permitted to be used on-demand using pillar.ext.
on_demand_ext_pillar:
  - libvirt
  - virtkey
  - git

WARNING: This will allow minions to request specific pillar data via pillar.ext, and may be considered a security risk. However, pillar data generated in this way will not affect the in-memory pillar data, so this risk is limited to instances in which states/modules/etc. (built-in or custom) rely upon pillar data generated by pillar.ext.

decrypt_pillar

New in version 2017.7.0.
Default: []
A list of paths to be recursively decrypted during pillar compilation.
decrypt_pillar:
  - \(aqfoo:bar\(aq: gpg
  - \(aqlorem:ipsum:dolor\(aq

Entries in this list can be formatted either as a simple string, or as a key/value pair, with the key being the pillar location, and the value being the renderer to use for pillar decryption. If the former is used, the renderer specified by decrypt_pillar_default will be used.

decrypt_pillar_delimiter

New in version 2017.7.0.
Default: :
The delimiter used to distinguish nested data structures in the decrypt_pillar option.
decrypt_pillar_delimiter: \(aq|\(aq
decrypt_pillar:
  - \(aqfoo|bar\(aq: gpg
  - \(aqlorem|ipsum|dolor\(aq

decrypt_pillar_default

New in version 2017.7.0.
Default: gpg
The default renderer used for decryption, if one is not specified for a given pillar key in decrypt_pillar.
decrypt_pillar_default: my_custom_renderer

decrypt_pillar_renderers

New in version 2017.7.0.
Default: [\(aqgpg\(aq]
List of renderers which are permitted to be used for pillar decryption.
decrypt_pillar_renderers:
  - gpg
  - my_custom_renderer

pillar_opts

Default: False
The pillar_opts option adds the master configuration file data to a dict in the pillar called master. This can be used to set simple configurations in the master config file that can then be used on minions.
Note that setting this option to True means the master config file will be included in all minion\(aqs pillars. While this makes global configuration of services and systems easy, it may not be desired if sensitive data is stored in the master configuration.
pillar_opts: False

pillar_safe_render_error

Default: True
The pillar_safe_render_error option prevents the master from passing pillar render errors to the minion. This is set on by default because the error could contain templating data which would give that minion information it shouldn\(aqt have, like a password! When set True the error message will only show:
Rendering SLS \(aqmy.sls\(aq failed. Please see master log for details.

pillar_safe_render_error: True

ext_pillar

The ext_pillar option allows for any number of external pillar interfaces to be called when populating pillar data. The configuration is based on ext_pillar functions. The available ext_pillar functions can be found herein:
By default, the ext_pillar interface is not configured to run.
Default: []
ext_pillar:
  - hiera: /etc/hiera.yaml
  - cmd_yaml: cat /etc/salt/yaml
  - reclass:
      inventory_base_uri: /etc/reclass

There are additional details at salt-pillars

ext_pillar_first

New in version 2015.5.0.
Default: False
This option allows for external pillar sources to be evaluated before pillar_roots. External pillar data is evaluated separately from pillar_roots pillar data, and then both sets of pillar data are merged into a single pillar dictionary, so the value of this config option will have an impact on which key "wins" when there is one of the same name in both the external pillar data and pillar_roots pillar data. By setting this option to True, ext_pillar keys will be overridden by pillar_roots, while leaving it as False will allow ext_pillar keys to override those from pillar_roots.
NOTE: For a while, this config option did not work as specified above, because of a bug in Pillar compilation. This bug has been resolved in version 2016.3.4 and later.
ext_pillar_first: False

pillarenv_from_saltenv

Default: False
When set to True, the pillarenv value will assume the value of the effective saltenv when running states. This essentially makes salt-run pillar.show_pillar saltenv=dev equivalent to salt-run pillar.show_pillar saltenv=dev pillarenv=dev. If pillarenv is set on the CLI, it will override this option.
pillarenv_from_saltenv: True

NOTE: For salt remote execution commands this option should be set in the Minion configuration instead.

pillar_raise_on_missing

New in version 2015.5.0.
Default: False
Set this option to True to force a KeyError to be raised whenever an attempt to retrieve a named value from pillar fails. When this option is set to False, the failed attempt returns an empty string.

Git External Pillar (git_pillar) Configuration Options

git_pillar_provider

New in version 2015.8.0.
Specify the provider to be used for git_pillar. Must be either pygit2 or gitpython. If unset, then both will be tried in that same order, and the first one with a compatible version installed will be the provider that is used.
git_pillar_provider: gitpython

git_pillar_base

New in version 2015.8.0.
Default: master
If the desired branch matches this value, and the environment is omitted from the git_pillar configuration, then the environment for that git_pillar remote will be base. For example, in the configuration below, the foo branch/tag would be assigned to the base environment, while bar would be mapped to the bar environment.
git_pillar_base: foo

ext_pillar: - git: - foo https://mygitserver/git-pillar.git - bar https://mygitserver/git-pillar.git

git_pillar_branch

New in version 2015.8.0.
Default: master
If the branch is omitted from a git_pillar remote, then this branch will be used instead. For example, in the configuration below, the first two remotes would use the pillardata branch/tag, while the third would use the foo branch/tag.
git_pillar_branch: pillardata

ext_pillar: - git: - https://mygitserver/pillar1.git - https://mygitserver/pillar2.git: - root: pillar - foo https://mygitserver/pillar3.git

git_pillar_env

New in version 2015.8.0.
Default: \(aq\(aq (unset)
Environment to use for git_pillar remotes. This is normally derived from the branch/tag (or from a per-remote env parameter), but if set this will override the process of deriving the env from the branch/tag name. For example, in the configuration below the foo branch would be assigned to the base environment, while the bar branch would need to explicitly have bar configured as it\(aqs environment to keep it from also being mapped to the base environment.
git_pillar_env: base

ext_pillar: - git: - foo https://mygitserver/git-pillar.git - bar https://mygitserver/git-pillar.git: - env: bar
For this reason, this option is recommended to be left unset, unless the use case calls for all (or almost all) of the git_pillar remotes to use the same environment irrespective of the branch/tag being used.

git_pillar_root

New in version 2015.8.0.
Default: \(aq\(aq
Path relative to the root of the repository where the git_pillar top file and SLS files are located. In the below configuration, the pillar top file and SLS files would be looked for in a subdirectory called pillar.
git_pillar_root: pillar

ext_pillar: - git: - master https://mygitserver/pillar1.git - master https://mygitserver/pillar2.git
NOTE: This is a global option. If only one or two repos need to have their files sourced from a subdirectory, then git_pillar_root can be omitted and the root can be specified on a per-remote basis, like so:
ext_pillar:
  - git:
    - master https://mygitserver/pillar1.git
    - master https://mygitserver/pillar2.git:
      - root: pillar

In this example, for the first remote the top file and SLS files would be looked for in the root of the repository, while in the second remote the pillar data would be retrieved from the pillar subdirectory.

git_pillar_ssl_verify

New in version 2015.8.0.
Changed in version 2016.11.0.
Default: False
Specifies whether or not to ignore SSL certificate errors when contacting the remote repository. The False setting is useful if you\(aqre using a git repo that uses a self-signed certificate. However, keep in mind that setting this to anything other True is a considered insecure, and using an SSH-based transport (if available) may be a better option.
In the 2016.11.0 release, the default config value changed from False to True.
git_pillar_ssl_verify: True

NOTE: pygit2 only supports disabling SSL verification in versions 0.23.2 and newer.

git_pillar_global_lock

New in version 2015.8.9.
Default: True
When set to False, if there is an update/checkout lock for a git_pillar remote and the pid written to it is not running on the master, the lock file will be automatically cleared and a new lock will be obtained. When set to True, Salt will simply log a warning when there is an lock present.
On single-master deployments, disabling this option can help automatically deal with instances where the master was shutdown/restarted during the middle of a git_pillar update/checkout, leaving a lock in place.
However, on multi-master deployments with the git_pillar cachedir shared via GlusterFS, nfs, or another network filesystem, it is strongly recommended not to disable this option as doing so will cause lock files to be removed if they were created by a different master.
# Disable global lock
git_pillar_global_lock: False

git_pillar_includes

New in version 2017.7.0.
Default: True
Normally, when processing git_pillar remotes, if more than one repo under the same git section in the ext_pillar configuration refers to the same pillar environment, then each repo in a given environment will have access to the other repos\(aq files to be referenced in their top files. However, it may be desirable to disable this behavior. If so, set this value to False.
For a more detailed examination of how includes work, see this explanation from the git_pillar documentation.
git_pillar_includes: False

Git External Pillar Authentication Options

These parameters only currently apply to the pygit2 git_pillar_provider. Authentication works the same as it does in gitfs, as outlined in the GitFS Walkthrough, though the global configuration options are named differently to reflect that they are for git_pillar instead of gitfs.

git_pillar_user

New in version 2015.8.0.
Default: \(aq\(aq
Along with git_pillar_password, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes.
git_pillar_user: git

git_pillar_password

New in version 2015.8.0.
Default: \(aq\(aq
Along with git_pillar_user, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes. This parameter is not required if the repository does not use authentication.
git_pillar_password: mypassword

git_pillar_insecure_auth

New in version 2015.8.0.
Default: False
By default, Salt will not authenticate to an HTTP (non-HTTPS) remote. This parameter enables authentication over HTTP. Enable this at your own risk.
git_pillar_insecure_auth: True

git_pillar_pubkey

New in version 2015.8.0.
Default: \(aq\(aq
Along with git_pillar_privkey (and optionally git_pillar_passphrase), is used to authenticate to SSH remotes.
git_pillar_pubkey: /path/to/key.pub

git_pillar_privkey

New in version 2015.8.0.
Default: \(aq\(aq
Along with git_pillar_pubkey (and optionally git_pillar_passphrase), is used to authenticate to SSH remotes.
git_pillar_privkey: /path/to/key

git_pillar_passphrase

New in version 2015.8.0.
Default: \(aq\(aq
This parameter is optional, required only when the SSH key being used to authenticate is protected by a passphrase.
git_pillar_passphrase: mypassphrase

git_pillar_refspecs

New in version 2017.7.0.
Default: [\(aq+refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*\(aq, \(aq+refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*\(aq]
When fetching from remote repositories, by default Salt will fetch branches and tags. This parameter can be used to override the default and specify alternate refspecs to be fetched. This parameter works similarly to its GitFS counterpart, in that it can be configured both globally and for individual remotes.
git_pillar_refspecs:
  - \(aq+refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*\(aq
  - \(aq+refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*\(aq
  - \(aq+refs/pull/*/head:refs/remotes/origin/pr/*\(aq
  - \(aq+refs/pull/*/merge:refs/remotes/origin/merge/*\(aq

git_pillar_verify_config

New in version 2017.7.0.
Default: True
By default, as the master starts it performs some sanity checks on the configured git_pillar repositories. If any of these sanity checks fail (such as when an invalid configuration is used), the master daemon will abort.
To skip these sanity checks, set this option to False.
git_pillar_verify_config: False

Pillar Merging Options

pillar_source_merging_strategy

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: smart
The pillar_source_merging_strategy option allows you to configure merging strategy between different sources. It accepts 5 values:
o none:
It will not do any merging at all and only parse the pillar data from the passed environment and \(aqbase\(aq if no environment was specified.
New in version 2016.3.4.
o recurse:
It will recursively merge data. For example, theses 2 sources:
foo: 42
bar:
    element1: True

bar:
    element2: True
baz: quux

will be merged as:
foo: 42
bar:
    element1: True
    element2: True
baz: quux

o aggregate:
instructs aggregation of elements between sources that use the #!yamlex renderer.
For example, these two documents:
#!yamlex
foo: 42
bar: !aggregate {
  element1: True
}
baz: !aggregate quux

#!yamlex
bar: !aggregate {
  element2: True
}
baz: !aggregate quux2

will be merged as:
foo: 42
bar:
  element1: True
  element2: True
baz:
  - quux
  - quux2

o overwrite:
Will use the behaviour of the 2014.1 branch and earlier.
Overwrites elements according the order in which they are processed.
First pillar processed:
A:
  first_key: blah
  second_key: blah

Second pillar processed:
A:
  third_key: blah
  fourth_key: blah

will be merged as:
A:
  third_key: blah
  fourth_key: blah

o smart (default):
Guesses the best strategy based on the "renderer" setting.
NOTE: In order for yamlex based features such as !aggregate to work as expected across documents using the default smart merge strategy, the renderer config option must be set to jinja|yamlex or similar.

pillar_merge_lists

New in version 2015.8.0.
Default: False
Recursively merge lists by aggregating them instead of replacing them.
pillar_merge_lists: False

pillar_includes_override_sls

New in version 2017.7.6,2018.3.1.
Default: False
Prior to version 2017.7.3, keys from pillar includes would be merged on top of the pillar SLS. Since 2017.7.3, the includes are merged together and then the pillar SLS is merged on top of that.
Set this option to True to return to the old behavior.
pillar_includes_override_sls: True

Pillar Cache Options

pillar_cache

New in version 2015.8.8.
Default: False
A master can cache pillars locally to bypass the expense of having to render them for each minion on every request. This feature should only be enabled in cases where pillar rendering time is known to be unsatisfactory and any attendant security concerns about storing pillars in a master cache have been addressed.
When enabling this feature, be certain to read through the additional pillar_cache_* configuration options to fully understand the tunable parameters and their implications.
pillar_cache: False

NOTE: Setting pillar_cache: True has no effect on targeting minions with pillar.

pillar_cache_ttl

New in version 2015.8.8.
Default: 3600
If and only if a master has set pillar_cache: True, the cache TTL controls the amount of time, in seconds, before the cache is considered invalid by a master and a fresh pillar is recompiled and stored.

pillar_cache_backend

New in version 2015.8.8.
Default: disk
If an only if a master has set pillar_cache: True, one of several storage providers can be utilized:
o disk (default):
The default storage backend. This caches rendered pillars to the master cache. Rendered pillars are serialized and deserialized as msgpack structures for speed. Note that pillars are stored UNENCRYPTED. Ensure that the master cache has permissions set appropriately (sane defaults are provided).
o memory [EXPERIMENTAL]:
An optional backend for pillar caches which uses a pure-Python in-memory data structure for maximal performance. There are several caveats, however. First, because each master worker contains its own in-memory cache, there is no guarantee of cache consistency between minion requests. This works best in situations where the pillar rarely if ever changes. Secondly, and perhaps more importantly, this means that unencrypted pillars will be accessible to any process which can examine the memory of the salt-master! This may represent a substantial security risk.
pillar_cache_backend: disk

Master Reactor Settings

reactor

Default: []
Defines a salt reactor. See the Reactor documentation for more information.
reactor:
  - \(aqsalt/minion/*/start\(aq:
    - salt://reactor/startup_tasks.sls

reactor_refresh_interval

Default: 60
The TTL for the cache of the reactor configuration.
reactor_refresh_interval: 60

reactor_worker_threads

Default: 10
The number of workers for the runner/wheel in the reactor.
reactor_worker_threads: 10

reactor_worker_hwm

Default: 10000
The queue size for workers in the reactor.
reactor_worker_hwm: 10000

Salt-API Master Settings

There are some settings for salt-api that can be configured on the Salt Master.

api_logfile

Default: /var/log/salt/api
The logfile location for salt-api.
api_logfile: /var/log/salt/api

api_pidfile

Default: /var/run/salt-api.pid
If this master will be running salt-api, specify the pidfile of the salt-api daemon.
api_pidfile: /var/run/salt-api.pid

rest_timeout

Default: 300
Used by salt-api for the master requests timeout.
rest_timeout: 300

Syndic Server Settings

A Salt syndic is a Salt master used to pass commands from a higher Salt master to minions below the syndic. Using the syndic is simple. If this is a master that will have syndic servers(s) below it, set the order_masters setting to True.
If this is a master that will be running a syndic daemon for passthrough the syndic_master setting needs to be set to the location of the master server.
Do not forget that, in other words, it means that it shares with the local minion its ID and PKI directory.

order_masters

Default: False
Extra data needs to be sent with publications if the master is controlling a lower level master via a syndic minion. If this is the case the order_masters value must be set to True
order_masters: False

syndic_master

Changed in version 2016.3.5,2016.11.1: Set default higher level master address.
Default: masterofmasters
If this master will be running the salt-syndic to connect to a higher level master, specify the higher level master with this configuration value.
syndic_master: masterofmasters

You can optionally connect a syndic to multiple higher level masters by setting the syndic_master value to a list:
syndic_master:
  - masterofmasters1
  - masterofmasters2

Each higher level master must be set up in a multi-master configuration.

syndic_master_port

Default: 4506
If this master will be running the salt-syndic to connect to a higher level master, specify the higher level master port with this configuration value.
syndic_master_port: 4506

syndic_pidfile

Default: /var/run/salt-syndic.pid
If this master will be running the salt-syndic to connect to a higher level master, specify the pidfile of the syndic daemon.
syndic_pidfile: /var/run/syndic.pid

syndic_log_file

Default: /var/log/salt/syndic
If this master will be running the salt-syndic to connect to a higher level master, specify the log file of the syndic daemon.
syndic_log_file: /var/log/salt-syndic.log

syndic_failover

New in version 2016.3.0.
Default: random
The behaviour of the multi-syndic when connection to a master of masters failed. Can specify random (default) or ordered. If set to random, masters will be iterated in random order. If ordered is specified, the configured order will be used.
syndic_failover: random

syndic_wait

Default: 5
The number of seconds for the salt client to wait for additional syndics to check in with their lists of expected minions before giving up.
syndic_wait: 5

syndic_forward_all_events

New in version 2017.7.0.
Default: False
Option on multi-syndic or single when connected to multiple masters to be able to send events to all connected masters.
syndic_forward_all_events: False

Peer Publish Settings

Salt minions can send commands to other minions, but only if the minion is allowed to. By default "Peer Publication" is disabled, and when enabled it is enabled for specific minions and specific commands. This allows secure compartmentalization of commands based on individual minions.

peer

Default: {}
The configuration uses regular expressions to match minions and then a list of regular expressions to match functions. The following will allow the minion authenticated as foo.example.com to execute functions from the test and pkg modules.
peer:
  foo.example.com:
      - test.*
      - pkg.*

This will allow all minions to execute all commands:
peer:
  .*:
      - .*

This is not recommended, since it would allow anyone who gets root on any single minion to instantly have root on all of the minions!
By adding an additional layer you can limit the target hosts in addition to the accessible commands:
peer:
  foo.example.com:
    \(aqdb*\(aq:
      - test.*
      - pkg.*

peer_run

Default: {}
The peer_run option is used to open up runners on the master to access from the minions. The peer_run configuration matches the format of the peer configuration.
The following example would allow foo.example.com to execute the manage.up runner:
peer_run:
  foo.example.com:
      - manage.up

Master Logging Settings

log_file

Default: /var/log/salt/master
The master log can be sent to a regular file, local path name, or network location. See also log_file.
Examples:
log_file: /var/log/salt/master

log_file: file:///dev/log

log_file: udp://loghost:10514

log_level

Default: warning
The level of messages to send to the console. See also log_level.
log_level: warning

log_level_logfile

Default: warning
The level of messages to send to the log file. See also log_level_logfile. When it is not set explicitly it will inherit the level set by log_level option.
log_level_logfile: warning

log_datefmt

Default: %H:%M:%S
The date and time format used in console log messages. See also log_datefmt.
log_datefmt: \(aq%H:%M:%S\(aq

log_datefmt_logfile

Default: %Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S
The date and time format used in log file messages. See also log_datefmt_logfile.
log_datefmt_logfile: \(aq%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S\(aq

log_fmt_console

Default: [%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s
The format of the console logging messages. See also log_fmt_console.
NOTE: Log colors are enabled in log_fmt_console rather than the color config since the logging system is loaded before the master config.
Console log colors are specified by these additional formatters:
%(colorlevel)s %(colorname)s %(colorprocess)s %(colormsg)s
Since it is desirable to include the surrounding brackets, \(aq[\(aq and \(aq]\(aq, in the coloring of the messages, these color formatters also include padding as well. Color LogRecord attributes are only available for console logging.
log_fmt_console: \(aq%(colorlevel)s %(colormsg)s\(aq
log_fmt_console: \(aq[%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s\(aq

log_fmt_logfile

Default: %(asctime)s,%(msecs)03d [%(name)-17s][%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s
The format of the log file logging messages. See also log_fmt_logfile.
log_fmt_logfile: \(aq%(asctime)s,%(msecs)03d [%(name)-17s][%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s\(aq

log_granular_levels

Default: {}
This can be used to control logging levels more specifically. See also log_granular_levels.

Node Groups

nodegroups

Default: {}
Node groups allow for logical groupings of minion nodes. A group consists of a group name and a compound target.
nodegroups:
  group1: \(aq,bar.domain.com,baz.domain.com or bl*.domain.com\(aq
  group2: \(aqG@os:Debian and foo.domain.com\(aq
  group3: \(aqG@os:Debian and N@group1\(aq
  group4:
    - \(aqG@foo:bar\(aq
    - \(aqor\(aq
    - \(aqG@foo:baz\(aq

More information on using nodegroups can be found here.

Range Cluster Settings

range_server

Default: \(aqrange:80\(aq
The range server (and optional port) that serves your cluster information https://github.com/ytoolshed/range/wiki/%22yamlfile%22-module-file-spec
range_server: range:80

Include Configuration

Configuration can be loaded from multiple files. The order in which this is done is:
1. The master config file itself
2. The files matching the glob in default_include
3. The files matching the glob in include (if defined)
Each successive step overrides any values defined in the previous steps. Therefore, any config options defined in one of the default_include files would override the same value in the master config file, and any options defined in include would override both.

default_include

Default: master.d/*.conf
The master can include configuration from other files. Per default the master will automatically include all config files from master.d/*.conf where master.d is relative to the directory of the master configuration file.
NOTE: Salt creates files in the master.d directory for its own use. These files are prefixed with an underscore. A common example of this is the _schedule.conf file.

include

Default: not defined
The master can include configuration from other files. To enable this, pass a list of paths to this option. The paths can be either relative or absolute; if relative, they are considered to be relative to the directory the main minion configuration file lives in. Paths can make use of shell-style globbing. If no files are matched by a path passed to this option then the master will log a warning message.
# Include files from a master.d directory in the same
# directory as the master config file
include: master.d/*

# Include a single extra file into the configuration include: /etc/roles/webserver
# Include several files and the master.d directory include: - extra_config - master.d/* - /etc/roles/webserver

Keepalive Settings

tcp_keepalive

Default: True
The tcp keepalive interval to set on TCP ports. This setting can be used to tune Salt connectivity issues in messy network environments with misbehaving firewalls.
tcp_keepalive: True

tcp_keepalive_cnt

Default: -1
Sets the ZeroMQ TCP keepalive count. May be used to tune issues with minion disconnects.
tcp_keepalive_cnt: -1

tcp_keepalive_idle

Default: 300
Sets ZeroMQ TCP keepalive idle. May be used to tune issues with minion disconnects.
tcp_keepalive_idle: 300

tcp_keepalive_intvl

Default: -1
Sets ZeroMQ TCP keepalive interval. May be used to tune issues with minion disconnects.
tcp_keepalive_intvl\(aq: -1

Windows Software Repo Settings

winrepo_provider

New in version 2015.8.0.
Specify the provider to be used for winrepo. Must be either pygit2 or gitpython. If unset, then both will be tried in that same order, and the first one with a compatible version installed will be the provider that is used.
winrepo_provider: gitpython

winrepo_dir

Changed in version 2015.8.0: Renamed from win_repo to winrepo_dir.
Default: /srv/salt/win/repo
Location on the master where the winrepo_remotes are checked out for pre-2015.8.0 minions. 2015.8.0 and later minions use winrepo_remotes_ng instead.
winrepo_dir: /srv/salt/win/repo

winrepo_dir_ng

New in version 2015.8.0: A new ng repo was added.
Default: /srv/salt/win/repo-ng
Location on the master where the winrepo_remotes_ng are checked out for 2015.8.0 and later minions.
winrepo_dir_ng: /srv/salt/win/repo-ng

winrepo_cachefile

Changed in version 2015.8.0: Renamed from win_repo_mastercachefile to winrepo_cachefile
NOTE: 2015.8.0 and later minions do not use this setting since the cachefile is now located on the minion.
Default: winrepo.p
Path relative to winrepo_dir where the winrepo cache should be created.
winrepo_cachefile: winrepo.p

winrepo_remotes

Changed in version 2015.8.0: Renamed from win_gitrepos to winrepo_remotes.
List of git repositories to checkout and include in the winrepo for pre-2015.8.0 minions. 2015.8.0 and later minions use winrepo_remotes_ng instead.
winrepo_remotes:
  - https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo.git

To specify a specific revision of the repository, prepend a commit ID to the URL of the repository:
winrepo_remotes:
  - \(aq<commit_id> https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo.git\(aq

Replace <commit_id> with the SHA1 hash of a commit ID. Specifying a commit ID is useful in that it allows one to revert back to a previous version in the event that an error is introduced in the latest revision of the repo.

winrepo_remotes_ng

New in version 2015.8.0: A new ng repo was added.
List of git repositories to checkout and include in the winrepo for 2015.8.0 and later minions.
winrepo_remotes_ng:
  - https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo-ng.git

To specify a specific revision of the repository, prepend a commit ID to the URL of the repository:
winrepo_remotes_ng:
  - \(aq<commit_id> https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo-ng.git\(aq

Replace <commit_id> with the SHA1 hash of a commit ID. Specifying a commit ID is useful in that it allows one to revert back to a previous version in the event that an error is introduced in the latest revision of the repo.

winrepo_branch

New in version 2015.8.0.
Default: master
If the branch is omitted from a winrepo remote, then this branch will be used instead. For example, in the configuration below, the first two remotes would use the winrepo branch/tag, while the third would use the foo branch/tag.
winrepo_branch: winrepo

winrepo_remotes: - https://mygitserver/winrepo1.git - https://mygitserver/winrepo2.git: - foo https://mygitserver/winrepo3.git

winrepo_ssl_verify

New in version 2015.8.0.
Changed in version 2016.11.0.
Default: False
Specifies whether or not to ignore SSL certificate errors when contacting the remote repository. The False setting is useful if you\(aqre using a git repo that uses a self-signed certificate. However, keep in mind that setting this to anything other True is a considered insecure, and using an SSH-based transport (if available) may be a better option.
In the 2016.11.0 release, the default config value changed from False to True.
winrepo_ssl_verify: True

Winrepo Authentication Options

These parameters only currently apply to the pygit2 winrepo_provider. Authentication works the same as it does in gitfs, as outlined in the GitFS Walkthrough, though the global configuration options are named differently to reflect that they are for winrepo instead of gitfs.

winrepo_user

New in version 2015.8.0.
Default: \(aq\(aq
Along with winrepo_password, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes.
winrepo_user: git

winrepo_password

New in version 2015.8.0.
Default: \(aq\(aq
Along with winrepo_user, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes. This parameter is not required if the repository does not use authentication.
winrepo_password: mypassword

winrepo_insecure_auth

New in version 2015.8.0.
Default: False
By default, Salt will not authenticate to an HTTP (non-HTTPS) remote. This parameter enables authentication over HTTP. Enable this at your own risk.
winrepo_insecure_auth: True

winrepo_pubkey

New in version 2015.8.0.
Default: \(aq\(aq
Along with winrepo_privkey (and optionally winrepo_passphrase), is used to authenticate to SSH remotes.
winrepo_pubkey: /path/to/key.pub

winrepo_privkey

New in version 2015.8.0.
Default: \(aq\(aq
Along with winrepo_pubkey (and optionally winrepo_passphrase), is used to authenticate to SSH remotes.
winrepo_privkey: /path/to/key

winrepo_passphrase

New in version 2015.8.0.
Default: \(aq\(aq
This parameter is optional, required only when the SSH key being used to authenticate is protected by a passphrase.
winrepo_passphrase: mypassphrase

winrepo_refspecs

New in version 2017.7.0.
Default: [\(aq+refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*\(aq, \(aq+refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*\(aq]
When fetching from remote repositories, by default Salt will fetch branches and tags. This parameter can be used to override the default and specify alternate refspecs to be fetched. This parameter works similarly to its GitFS counterpart, in that it can be configured both globally and for individual remotes.
winrepo_refspecs:
  - \(aq+refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*\(aq
  - \(aq+refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*\(aq
  - \(aq+refs/pull/*/head:refs/remotes/origin/pr/*\(aq
  - \(aq+refs/pull/*/merge:refs/remotes/origin/merge/*\(aq

Configure Master on Windows

The master on Windows requires no additional configuration. You can modify the master configuration by creating/editing the master config file located at c:\salt\conf\master. The same configuration options available on Linux are available in Windows, as long as they apply. For example, SSH options wouldn\(aqt apply in Windows. The main differences are the file paths. If you are familiar with common salt paths, the following table may be useful:
linux Paths Windows Paths
/etc/salt <---> c:\salt\conf
/ <---> c:\salt
So, for example, the master config file in Linux is /etc/salt/master. In Windows the master config file is c:\salt\conf\master. The Linux path /etc/salt becomes c:\salt\conf in Windows.

Common File Locations

Linux Paths Windows Paths
conf_file: /etc/salt/master conf_file: c:\salt\conf\master
log_file: /var/log/salt/master log_file: c:\salt\var\log\salt\master
pidfile: /var/run/salt-master.pid pidfile: c:\salt\var\run\salt-master.pid

Common Directories

Linux Paths Windows Paths
cachedir: /var/cache/salt/master cachedir: c:\salt\var\cache\salt\master
extension_modules: /var/cache/salt/master/extmods c:\salt\var\cache\salt\master\extmods
pki_dir: /etc/salt/pki/master pki_dir: c:\salt\conf\pki\master
root_dir: / root_dir: c:\salt
sock_dir: /var/run/salt/master sock_dir: c:\salt\var\run\salt\master

Roots

file_roots
Linux Paths Windows Paths
/srv/salt c:\salt\srv\salt
/srv/spm/salt c:\salt\srv\spm\salt
pillar_roots
Linux Paths Windows Paths
/srv/pillar c:\salt\srv\pillar
/srv/spm/pillar c:\salt\srv\spm\pillar

Win Repo Settings

Linux Paths Windows Paths
winrepo_dir: /srv/salt/win/repo winrepo_dir: c:\salt\srv\salt\win\repo
winrepo_dir_ng: /srv/salt/win/repo-ng winrepo_dir_ng: c:\salt\srv\salt\win\repo-ng

Configuring the Salt Minion

The Salt system is amazingly simple and easy to configure. The two components of the Salt system each have a respective configuration file. The salt-master is configured via the master configuration file, and the salt-minion is configured via the minion configuration file.
SEE ALSO: example minion configuration file
The Salt Minion configuration is very simple. Typically, the only value that needs to be set is the master value so the minion knows where to locate its master.
By default, the salt-minion configuration will be in /etc/salt/minion. A notable exception is FreeBSD, where the configuration will be in /usr/local/etc/salt/minion.

Minion Primary Configuration

master

Default: salt
The hostname or IP address of the master. See ipv6 for IPv6 connections to the master.
Default: salt
master: salt

master:port Syntax

New in version 2015.8.0.
The master config option can also be set to use the master\(aqs IP in conjunction with a port number by default.
master: localhost:1234

For IPv6 formatting with a port, remember to add brackets around the IP address before adding the port and enclose the line in single quotes to make it a string:
master: \(aq[2001:db8:85a3:8d3:1319:8a2e:370:7348]:1234\(aq

NOTE: If a port is specified in the master as well as master_port, the master_port setting will be overridden by the master configuration.

List of Masters Syntax

The option can also be set to a list of masters, enabling multi-master mode.
master:
  - address1
  - address2

Changed in version 2014.7.0: The master can be dynamically configured. The master value can be set to an module function which will be executed and will assume that the returning value is the ip or hostname of the desired master. If a function is being specified, then the master_type option must be set to func, to tell the minion that the value is a function to be run and not a fully-qualified domain name.
master: module.function
master_type: func

In addition, instead of using multi-master mode, the minion can be configured to use the list of master addresses as a failover list, trying the first address, then the second, etc. until the minion successfully connects. To enable this behavior, set master_type to failover:
master:
  - address1
  - address2
master_type: failover

ipv6

Default: None
Whether the master should be connected over IPv6. By default salt minion will try to automatically detect IPv6 connectivity to master.
ipv6: True

master_uri_format

New in version 2015.8.0.
Specify the format in which the master address will be evaluated. Valid options are default or ip_only. If ip_only is specified, then the master address will not be split into IP and PORT, so be sure that only an IP (or domain name) is set in the master configuration setting.
master_uri_format: ip_only

master_tops_first

New in version 2018.3.0.
Default: False
SLS targets defined using the Master Tops system are normally executed after any matches defined in the Top File. Set this option to True to have the minion execute the Master Tops states first.
master_tops_first: True

master_type

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: str
The type of the master variable. Can be str, failover, func or disable.
master_type: failover

If this option is set to failover, master must be a list of master addresses. The minion will then try each master in the order specified in the list until it successfully connects. master_alive_interval must also be set, this determines how often the minion will verify the presence of the master.
master_type: func

If the master needs to be dynamically assigned by executing a function instead of reading in the static master value, set this to func. This can be used to manage the minion\(aqs master setting from an execution module. By simply changing the algorithm in the module to return a new master ip/fqdn, restart the minion and it will connect to the new master.
As of version 2016.11.0 this option can be set to disable and the minion will never attempt to talk to the master. This is useful for running a masterless minion daemon.
master_type: disable

max_event_size

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: 1048576
Passing very large events can cause the minion to consume large amounts of memory. This value tunes the maximum size of a message allowed onto the minion event bus. The value is expressed in bytes.
max_event_size: 1048576

enable_legacy_startup_events

New in version Fluorine.
Default: True
When a minion starts up it sends a notification on the event bus with a tag that looks like this: salt/minion/<minion_id>/start. For historical reasons the minion also sends a similar event with an event tag like this: minion_start. This duplication can cause a lot of clutter on the event bus when there are many minions. Set enable_legacy_startup_events: False in the minion config to ensure only the salt/minion/<minion_id>/start events are sent. Beginning with the Sodium Salt release this option will default to False.
enable_legacy_startup_events: True

master_failback

New in version 2016.3.0.
Default: False
If the minion is in multi-master mode and the :conf_minion`master_type` configuration option is set to failover, this setting can be set to True to force the minion to fail back to the first master in the list if the first master is back online.
master_failback: False

master_failback_interval

New in version 2016.3.0.
Default: 0
If the minion is in multi-master mode, the :conf_minion`master_type` configuration is set to failover, and the master_failback option is enabled, the master failback interval can be set to ping the top master with this interval, in seconds.
master_failback_interval: 0

master_alive_interval

Default: 0
Configures how often, in seconds, the minion will verify that the current master is alive and responding. The minion will try to establish a connection to the next master in the list if it finds the existing one is dead.
master_alive_interval: 30

master_shuffle

New in version 2014.7.0.
Deprecated since version Fluorine.
Default: False
WARNING: This option has been deprecated in Salt Fluorine. Please use random_master instead.
master_shuffle: True

random_master

New in version 2014.7.0.
Changed in version Fluorine: The master_failback option can be used in conjunction with random_master to force the minion to fail back to the first master in the list if the first master is back online. Note that master_type must be set to failover in order for the master_failback setting to work.
Default: False
If master is a list of addresses, shuffle them before trying to connect to distribute the minions over all available masters. This uses Python\(aqs random.shuffle method.
If multiple masters are specified in the \(aqmaster\(aq setting as a list, the default behavior is to always try to connect to them in the order they are listed. If random_master is set to True, the order will be randomized instead upon Minion startup. This can be helpful in distributing the load of many minions executing salt-call requests, for example, from a cron job. If only one master is listed, this setting is ignored and a warning is logged.
random_master: True

NOTE: When the failover, master_failback, and random_master options are used together, only the "secondary masters" will be shuffled. The first master in the list is ignored in the random.shuffle call. See master_failback for more information.

retry_dns

Default: 30
Set the number of seconds to wait before attempting to resolve the master hostname if name resolution fails. Defaults to 30 seconds. Set to zero if the minion should shutdown and not retry.
retry_dns: 30

retry_dns_count

New in version 2018.3.4.
Default: None
Set the number of attempts to perform when resolving the master hostname if name resolution fails. By default the minion will retry indefinitely.
retry_dns_count: 3

master_port

Default: 4506
The port of the master ret server, this needs to coincide with the ret_port option on the Salt master.
master_port: 4506

publish_port

Default: 4505
The port of the master publish server, this needs to coincide with the publish_port option on the Salt master.
publish_port: 4505

source_interface_name

New in version 2018.3.0.
The name of the interface to use when establishing the connection to the Master.
NOTE: If multiple IP addresses are configured on the named interface, the first one will be selected. In that case, for a better selection, consider using the source_address option.
NOTE: To use an IPv6 address from the named interface, make sure the option ipv6 is enabled, i.e., ipv6: true.
NOTE: If the interface is down, it will avoid using it, and the Minion will bind to 0.0.0.0 (all interfaces).
WARNING: This option requires modern version of the underlying libraries used by the selected transport:
o zeromq requires pyzmq >= 16.0.1 and libzmq >= 4.1.6
o tcp requires tornado >= 4.5
Configuration example:
source_interface_name: bond0.1234

source_address

New in version 2018.3.0.
The source IP address or the domain name to be used when connecting the Minion to the Master. See ipv6 for IPv6 connections to the Master.
WARNING: This option requires modern version of the underlying libraries used by the selected transport:
o zeromq requires pyzmq >= 16.0.1 and libzmq >= 4.1.6
o tcp requires tornado >= 4.5
Configuration example:
source_address: if-bond0-1234.sjc.us-west.internal

source_ret_port

New in version 2018.3.0.
The source port to be used when connecting the Minion to the Master ret server.
WARNING: This option requires modern version of the underlying libraries used by the selected transport:
o zeromq requires pyzmq >= 16.0.1 and libzmq >= 4.1.6
o tcp requires tornado >= 4.5
Configuration example:
source_ret_port: 49017

source_publish_port

New in version 2018.3.0.
The source port to be used when connecting the Minion to the Master publish server.
WARNING: This option requires modern version of the underlying libraries used by the selected transport:
o zeromq requires pyzmq >= 16.0.1 and libzmq >= 4.1.6
o tcp requires tornado >= 4.5
Configuration example:
source_publish_port: 49018

user

Default: root
The user to run the Salt processes
user: root

sudo_user

Default: \(aq\(aq
The user to run salt remote execution commands as via sudo. If this option is enabled then sudo will be used to change the active user executing the remote command. If enabled the user will need to be allowed access via the sudoers file for the user that the salt minion is configured to run as. The most common option would be to use the root user. If this option is set the user option should also be set to a non-root user. If migrating from a root minion to a non root minion the minion cache should be cleared and the minion pki directory will need to be changed to the ownership of the new user.
sudo_user: root

pidfile

Default: /var/run/salt-minion.pid
The location of the daemon\(aqs process ID file
pidfile: /var/run/salt-minion.pid

root_dir

Default: /
This directory is prepended to the following options: pki_dir, cachedir, log_file, sock_dir, and pidfile.
root_dir: /

conf_file

Default: /etc/salt/minion
The path to the minion\(aqs configuration file.
conf_file: /etc/salt/minion

pki_dir

Default: /etc/salt/pki/minion
The directory used to store the minion\(aqs public and private keys.
pki_dir: /etc/salt/pki/minion

id

Default: the system\(aqs hostname
SEE ALSO: Salt Walkthrough
The Setting up a Salt Minion section contains detailed information on how the hostname is determined.
Explicitly declare the id for this minion to use. Since Salt uses detached ids it is possible to run multiple minions on the same machine but with different ids.
id: foo.bar.com

minion_id_caching

New in version 0.17.2.
Default: True
Caches the minion id to a file when the minion\(aqs id is not statically defined in the minion config. This setting prevents potential problems when automatic minion id resolution changes, which can cause the minion to lose connection with the master. To turn off minion id caching, set this config to False.
For more information, please see Issue #7558 and Pull Request #8488.
minion_id_caching: True

append_domain

Default: None
Append a domain to a hostname in the event that it does not exist. This is useful for systems where socket.getfqdn() does not actually result in a FQDN (for instance, Solaris).
append_domain: foo.org

minion_id_lowercase

Default: False
Convert minion id to lowercase when it is being generated. Helpful when some hosts get the minion id in uppercase. Cached ids will remain the same and not converted.
minion_id_lowercase: True

cachedir

Default: /var/cache/salt/minion
The location for minion cache data.
This directory may contain sensitive data and should be protected accordingly.
cachedir: /var/cache/salt/minion

color_theme

Default: ""
Specifies a path to the color theme to use for colored command line output.
color_theme: /etc/salt/color_theme

append_minionid_config_dirs

Default: [] (the empty list) for regular minions, [\(aqcachedir\(aq] for proxy minions.
Append minion_id to these configuration directories. Helps with multiple proxies and minions running on the same machine. Allowed elements in the list: pki_dir, cachedir, extension_modules. Normally not needed unless running several proxies and/or minions on the same machine.
append_minionid_config_dirs:
  - pki_dir
  - cachedir

verify_env

Default: True
Verify and set permissions on configuration directories at startup.
verify_env: True

NOTE: When set to True the verify_env option requires WRITE access to the configuration directory (/etc/salt/). In certain situations such as mounting /etc/salt/ as read-only for templating this will create a stack trace when state.apply is called.

cache_jobs

Default: False
The minion can locally cache the return data from jobs sent to it, this can be a good way to keep track of the minion side of the jobs the minion has executed. By default this feature is disabled, to enable set cache_jobs to True.
cache_jobs: False

grains

Default: (empty)
SEE ALSO: static-custom-grains
Statically assigns grains to the minion.
grains:
  roles:
    - webserver
    - memcache
  deployment: datacenter4
  cabinet: 13
  cab_u: 14-15

grains_cache

Default: False
The minion can locally cache grain data instead of refreshing the data each time the grain is referenced. By default this feature is disabled, to enable set grains_cache to True.
grains_cache: False

grains_deep_merge

New in version 2016.3.0.
Default: False
The grains can be merged, instead of overridden, using this option. This allows custom grains to defined different subvalues of a dictionary grain. By default this feature is disabled, to enable set grains_deep_merge to True.
grains_deep_merge: False

For example, with these custom grains functions:
def custom1_k1():
    return {\(aqcustom1\(aq: {\(aqk1\(aq: \(aqv1\(aq}}

def custom1_k2(): return {\(aqcustom1\(aq: {\(aqk2\(aq: \(aqv2\(aq}}
Without grains_deep_merge, the result would be:
custom1:
  k1: v1

With grains_deep_merge, the result will be:
custom1:
  k1: v1
  k2: v2

grains_refresh_every

Default: 0
The grains_refresh_every setting allows for a minion to periodically check its grains to see if they have changed and, if so, to inform the master of the new grains. This operation is moderately expensive, therefore care should be taken not to set this value too low.
Note: This value is expressed in minutes.
A value of 10 minutes is a reasonable default.
grains_refresh_every: 0

fibre_channel_grains

Default: False
The fibre_channel_grains setting will enable the fc_wwn grain for Fibre Channel WWN\(aqs on the minion. Since this grain is expensive, it is disabled by default.
fibre_channel_grains: True

iscsi_grains

Default: False
The iscsi_grains setting will enable the iscsi_iqn grain on the minion. Since this grain is expensive, it is disabled by default.
iscsi_grains: True

mine_enabled

New in version 2015.8.10.
Default: True
Determines whether or not the salt minion should run scheduled mine updates. If this is set to False then the mine update function will not get added to the scheduler for the minion.
mine_enabled: True

mine_return_job

New in version 2015.8.10.
Default: False
Determines whether or not scheduled mine updates should be accompanied by a job return for the job cache.
mine_return_job: False

mine_functions

Default: Empty
Designate which functions should be executed at mine_interval intervals on each minion. See this documentation on the Salt Mine for more information. Note these can be defined in the pillar for a minion as well. example minion configuration file
mine_functions:
  test.ping: []
  network.ip_addrs:
    interface: eth0
    cidr: \(aq10.0.0.0/8\(aq

mine_interval

Default: 60
The number of minutes between mine updates.
mine_interval: 60

sock_dir

Default: /var/run/salt/minion
The directory where Unix sockets will be kept.
sock_dir: /var/run/salt/minion

enable_gpu_grains

Default: True
Enable GPU hardware data for your master. Be aware that the minion can take a while to start up when lspci and/or dmidecode is used to populate the grains for the minion, so this can be set to False if you do not need these grains.
enable_gpu_grains: False

outputter_dirs

Default: []
A list of additional directories to search for salt outputters in.
outputter_dirs: []

backup_mode

Default: \(aq\(aq
Make backups of files replaced by file.managed and file.recurse state modules under cachedir in file_backup subdirectory preserving original paths. Refer to File State Backups documentation for more details.
backup_mode: minion

acceptance_wait_time

Default: 10
The number of seconds to wait until attempting to re-authenticate with the master.
acceptance_wait_time: 10

acceptance_wait_time_max

Default: 0
The maximum number of seconds to wait until attempting to re-authenticate with the master. If set, the wait will increase by acceptance_wait_time seconds each iteration.
acceptance_wait_time_max: 0

rejected_retry

Default: False
If the master rejects the minion\(aqs public key, retry instead of exiting. Rejected keys will be handled the same as waiting on acceptance.
rejected_retry: False

random_reauth_delay

Default: 10
When the master key changes, the minion will try to re-auth itself to receive the new master key. In larger environments this can cause a syn-flood on the master because all minions try to re-auth immediately. To prevent this and have a minion wait for a random amount of time, use this optional parameter. The wait-time will be a random number of seconds between 0 and the defined value.
random_reauth_delay: 60

master_tries

New in version 2016.3.0.
Default: 1
The number of attempts to connect to a master before giving up. Set this to -1 for unlimited attempts. This allows for a master to have downtime and the minion to reconnect to it later when it comes back up. In \(aqfailover\(aq mode, which is set in the master_type configuration, this value is the number of attempts for each set of masters. In this mode, it will cycle through the list of masters for each attempt.
master_tries is different than auth_tries because auth_tries attempts to retry auth attempts with a single master. auth_tries is under the assumption that you can connect to the master but not gain authorization from it. master_tries will still cycle through all of the masters in a given try, so it is appropriate if you expect occasional downtime from the master(s).
master_tries: 1

auth_tries

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: 7
The number of attempts to authenticate to a master before giving up. Or, more technically, the number of consecutive SaltReqTimeoutErrors that are acceptable when trying to authenticate to the master.
auth_tries: 7

auth_timeout

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: 60
When waiting for a master to accept the minion\(aqs public key, salt will continuously attempt to reconnect until successful. This is the timeout value, in seconds, for each individual attempt. After this timeout expires, the minion will wait for acceptance_wait_time seconds before trying again. Unless your master is under unusually heavy load, this should be left at the default.
auth_timeout: 60

auth_safemode

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: False
If authentication fails due to SaltReqTimeoutError during a ping_interval, this setting, when set to True, will cause a sub-minion process to restart.
auth_safemode: False

ping_interval

Default: 0
Instructs the minion to ping its master(s) every n number of minutes. Used primarily as a mitigation technique against minion disconnects.
ping_interval: 0

random_startup_delay

Default: 0
The maximum bound for an interval in which a minion will randomly sleep upon starting up prior to attempting to connect to a master. This can be used to splay connection attempts for cases where many minions starting up at once may place undue load on a master.
For example, setting this to 5 will tell a minion to sleep for a value between 0 and 5 seconds.
random_startup_delay: 5

recon_default

Default: 1000
The interval in milliseconds that the socket should wait before trying to reconnect to the master (1000ms = 1 second).
recon_default: 1000

recon_max

Default: 10000
The maximum time a socket should wait. Each interval the time to wait is calculated by doubling the previous time. If recon_max is reached, it starts again at the recon_default.
Short example:
o reconnect 1: the socket will wait \(aqrecon_default\(aq milliseconds
o reconnect 2: \(aqrecon_default\(aq * 2
o reconnect 3: (\(aqrecon_default\(aq * 2) * 2
o reconnect 4: value from previous interval * 2
o reconnect 5: value from previous interval * 2
o reconnect x: if value >= recon_max, it starts again with recon_default
recon_max: 10000

recon_randomize

Default: True
Generate a random wait time on minion start. The wait time will be a random value between recon_default and recon_default + recon_max. Having all minions reconnect with the same recon_default and recon_max value kind of defeats the purpose of being able to change these settings. If all minions have the same values and the setup is quite large (several thousand minions), they will still flood the master. The desired behavior is to have time-frame within all minions try to reconnect.
recon_randomize: True

loop_interval

Default: 1
The loop_interval sets how long in seconds the minion will wait between evaluating the scheduler and running cleanup tasks. This defaults to 1 second on the minion scheduler.
loop_interval: 1

pub_ret

Default: True
Some installations choose to start all job returns in a cache or a returner and forgo sending the results back to a master. In this workflow, jobs are most often executed with --async from the Salt CLI and then results are evaluated by examining job caches on the minions or any configured returners. WARNING: Setting this to False will disable returns back to the master.
pub_ret: True

return_retry_timer

Default: 5
The default timeout for a minion return attempt.
return_retry_timer: 5

return_retry_timer_max

Default: 10
The maximum timeout for a minion return attempt. If non-zero the minion return retry timeout will be a random int between return_retry_timer and return_retry_timer_max
return_retry_timer_max: 10

cache_sreqs

Default: True
The connection to the master ret_port is kept open. When set to False, the minion creates a new connection for every return to the master.
cache_sreqs: True

ipc_mode

Default: ipc
Windows platforms lack POSIX IPC and must rely on slower TCP based inter- process communications. Set ipc_mode to tcp on such systems.
ipc_mode: ipc

tcp_pub_port

Default: 4510
Publish port used when ipc_mode is set to tcp.
tcp_pub_port: 4510

tcp_pull_port

Default: 4511
Pull port used when ipc_mode is set to tcp.
tcp_pull_port: 4511

transport

Default: zeromq
Changes the underlying transport layer. ZeroMQ is the recommended transport while additional transport layers are under development. Supported values are zeromq, raet (experimental), and tcp (experimental). This setting has a significant impact on performance and should not be changed unless you know what you are doing!
transport: zeromq

syndic_finger

Default: \(aq\(aq
The key fingerprint of the higher-level master for the syndic to verify it is talking to the intended master.
syndic_finger: \(aqab:30:65:2a:d6:9e:20:4f:d8:b2:f3:a7:d4:65:50:10\(aq

http_connect_timeout

New in version Fluorine.
Default: 20
HTTP connection timeout in seconds. Applied when fetching files using tornado back-end. Should be greater than overall download time.
http_connect_timeout: 20

http_request_timeout

New in version 2015.8.0.
Default: 3600
HTTP request timeout in seconds. Applied when fetching files using tornado back-end. Should be greater than overall download time.
http_request_timeout: 3600

proxy_host

Default: \(aq\(aq
The hostname used for HTTP proxy access.
proxy_host: proxy.my-domain

proxy_port

Default: 0
The port number used for HTTP proxy access.
proxy_port: 31337

proxy_username

Default: \(aq\(aq
The username used for HTTP proxy access.
proxy_username: charon

proxy_password

Default: \(aq\(aq
The password used for HTTP proxy access.
proxy_password: obolus

no_proxy

New in version Fluorine.
Default: []
List of hosts to bypass HTTP proxy
NOTE: This key does nothing unless proxy_host etc is configured, it does not support any kind of wildcards.
no_proxy: [ \(aq127.0.0.1\(aq, \(aqfoo.tld\(aq ]

Docker Configuration

docker.update_mine

New in version 2017.7.8,2018.3.3.
Changed in version Fluorine: The default value is now False
Default: True
If enabled, when containers are added, removed, stopped, started, etc., the mine will be updated with the results of docker.ps verbose=True all=True host=True. This mine data is used by mine.get_docker. Set this option to False to keep Salt from updating the mine with this information.
NOTE: This option can also be set in Grains or Pillar data, with Grains overriding Pillar and the minion config file overriding Grains.
NOTE: Disabling this will of course keep mine.get_docker from returning any information for a given minion.
docker.update_mine: False

docker.compare_container_networks

New in version 2018.3.0.
Default: {\(aqstatic\(aq: [\(aqAliases\(aq, \(aqLinks\(aq, \(aqIPAMConfig\(aq], \(aqautomatic\(aq: [\(aqIPAddress\(aq, \(aqGateway\(aq, \(aqGlobalIPv6Address\(aq, \(aqIPv6Gateway\(aq]}
Specifies which keys are examined by docker.compare_container_networks.
NOTE: This should not need to be modified unless new features added to Docker result in new keys added to the network configuration which must be compared to determine if two containers have different network configs. This config option exists solely as a way to allow users to continue using Salt to manage their containers after an API change, without waiting for a new Salt release to catch up to the changes in the Docker API.
docker.compare_container_networks:
  static:
    - Aliases
    - Links
    - IPAMConfig
  automatic:
    - IPAddress
    - Gateway
    - GlobalIPv6Address
    - IPv6Gateway

optimization_order

Default: [0, 1, 2]
In cases where Salt is distributed without .py files, this option determines the priority of optimization level(s) Salt\(aqs module loader should prefer.
NOTE: This option is only supported on Python 3.5+.
optimization_order:
  - 2
  - 0
  - 1

Minion Execution Module Management

disable_modules

Default: [] (all execution modules are enabled by default)
The event may occur in which the administrator desires that a minion should not be able to execute a certain module.
However, the sys module is built into the minion and cannot be disabled.
This setting can also tune the minion. Because all modules are loaded into system memory, disabling modules will lower the minion\(aqs memory footprint.
Modules should be specified according to their file name on the system and not by their virtual name. For example, to disable cmd, use the string cmdmod which corresponds to salt.modules.cmdmod.
disable_modules:
  - test
  - solr

disable_returners

Default: [] (all returners are enabled by default)
If certain returners should be disabled, this is the place
disable_returners:
  - mongo_return

whitelist_modules

Default: [] (Module whitelisting is disabled. Adding anything to the config option will cause only the listed modules to be enabled. Modules not in the list will not be loaded.)
This option is the reverse of disable_modules. If enabled, only execution modules in this list will be loaded and executed on the minion.
Note that this is a very large hammer and it can be quite difficult to keep the minion working the way you think it should since Salt uses many modules internally itself. At a bare minimum you need the following enabled or else the minion won\(aqt start.
whitelist_modules:
  - cmdmod
  - test
  - config

module_dirs

Default: []
A list of extra directories to search for Salt modules
module_dirs:
  - /var/lib/salt/modules

returner_dirs

Default: []
A list of extra directories to search for Salt returners
returner_dirs:
  - /var/lib/salt/returners

states_dirs

Default: []
A list of extra directories to search for Salt states
states_dirs:
  - /var/lib/salt/states

grains_dirs

Default: []
A list of extra directories to search for Salt grains
grains_dirs:
  - /var/lib/salt/grains

render_dirs

Default: []
A list of extra directories to search for Salt renderers
render_dirs:
  - /var/lib/salt/renderers

utils_dirs

Default: []
A list of extra directories to search for Salt utilities
utils_dirs:
  - /var/lib/salt/utils

cython_enable

Default: False
Set this value to true to enable auto-loading and compiling of .pyx modules, This setting requires that gcc and cython are installed on the minion.
cython_enable: False

enable_zip_modules

New in version 2015.8.0.
Default: False
Set this value to true to enable loading of zip archives as extension modules. This allows for packing module code with specific dependencies to avoid conflicts and/or having to install specific modules\(aq dependencies in system libraries.
enable_zip_modules: False

providers

Default: (empty)
A module provider can be statically overwritten or extended for the minion via the providers option. This can be done on an individual basis in an SLS file, or globally here in the minion config, like below.
providers:
  service: systemd

modules_max_memory

Default: -1
Specify a max size (in bytes) for modules on import. This feature is currently only supported on *NIX operating systems and requires psutil.
modules_max_memory: -1

extmod_whitelist/extmod_blacklist

New in version 2017.7.0.
By using this dictionary, the modules that are synced to the minion\(aqs extmod cache using saltutil.sync_* can be limited. If nothing is set to a specific type, then all modules are accepted. To block all modules of a specific type, whitelist an empty list.
extmod_whitelist:
  modules:
    - custom_module
  engines:
    - custom_engine
  pillars: []

extmod_blacklist: modules: - specific_module
Valid options:
o beacons
o clouds
o sdb
o modules
o states
o grains
o renderers
o returners
o proxy
o engines
o output
o utils
o pillar

Top File Settings

These parameters only have an effect if running a masterless minion.

state_top

Default: top.sls
The state system uses a "top" file to tell the minions what environment to use and what modules to use. The state_top file is defined relative to the root of the base environment.
state_top: top.sls

state_top_saltenv

This option has no default value. Set it to an environment name to ensure that only the top file from that environment is considered during a highstate.
NOTE: Using this value does not change the merging strategy. For instance, if top_file_merging_strategy is set to merge, and state_top_saltenv is set to foo, then any sections for environments other than foo in the top file for the foo environment will be ignored. With state_top_saltenv set to base, all states from all environments in the base top file will be applied, while all other top files are ignored. The only way to set state_top_saltenv to something other than base and not have the other environments in the targeted top file ignored, would be to set top_file_merging_strategy to merge_all.
state_top_saltenv: dev

top_file_merging_strategy

Changed in version 2016.11.0: A merge_all strategy has been added.
Default: merge
When no specific fileserver environment (a.k.a. saltenv) has been specified for a highstate, all environments\(aq top files are inspected. This config option determines how the SLS targets in those top files are handled.
When set to merge, the base environment\(aqs top file is evaluated first, followed by the other environments\(aq top files. The first target expression (e.g. \(aq*\(aq) for a given environment is kept, and when the same target expression is used in a different top file evaluated later, it is ignored. Because base is evaluated first, it is authoritative. For example, if there is a target for \(aq*\(aq for the foo environment in both the base and foo environment\(aqs top files, the one in the foo environment would be ignored. The environments will be evaluated in no specific order (aside from base coming first). For greater control over the order in which the environments are evaluated, use env_order. Note that, aside from the base environment\(aqs top file, any sections in top files that do not match that top file\(aqs environment will be ignored. So, for example, a section for the qa environment would be ignored if it appears in the dev environment\(aqs top file. To keep use cases like this from being ignored, use the merge_all strategy.
When set to same, then for each environment, only that environment\(aqs top file is processed, with the others being ignored. For example, only the dev environment\(aqs top file will be processed for the dev environment, and any SLS targets defined for dev in the base environment\(aqs (or any other environment\(aqs) top file will be ignored. If an environment does not have a top file, then the top file from the default_top config parameter will be used as a fallback.
When set to merge_all, then all states in all environments in all top files will be applied. The order in which individual SLS files will be executed will depend on the order in which the top files were evaluated, and the environments will be evaluated in no specific order. For greater control over the order in which the environments are evaluated, use env_order.
top_file_merging_strategy: same

env_order

Default: []
When top_file_merging_strategy is set to merge, and no environment is specified for a highstate, this config option allows for the order in which top files are evaluated to be explicitly defined.
env_order:
  - base
  - dev
  - qa

default_top

Default: base
When top_file_merging_strategy is set to same, and no environment is specified for a highstate (i.e. environment is not set for the minion), this config option specifies a fallback environment in which to look for a top file if an environment lacks one.
default_top: dev

startup_states

Default: \(aq\(aq
States to run when the minion daemon starts. To enable, set startup_states to:
o highstate: Execute state.highstate
o sls: Read in the sls_list option and execute the named sls files
o top: Read top_file option and execute based on that file on the Master
startup_states: \(aq\(aq

sls_list

Default: []
List of states to run when the minion starts up if startup_states is set to sls.
sls_list:
  - edit.vim
  - hyper

top_file

Default: \(aq\(aq
Top file to execute if startup_states is set to top.
top_file: \(aq\(aq

State Management Settings

renderer

Default: jinja|yaml
The default renderer used for local state executions
renderer: jinja|json

test

Default: False
Set all state calls to only test if they are going to actually make changes or just post what changes are going to be made.
test: False

state_verbose

Default: True
Controls the verbosity of state runs. By default, the results of all states are returned, but setting this value to False will cause salt to only display output for states that failed or states that have changes.
state_verbose: True

state_output

Default: full
The state_output setting controls which results will be output full multi line:
o full, terse - each state will be full/terse
o mixed - only states with errors will be full
o changes - states with changes and errors will be full
full_id, mixed_id, changes_id and terse_id are also allowed; when set, the state ID will be used as name in the output.
state_output: full

state_output_diff

Default: False
The state_output_diff setting changes whether or not the output from successful states is returned. Useful when even the terse output of these states is cluttering the logs. Set it to True to ignore them.
state_output_diff: False

autoload_dynamic_modules

Default: True
autoload_dynamic_modules turns on automatic loading of modules found in the environments on the master. This is turned on by default. To turn off auto-loading modules when states run, set this value to False.
autoload_dynamic_modules: True

Default: True
clean_dynamic_modules keeps the dynamic modules on the minion in sync with the dynamic modules on the master. This means that if a dynamic module is not on the master it will be deleted from the minion. By default this is enabled and can be disabled by changing this value to False.
clean_dynamic_modules: True

NOTE: If extmod_whitelist is specified, modules which are not whitelisted will also be cleaned here.

saltenv

Changed in version 2018.3.0: Renamed from environment to saltenv. If environment is used, saltenv will take its value. If both are used, environment will be ignored and saltenv will be used.
Normally the minion is not isolated to any single environment on the master when running states, but the environment can be isolated on the minion side by statically setting it. Remember that the recommended way to manage environments is to isolate via the top file.
saltenv: dev

lock_saltenv

New in version 2018.3.0.
Default: False
For purposes of running states, this option prevents using the saltenv argument to manually set the environment. This is useful to keep a minion which has the saltenv option set to dev from running states from an environment other than dev.
lock_saltenv: True

snapper_states

Default: False
The snapper_states value is used to enable taking snapper snapshots before and after salt state runs. This allows for state runs to be rolled back.
For snapper states to function properly snapper needs to be installed and enabled.
snapper_states: True

snapper_states_config

Default: root
Snapper can execute based on a snapper configuration. The configuration needs to be set up before snapper can use it. The default configuration is root, this default makes snapper run on SUSE systems using the default configuration set up at install time.
snapper_states_config: root

File Directory Settings

file_client

Default: remote
The client defaults to looking on the master server for files, but can be directed to look on the minion by setting this parameter to local.
file_client: remote

use_master_when_local

Default: False
When using a local file_client, this parameter is used to allow the client to connect to a master for remote execution.
use_master_when_local: False

file_roots

Default:
base:
  - /srv/salt

When using a local file_client, this parameter is used to setup the fileserver\(aqs environments. This parameter operates identically to the master config parameter of the same name.
file_roots:
  base:
    - /srv/salt
  dev:
    - /srv/salt/dev/services
    - /srv/salt/dev/states
  prod:
    - /srv/salt/prod/services
    - /srv/salt/prod/states

fileserver_followsymlinks

New in version 2014.1.0.
Default: True
By default, the file_server follows symlinks when walking the filesystem tree. Currently this only applies to the default roots fileserver_backend.
fileserver_followsymlinks: True

fileserver_ignoresymlinks

New in version 2014.1.0.
Default: False
If you do not want symlinks to be treated as the files they are pointing to, set fileserver_ignoresymlinks to True. By default this is set to False. When set to True, any detected symlink while listing files on the Master will not be returned to the Minion.
fileserver_ignoresymlinks: False

fileserver_limit_traversal

New in version 2014.1.0.
Default: False
By default, the Salt fileserver recurses fully into all defined environments to attempt to find files. To limit this behavior so that the fileserver only traverses directories with SLS files and special Salt directories like _modules, set fileserver_limit_traversal to True. This might be useful for installations where a file root has a very large number of files and performance is impacted.
fileserver_limit_traversal: False

hash_type

Default: sha256
The hash_type is the hash to use when discovering the hash of a file on the local fileserver. The default is sha256, but md5, sha1, sha224, sha384, and sha512 are also supported.
hash_type: sha256

Pillar Configuration

pillar_roots

Default:
base:
  - /srv/pillar

When using a local file_client, this parameter is used to setup the pillar environments.
pillar_roots:
  base:
    - /srv/pillar
  dev:
    - /srv/pillar/dev
  prod:
    - /srv/pillar/prod

on_demand_ext_pillar

New in version 2016.3.6,2016.11.3,2017.7.0.
Default: [\(aqlibvirt\(aq, \(aqvirtkey\(aq]
When using a local file_client, this option controls which external pillars are permitted to be used on-demand using pillar.ext.
on_demand_ext_pillar:
  - libvirt
  - virtkey
  - git

WARNING: This will allow a masterless minion to request specific pillar data via pillar.ext, and may be considered a security risk. However, pillar data generated in this way will not affect the in-memory pillar data, so this risk is limited to instances in which states/modules/etc. (built-in or custom) rely upon pillar data generated by pillar.ext.

decrypt_pillar

New in version 2017.7.0.
Default: []
A list of paths to be recursively decrypted during pillar compilation.
decrypt_pillar:
  - \(aqfoo:bar\(aq: gpg
  - \(aqlorem:ipsum:dolor\(aq

Entries in this list can be formatted either as a simple string, or as a key/value pair, with the key being the pillar location, and the value being the renderer to use for pillar decryption. If the former is used, the renderer specified by decrypt_pillar_default will be used.

decrypt_pillar_delimiter

New in version 2017.7.0.
Default: :
The delimiter used to distinguish nested data structures in the decrypt_pillar option.
decrypt_pillar_delimiter: \(aq|\(aq
decrypt_pillar:
  - \(aqfoo|bar\(aq: gpg
  - \(aqlorem|ipsum|dolor\(aq

decrypt_pillar_default

New in version 2017.7.0.
Default: gpg
The default renderer used for decryption, if one is not specified for a given pillar key in decrypt_pillar.
decrypt_pillar_default: my_custom_renderer

decrypt_pillar_renderers

New in version 2017.7.0.
Default: [\(aqgpg\(aq]
List of renderers which are permitted to be used for pillar decryption.
decrypt_pillar_renderers:
  - gpg
  - my_custom_renderer

pillarenv

Default: None
Isolates the pillar environment on the minion side. This functions the same as the environment setting, but for pillar instead of states.
pillarenv: dev

pillarenv_from_saltenv

New in version 2017.7.0.
Default: False
When set to True, the pillarenv value will assume the value of the effective saltenv when running states. This essentially makes salt \(aq*\(aq state.sls mysls saltenv=dev equivalent to salt \(aq*\(aq state.sls mysls saltenv=dev pillarenv=dev. If pillarenv is set, either in the minion config file or via the CLI, it will override this option.
pillarenv_from_saltenv: True

pillar_raise_on_missing

New in version 2015.5.0.
Default: False
Set this option to True to force a KeyError to be raised whenever an attempt to retrieve a named value from pillar fails. When this option is set to False, the failed attempt returns an empty string.

minion_pillar_cache

New in version 2016.3.0.
Default: False
The minion can locally cache rendered pillar data under cachedir/pillar. This allows a temporarily disconnected minion to access previously cached pillar data by invoking salt-call with the --local and --pillar_root=:conf_minion:cachedir/pillar options. Before enabling this setting consider that the rendered pillar may contain security sensitive data. Appropriate access restrictions should be in place. By default the saved pillar data will be readable only by the user account running salt. By default this feature is disabled, to enable set minion_pillar_cache to True.
minion_pillar_cache: False

file_recv_max_size

New in version 2014.7.0.
Default: 100
Set a hard-limit on the size of the files that can be pushed to the master. It will be interpreted as megabytes.
file_recv_max_size: 100

pass_to_ext_pillars

Specify a list of configuration keys whose values are to be passed to external pillar functions.
Suboptions can be specified using the \(aq:\(aq notation (i.e. option:suboption)
The values are merged and included in the extra_minion_data optional parameter of the external pillar function. The extra_minion_data parameter is passed only to the external pillar functions that have it explicitly specified in their definition.
If the config contains
opt1: value1
opt2:
  subopt1: value2
  subopt2: value3

pass_to_ext_pillars: - opt1 - opt2: subopt1
the extra_minion_data parameter will be
{\(aqopt1\(aq: \(aqvalue1\(aq,
 \(aqopt2\(aq: {\(aqsubopt1\(aq: \(aqvalue2\(aq}}

Security Settings

open_mode

Default: False
Open mode can be used to clean out the PKI key received from the Salt master, turn on open mode, restart the minion, then turn off open mode and restart the minion to clean the keys.
open_mode: False

master_finger

Default: \(aq\(aq
Fingerprint of the master public key to validate the identity of your Salt master before the initial key exchange. The master fingerprint can be found by running "salt-key -F master" on the Salt master.
master_finger: \(aqba:30:65:2a:d6:9e:20:4f:d8:b2:f3:a7:d4:65:11:13\(aq

keysize

Default: 2048
The size of key that should be generated when creating new keys.
keysize: 2048

permissive_pki_access

Default: False
Enable permissive access to the salt keys. This allows you to run the master or minion as root, but have a non-root group be given access to your pki_dir. To make the access explicit, root must belong to the group you\(aqve given access to. This is potentially quite insecure.
permissive_pki_access: False

verify_master_pubkey_sign

Default: False
Enables verification of the master-public-signature returned by the master in auth-replies. Please see the tutorial on how to configure this properly Multimaster-PKI with Failover Tutorial
New in version 2014.7.0.
verify_master_pubkey_sign: True

If this is set to True, master_sign_pubkey must be also set to True in the master configuration file.

master_sign_key_name

Default: master_sign
The filename without the .pub suffix of the public key that should be used for verifying the signature from the master. The file must be located in the minion\(aqs pki directory.
New in version 2014.7.0.
master_sign_key_name: <filename_without_suffix>

autosign_grains

New in version 2018.3.0.
Default: not defined
The grains that should be sent to the master on authentication to decide if the minion\(aqs key should be accepted automatically.
Please see the Autoaccept Minions from Grains documentation for more information.
autosign_grains:
  - uuid
  - server_id

always_verify_signature

Default: False
If verify_master_pubkey_sign is enabled, the signature is only verified if the public-key of the master changes. If the signature should always be verified, this can be set to True.
New in version 2014.7.0.
always_verify_signature: True

cmd_blacklist_glob

Default: []
If cmd_blacklist_glob is enabled then any shell command called over remote execution or via salt-call will be checked against the glob matches found in the cmd_blacklist_glob list and any matched shell command will be blocked.
NOTE: This blacklist is only applied to direct executions made by the salt and salt-call commands. This does NOT blacklist commands called from states or shell commands executed from other modules.
New in version 2016.11.0.
cmd_blacklist_glob:
  - \(aqrm * \(aq
  - \(aqcat /etc/* \(aq

cmd_whitelist_glob

Default: []
If cmd_whitelist_glob is enabled then any shell command called over remote execution or via salt-call will be checked against the glob matches found in the cmd_whitelist_glob list and any shell command NOT found in the list will be blocked. If cmd_whitelist_glob is NOT SET, then all shell commands are permitted.
NOTE: This whitelist is only applied to direct executions made by the salt and salt-call commands. This does NOT restrict commands called from states or shell commands executed from other modules.
New in version 2016.11.0.
cmd_whitelist_glob:
  - \(aqls * \(aq
  - \(aqcat /etc/fstab\(aq

ssl

New in version 2016.11.0.
Default: None
TLS/SSL connection options. This could be set to a dictionary containing arguments corresponding to python ssl.wrap_socket method. For details see Tornado and Python documentation.
Note: to set enum arguments values like cert_reqs and ssl_version use constant names without ssl module prefix: CERT_REQUIRED or PROTOCOL_SSLv23.
ssl:
    keyfile: <path_to_keyfile>
    certfile: <path_to_certfile>
    ssl_version: PROTOCOL_TLSv1_2

Reactor Settings

reactor

Default: []
Defines a salt reactor. See the Reactor documentation for more information.
reactor: []

reactor_refresh_interval

Default: 60
The TTL for the cache of the reactor configuration.
reactor_refresh_interval: 60

reactor_worker_threads

Default: 10
The number of workers for the runner/wheel in the reactor.
reactor_worker_threads: 10

reactor_worker_hwm

Default: 10000
The queue size for workers in the reactor.
reactor_worker_hwm: 10000

Thread Settings

multiprocessing

Default: True
If multiprocessing is enabled when a minion receives a publication a new process is spawned and the command is executed therein. Conversely, if multiprocessing is disabled the new publication will be run executed in a thread.
multiprocessing: True

process_count_max

New in version 2018.3.0.
Default: -1
Limit the maximum amount of processes or threads created by salt-minion. This is useful to avoid resource exhaustion in case the minion receives more publications than it is able to handle, as it limits the number of spawned processes or threads. -1 is the default and disables the limit.
process_count_max: -1

Minion Logging Settings

log_file

Default: /var/log/salt/minion
The minion log can be sent to a regular file, local path name, or network location. See also log_file.
Examples:
log_file: /var/log/salt/minion

log_file: file:///dev/log

log_file: udp://loghost:10514

log_level

Default: warning
The level of messages to send to the console. See also log_level.
log_level: warning

log_level_logfile

Default: warning
The level of messages to send to the log file. See also log_level_logfile. When it is not set explicitly it will inherit the level set by log_level option.
log_level_logfile: warning

log_datefmt

Default: %H:%M:%S
The date and time format used in console log messages. See also log_datefmt.
log_datefmt: \(aq%H:%M:%S\(aq

log_datefmt_logfile

Default: %Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S
The date and time format used in log file messages. See also log_datefmt_logfile.
log_datefmt_logfile: \(aq%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S\(aq

log_fmt_console

Default: [%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s
The format of the console logging messages. See also log_fmt_console.
NOTE: Log colors are enabled in log_fmt_console rather than the color config since the logging system is loaded before the minion config.
Console log colors are specified by these additional formatters:
%(colorlevel)s %(colorname)s %(colorprocess)s %(colormsg)s
Since it is desirable to include the surrounding brackets, \(aq[\(aq and \(aq]\(aq, in the coloring of the messages, these color formatters also include padding as well. Color LogRecord attributes are only available for console logging.
log_fmt_console: \(aq%(colorlevel)s %(colormsg)s\(aq
log_fmt_console: \(aq[%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s\(aq

log_fmt_logfile

Default: %(asctime)s,%(msecs)03d [%(name)-17s][%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s
The format of the log file logging messages. See also log_fmt_logfile.
log_fmt_logfile: \(aq%(asctime)s,%(msecs)03d [%(name)-17s][%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s\(aq

log_granular_levels

Default: {}
This can be used to control logging levels more specifically. See also log_granular_levels.

zmq_monitor

Default: False
To diagnose issues with minions disconnecting or missing returns, ZeroMQ supports the use of monitor sockets to log connection events. This feature requires ZeroMQ 4.0 or higher.
To enable ZeroMQ monitor sockets, set \(aqzmq_monitor\(aq to \(aqTrue\(aq and log at a debug level or higher.
A sample log event is as follows:
[DEBUG   ] ZeroMQ event: {\(aqendpoint\(aq: \(aqtcp://127.0.0.1:4505\(aq, \(aqevent\(aq: 512,
\(aqvalue\(aq: 27, \(aqdescription\(aq: \(aqEVENT_DISCONNECTED\(aq}

All events logged will include the string ZeroMQ event. A connection event should be logged as the minion starts up and initially connects to the master. If not, check for debug log level and that the necessary version of ZeroMQ is installed.

tcp_authentication_retries

Default: 5
The number of times to retry authenticating with the salt master when it comes back online.
Zeromq does a lot to make sure when connections come back online that they reauthenticate. The tcp transport should try to connect with a new connection if the old one times out on reauthenticating.
-1 for infinite tries.

failhard

Default: False
Set the global failhard flag. This informs all states to stop running states at the moment a single state fails
failhard: False

Include Configuration

Configuration can be loaded from multiple files. The order in which this is done is:
1. The minion config file itself
2. The files matching the glob in default_include
3. The files matching the glob in include (if defined)
Each successive step overrides any values defined in the previous steps. Therefore, any config options defined in one of the default_include files would override the same value in the minion config file, and any options defined in include would override both.

default_include

Default: minion.d/*.conf
The minion can include configuration from other files. Per default the minion will automatically include all config files from minion.d/*.conf where minion.d is relative to the directory of the minion configuration file.
NOTE: Salt creates files in the minion.d directory for its own use. These files are prefixed with an underscore. A common example of this is the _schedule.conf file.

include

Default: not defined
The minion can include configuration from other files. To enable this, pass a list of paths to this option. The paths can be either relative or absolute; if relative, they are considered to be relative to the directory the main minion configuration file lives in. Paths can make use of shell-style globbing. If no files are matched by a path passed to this option then the minion will log a warning message.
# Include files from a minion.d directory in the same
# directory as the minion config file
include: minion.d/*.conf

# Include a single extra file into the configuration include: /etc/roles/webserver
# Include several files and the minion.d directory include: - extra_config - minion.d/* - /etc/roles/webserver

Keepalive Settings

tcp_keepalive

Default: True
The tcp keepalive interval to set on TCP ports. This setting can be used to tune Salt connectivity issues in messy network environments with misbehaving firewalls.
tcp_keepalive: True

tcp_keepalive_cnt

Default: -1
Sets the ZeroMQ TCP keepalive count. May be used to tune issues with minion disconnects.
tcp_keepalive_cnt: -1

tcp_keepalive_idle

Default: 300
Sets ZeroMQ TCP keepalive idle. May be used to tune issues with minion disconnects.
tcp_keepalive_idle: 300

tcp_keepalive_intvl

Default: -1
Sets ZeroMQ TCP keepalive interval. May be used to tune issues with minion disconnects.
tcp_keepalive_intvl\(aq: -1

Frozen Build Update Settings

These options control how salt.modules.saltutil.update() works with esky frozen apps. For more information look at https://github.com/cloudmatrix/esky/.

update_url

Default: False (Update feature is disabled)
The url to use when looking for application updates. Esky depends on directory listings to search for new versions. A webserver running on your Master is a good starting point for most setups.
update_url: \(aqhttp://salt.example.com/minion-updates\(aq

update_restart_services

Default: [] (service restarting on update is disabled)
A list of services to restart when the minion software is updated. This would typically just be a list containing the minion\(aqs service name, but you may have other services that need to go with it.
update_restart_services: [\(aqsalt-minion\(aq]

winrepo_cache_expire_min

New in version 2016.11.0.
Default: 1800
If set to a nonzero integer, then passing refresh=True to functions in the windows pkg module will not refresh the windows repo metadata if the age of the metadata is less than this value. The exception to this is pkg.refresh_db, which will always refresh the metadata, regardless of age.
winrepo_cache_expire_min: 1800

winrepo_cache_expire_max

New in version 2016.11.0.
Default: 21600
If the windows repo metadata is older than this value, and the metadata is needed by a function in the windows pkg module, the metadata will be refreshed.
winrepo_cache_expire_max: 86400

Minion Windows Software Repo Settings

IMPORTANT: To use these config options, the minion can be running in master-minion or masterless mode.

winrepo_source_dir

Default: salt://win/repo-ng/
The source location for the winrepo sls files.
winrepo_source_dir: salt://win/repo-ng/

Standalone Minion Windows Software Repo Settings

IMPORTANT: To use these config options, the minion must be running in masterless mode (set file_client to local).

winrepo_dir

Changed in version 2015.8.0: Renamed from win_repo to winrepo_dir. Also, this option did not have a default value until this version.
Default: C:\salt\srv\salt\win\repo
Location on the minion where the winrepo_remotes are checked out.
winrepo_dir: \(aqD:\winrepo\(aq

winrepo_dir_ng

New in version 2015.8.0: A new ng repo was added.
Default: /srv/salt/win/repo-ng
Location on the minion where the winrepo_remotes_ng are checked out for 2015.8.0 and later minions.
winrepo_dir_ng: /srv/salt/win/repo-ng

winrepo_cachefile

Changed in version 2015.8.0: Renamed from win_repo_cachefile to winrepo_cachefile. Also, this option did not have a default value until this version.
Default: winrepo.p
Path relative to winrepo_dir where the winrepo cache should be created.
winrepo_cachefile: winrepo.p

winrepo_remotes

Changed in version 2015.8.0: Renamed from win_gitrepos to winrepo_remotes. Also, this option did not have a default value until this version.
New in version 2015.8.0.
List of git repositories to checkout and include in the winrepo
winrepo_remotes:
  - https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo.git

To specify a specific revision of the repository, prepend a commit ID to the URL of the repository:
winrepo_remotes:
  - \(aq<commit_id> https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo.git\(aq

Replace <commit_id> with the SHA1 hash of a commit ID. Specifying a commit ID is useful in that it allows one to revert back to a previous version in the event that an error is introduced in the latest revision of the repo.

winrepo_remotes_ng

New in version 2015.8.0: A new ng repo was added.
List of git repositories to checkout and include in the winrepo for 2015.8.0 and later minions.
winrepo_remotes_ng:
  - https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo-ng.git

To specify a specific revision of the repository, prepend a commit ID to the URL of the repository:
winrepo_remotes_ng:
  - \(aq<commit_id> https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo-ng.git\(aq

Replace <commit_id> with the SHA1 hash of a commit ID. Specifying a commit ID is useful in that it allows one to revert back to a previous version in the event that an error is introduced in the latest revision of the repo.

ssh_merge_pillar

New in version 2018.3.2.
Default: True
Merges the compiled pillar data with the pillar data already available globally. This is useful when using salt-ssh or salt-call --local and overriding the pillar data in a state file:
apply_showpillar:
  module.run:
    - name: state.apply
    - mods:
      - showpillar
    - kwargs:
          pillar:
              test: "foo bar"

If set to True the showpillar state will have access to the global pillar data.
If set to False only the overriding pillar data will be available to the showpillar state.

Configuring the Salt Proxy Minion

The Salt system is amazingly simple and easy to configure. The two components of the Salt system each have a respective configuration file. The salt-master is configured via the master configuration file, and the salt-proxy is configured via the proxy configuration file.
SEE ALSO: example proxy minion configuration file
The Salt Minion configuration is very simple. Typically, the only value that needs to be set is the master value so the proxy knows where to locate its master.
By default, the salt-proxy configuration will be in /etc/salt/proxy. A notable exception is FreeBSD, where the configuration will be in /usr/local/etc/salt/proxy.

Proxy-specific Configuration Options

add_proxymodule_to_opts

New in version 2015.8.2.
Changed in version 2016.3.0.
Default: False
Add the proxymodule LazyLoader object to opts.
add_proxymodule_to_opts: True

proxy_merge_grains_in_module

New in version 2016.3.0.
Changed in version 2017.7.0.
Default: True
If a proxymodule has a function called grains, then call it during regular grains loading and merge the results with the proxy\(aqs grains dictionary. Otherwise it is assumed that the module calls the grains function in a custom way and returns the data elsewhere.
proxy_merge_grains_in_module: False

proxy_keep_alive

New in version 2017.7.0.
Default: True
Whether the connection with the remote device should be restarted when dead. The proxy module must implement the alive function, otherwise the connection is considered alive.
proxy_keep_alive: False

proxy_keep_alive_interval

New in version 2017.7.0.
Default: 1
The frequency of keepalive checks, in minutes. It requires the proxy_keep_alive option to be enabled (and the proxy module to implement the alive function).
proxy_keep_alive_interval: 5

proxy_always_alive

New in version 2017.7.0.
Default: True
Whether the proxy should maintain the connection with the remote device. Similarly to proxy_keep_alive, this option is very specific to the design of the proxy module. When proxy_always_alive is set to False, the connection with the remote device is not maintained and has to be closed after every command.
proxy_always_alive: False

proxy_merge_pillar_in_opts

New in version 2017.7.3.
Default: False.
Whether the pillar data to be merged into the proxy configuration options. As multiple proxies can run on the same server, we may need different configuration options for each, while there\(aqs one single configuration file. The solution is merging the pillar data of each proxy minion into the opts.
proxy_merge_pillar_in_opts: True

proxy_deep_merge_pillar_in_opts

New in version 2017.7.3.
Default: False.
Deep merge of pillar data into configuration opts. This option is evaluated only when proxy_merge_pillar_in_opts is enabled.

proxy_merge_pillar_in_opts_strategy

New in version 2017.7.3.
Default: smart.
The strategy used when merging pillar configuration into opts. This option is evaluated only when proxy_merge_pillar_in_opts is enabled.

proxy_mines_pillar

New in version 2017.7.3.
Default: True.
Allow enabling mine details using pillar data. This evaluates the mine configuration under the pillar, for the following regular minion options that are also equally available on the proxy minion: mine_interval, and mine_functions.

Configuration file examples

o Example master configuration file
o Example minion configuration file
o Example proxy minion configuration file

Example master configuration file

##### Primary configuration settings #####
##########################################
# This configuration file is used to manage the behavior of the Salt Master.
# Values that are commented out but have an empty line after the comment are
# defaults that do not need to be set in the config. If there is no blank line
# after the comment then the value is presented as an example and is not the
# default.

# Per default, the master will automatically include all config files # from master.d/*.conf (master.d is a directory in the same directory # as the main master config file). #default_include: master.d/*.conf
# The address of the interface to bind to: #interface: 0.0.0.0
# Whether the master should listen for IPv6 connections. If this is set to True, # the interface option must be adjusted, too. (For example: "interface: \(aq::\(aq") #ipv6: False
# The tcp port used by the publisher: #publish_port: 4505
# The user under which the salt master will run. Salt will update all # permissions to allow the specified user to run the master. The exception is # the job cache, which must be deleted if this user is changed. If the # modified files cause conflicts, set verify_env to False. #user: root
# The port used by the communication interface. The ret (return) port is the # interface used for the file server, authentication, job returns, etc. #ret_port: 4506
# Specify the location of the daemon process ID file: #pidfile: /var/run/salt-master.pid
# The root directory prepended to these options: pki_dir, cachedir, # sock_dir, log_file, autosign_file, autoreject_file, extension_modules, # key_logfile, pidfile, autosign_grains_dir: #root_dir: /
# The path to the master\(aqs configuration file. #conf_file: /etc/salt/master
# Directory used to store public key data: #pki_dir: /etc/salt/pki/master
# Key cache. Increases master speed for large numbers of accepted # keys. Available options: \(aqsched\(aq. (Updates on a fixed schedule.) # Note that enabling this feature means that minions will not be # available to target for up to the length of the maintanence loop # which by default is 60s. #key_cache: \(aq\(aq
# Directory to store job and cache data: # This directory may contain sensitive data and should be protected accordingly. # #cachedir: /var/cache/salt/master
# Directory for custom modules. This directory can contain subdirectories for # each of Salt\(aqs module types such as "runners", "output", "wheel", "modules", # "states", "returners", "engines", "utils", etc. #extension_modules: /var/cache/salt/master/extmods
# Directory for custom modules. This directory can contain subdirectories for # each of Salt\(aqs module types such as "runners", "output", "wheel", "modules", # "states", "returners", "engines", "utils", etc. # Like \(aqextension_modules\(aq but can take an array of paths #module_dirs: []
# Verify and set permissions on configuration directories at startup: #verify_env: True
# Set the number of hours to keep old job information in the job cache: #keep_jobs: 24
# The number of seconds to wait when the client is requesting information # about running jobs. #gather_job_timeout: 10
# Set the default timeout for the salt command and api. The default is 5 # seconds. #timeout: 5
# The loop_interval option controls the seconds for the master\(aqs maintenance # process check cycle. This process updates file server backends, cleans the # job cache and executes the scheduler. #loop_interval: 60
# Set the default outputter used by the salt command. The default is "nested". #output: nested
# To set a list of additional directories to search for salt outputters, set the # outputter_dirs option. #outputter_dirs: []
# Set the default output file used by the salt command. Default is to output # to the CLI and not to a file. Functions the same way as the "--out-file" # CLI option, only sets this to a single file for all salt commands. #output_file: None
# Return minions that timeout when running commands like test.ping #show_timeout: True
# Tell the client to display the jid when a job is published. #show_jid: False
# By default, output is colored. To disable colored output, set the color value # to False. #color: True
# Do not strip off the colored output from nested results and state outputs # (true by default). # strip_colors: False
# To display a summary of the number of minions targeted, the number of # minions returned, and the number of minions that did not return, set the # cli_summary value to True. (False by default.) # #cli_summary: False
# Set the directory used to hold unix sockets: #sock_dir: /var/run/salt/master
# The master can take a while to start up when lspci and/or dmidecode is used # to populate the grains for the master. Enable if you want to see GPU hardware # data for your master. # enable_gpu_grains: False
# The master maintains a job cache. While this is a great addition, it can be # a burden on the master for larger deployments (over 5000 minions). # Disabling the job cache will make previously executed jobs unavailable to # the jobs system and is not generally recommended. #job_cache: True
# Cache minion grains, pillar and mine data via the cache subsystem in the # cachedir or a database. #minion_data_cache: True
# Cache subsystem module to use for minion data cache. #cache: localfs # Enables a fast in-memory cache booster and sets the expiration time. #memcache_expire_seconds: 0 # Set a memcache limit in items (bank + key) per cache storage (driver + driver_opts). #memcache_max_items: 1024 # Each time a cache storage got full cleanup all the expired items not just the oldest one. #memcache_full_cleanup: False # Enable collecting the memcache stats and log it on `debug` log level. #memcache_debug: False
# Store all returns in the given returner. # Setting this option requires that any returner-specific configuration also # be set. See various returners in salt/returners for details on required # configuration values. (See also, event_return_queue below.) # #event_return: mysql
# On busy systems, enabling event_returns can cause a considerable load on # the storage system for returners. Events can be queued on the master and # stored in a batched fashion using a single transaction for multiple events. # By default, events are not queued. #event_return_queue: 0
# Only return events matching tags in a whitelist, supports glob matches. #event_return_whitelist: # - salt/master/a_tag # - salt/run/*/ret
# Store all event returns **except** the tags in a blacklist, supports globs. #event_return_blacklist: # - salt/master/not_this_tag # - salt/wheel/*/ret
# Passing very large events can cause the minion to consume large amounts of # memory. This value tunes the maximum size of a message allowed onto the # master event bus. The value is expressed in bytes. #max_event_size: 1048576
# Windows platforms lack posix IPC and must rely on slower TCP based inter- # process communications. Set ipc_mode to \(aqtcp\(aq on such systems #ipc_mode: ipc
# Overwrite the default tcp ports used by the minion when ipc_mode is set to \(aqtcp\(aq #tcp_master_pub_port: 4510 #tcp_master_pull_port: 4511
# By default, the master AES key rotates every 24 hours. The next command # following a key rotation will trigger a key refresh from the minion which may # result in minions which do not respond to the first command after a key refresh. # # To tell the master to ping all minions immediately after an AES key refresh, set # ping_on_rotate to True. This should mitigate the issue where a minion does not # appear to initially respond after a key is rotated. # # Note that ping_on_rotate may cause high load on the master immediately after # the key rotation event as minions reconnect. Consider this carefully if this # salt master is managing a large number of minions. # # If disabled, it is recommended to handle this event by listening for the # \(aqaes_key_rotate\(aq event with the \(aqkey\(aq tag and acting appropriately. # ping_on_rotate: False
# By default, the master deletes its cache of minion data when the key for that # minion is removed. To preserve the cache after key deletion, set # \(aqpreserve_minion_cache\(aq to True. # # WARNING: This may have security implications if compromised minions auth with # a previous deleted minion ID. #preserve_minion_cache: False
# Allow or deny minions from requesting their own key revocation #allow_minion_key_revoke: True
# If max_minions is used in large installations, the master might experience # high-load situations because of having to check the number of connected # minions for every authentication. This cache provides the minion-ids of # all connected minions to all MWorker-processes and greatly improves the # performance of max_minions. # con_cache: False
# The master can include configuration from other files. To enable this, # pass a list of paths to this option. The paths can be either relative or # absolute; if relative, they are considered to be relative to the directory # the main master configuration file lives in (this file). Paths can make use # of shell-style globbing. If no files are matched by a path passed to this # option, then the master will log a warning message. # # Include a config file from some other path: # include: /etc/salt/extra_config # # Include config from several files and directories: # include: # - /etc/salt/extra_config

##### Large-scale tuning settings ##### ########################################## # Max open files # # Each minion connecting to the master uses AT LEAST one file descriptor, the # master subscription connection. If enough minions connect you might start # seeing on the console (and then salt-master crashes): # Too many open files (tcp_listener.cpp:335) # Aborted (core dumped) # # By default this value will be the one of `ulimit -Hn`, ie, the hard limit for # max open files. # # If you wish to set a different value than the default one, uncomment and # configure this setting. Remember that this value CANNOT be higher than the # hard limit. Raising the hard limit depends on your OS and/or distribution, # a good way to find the limit is to search the internet. For example: # raise max open files hard limit debian # #max_open_files: 100000
# The number of worker threads to start. These threads are used to manage # return calls made from minions to the master. If the master seems to be # running slowly, increase the number of threads. This setting can not be # set lower than 3. #worker_threads: 5
# Set the ZeroMQ high water marks # http://api.zeromq.org/3-2:zmq-setsockopt
# The listen queue size / backlog #zmq_backlog: 1000
# The publisher interface ZeroMQPubServerChannel #pub_hwm: 1000
# The master may allocate memory per-event and not # reclaim it. # To set a high-water mark for memory allocation, use # ipc_write_buffer to set a high-water mark for message # buffering. # Value: In bytes. Set to \(aqdynamic\(aq to have Salt select # a value for you. Default is disabled. # ipc_write_buffer: \(aqdynamic\(aq
# These two batch settings, batch_safe_limit and batch_safe_size, are used to # automatically switch to a batch mode execution. If a command would have been # sent to more than <batch_safe_limit> minions, then run the command in # batches of <batch_safe_size>. If no batch_safe_size is specified, a default # of 8 will be used. If no batch_safe_limit is specified, then no automatic # batching will occur. #batch_safe_limit: 100 #batch_safe_size: 8
# Master stats enables stats events to be fired from the master at close # to the defined interval #master_stats: False #master_stats_event_iter: 60

##### Security settings ##### ########################################## # Enable passphrase protection of Master private key. Although a string value # is acceptable; passwords should be stored in an external vaulting mechanism # and retrieved via sdb. See https://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/topics/sdb/. # Passphrase protection is off by default but an example of an sdb profile and # query is as follows. # masterkeyring: # driver: keyring # service: system # # key_pass: sdb://masterkeyring/key_pass
# Enable passphrase protection of the Master signing_key. This only applies if # master_sign_pubkey is set to True. This is disabled by default. # master_sign_pubkey: True # signing_key_pass: sdb://masterkeyring/signing_pass
# Enable "open mode", this mode still maintains encryption, but turns off # authentication, this is only intended for highly secure environments or for # the situation where your keys end up in a bad state. If you run in open mode # you do so at your own risk! #open_mode: False
# Enable auto_accept, this setting will automatically accept all incoming # public keys from the minions. Note that this is insecure. #auto_accept: False
# The size of key that should be generated when creating new keys. #keysize: 2048
# Time in minutes that an incoming public key with a matching name found in # pki_dir/minion_autosign/keyid is automatically accepted. Expired autosign keys # are removed when the master checks the minion_autosign directory. # 0 equals no timeout # autosign_timeout: 120
# If the autosign_file is specified, incoming keys specified in the # autosign_file will be automatically accepted. This is insecure. Regular # expressions as well as globing lines are supported. The file must be readonly # except for the owner. Use permissive_pki_access to allow the group write access. #autosign_file: /etc/salt/autosign.conf
# Works like autosign_file, but instead allows you to specify minion IDs for # which keys will automatically be rejected. Will override both membership in # the autosign_file and the auto_accept setting. #autoreject_file: /etc/salt/autoreject.conf
# If the autosign_grains_dir is specified, incoming keys from minons with grain # values matching those defined in files in this directory will be accepted # automatically. This is insecure. Minions need to be configured to send the grains. #autosign_grains_dir: /etc/salt/autosign_grains
# Enable permissive access to the salt keys. This allows you to run the # master or minion as root, but have a non-root group be given access to # your pki_dir. To make the access explicit, root must belong to the group # you\(aqve given access to. This is potentially quite insecure. If an autosign_file # is specified, enabling permissive_pki_access will allow group access to that # specific file. #permissive_pki_access: False
# Allow users on the master access to execute specific commands on minions. # This setting should be treated with care since it opens up execution # capabilities to non root users. By default this capability is completely # disabled. #publisher_acl: # larry: # - test.ping # - network.* # # Blacklist any of the following users or modules # # This example would blacklist all non sudo users, including root from # running any commands. It would also blacklist any use of the "cmd" # module. This is completely disabled by default. # # # Check the list of configured users in client ACL against users on the # system and throw errors if they do not exist. #client_acl_verify: True # #publisher_acl_blacklist: # users: # - root # - \(aq^(?!sudo_).*$\(aq # all non sudo users # modules: # - cmd
# Enforce publisher_acl & publisher_acl_blacklist when users have sudo # access to the salt command. # #sudo_acl: False
# The external auth system uses the Salt auth modules to authenticate and # validate users to access areas of the Salt system. #external_auth: # pam: # fred: # - test.* # # Time (in seconds) for a newly generated token to live. Default: 12 hours #token_expire: 43200 # # Allow eauth users to specify the expiry time of the tokens they generate. # A boolean applies to all users or a dictionary of whitelisted eauth backends # and usernames may be given. # token_expire_user_override: # pam: # - fred # - tom # ldap: # - gary # #token_expire_user_override: False
# Set to True to enable keeping the calculated user\(aqs auth list in the token # file. This is disabled by default and the auth list is calculated or requested # from the eauth driver each time. #keep_acl_in_token: False
# Auth subsystem module to use to get authorized access list for a user. By default it\(aqs # the same module used for external authentication. #eauth_acl_module: django
# Allow minions to push files to the master. This is disabled by default, for # security purposes. #file_recv: False
# Set a hard-limit on the size of the files that can be pushed to the master. # It will be interpreted as megabytes. Default: 100 #file_recv_max_size: 100
# Signature verification on messages published from the master. # This causes the master to cryptographically sign all messages published to its event # bus, and minions then verify that signature before acting on the message. # # This is False by default. # # Note that to facilitate interoperability with masters and minions that are different # versions, if sign_pub_messages is True but a message is received by a minion with # no signature, it will still be accepted, and a warning message will be logged. # Conversely, if sign_pub_messages is False, but a minion receives a signed # message it will be accepted, the signature will not be checked, and a warning message # will be logged. This behavior went away in Salt 2014.1.0 and these two situations # will cause minion to throw an exception and drop the message. # sign_pub_messages: False
# Signature verification on messages published from minions # This requires that minions cryptographically sign the messages they # publish to the master. If minions are not signing, then log this information # at loglevel \(aqINFO\(aq and drop the message without acting on it. # require_minion_sign_messages: False
# The below will drop messages when their signatures do not validate. # Note that when this option is False but `require_minion_sign_messages` is True # minions MUST sign their messages but the validity of their signatures # is ignored. # These two config options exist so a Salt infrastructure can be moved # to signing minion messages gradually. # drop_messages_signature_fail: False
# Use TLS/SSL encrypted connection between master and minion. # Can be set to a dictionary containing keyword arguments corresponding to Python\(aqs # \(aqssl.wrap_socket\(aq method. # Default is None. #ssl: # keyfile: <path_to_keyfile> # certfile: <path_to_certfile> # ssl_version: PROTOCOL_TLSv1_2
##### Salt-SSH Configuration ##### ########################################## # Define the default salt-ssh roster module to use #roster: flat
# Pass in an alternative location for the salt-ssh `flat` roster file #roster_file: /etc/salt/roster
# Define locations for `flat` roster files so they can be chosen when using Salt API. # An administrator can place roster files into these locations. Then when # calling Salt API, parameter \(aqroster_file\(aq should contain a relative path to # these locations. That is, "roster_file=/foo/roster" will be resolved as # "/etc/salt/roster.d/foo/roster" etc. This feature prevents passing insecure # custom rosters through the Salt API. # #rosters: # - /etc/salt/roster.d # - /opt/salt/some/more/rosters
# The ssh password to log in with. #ssh_passwd: \(aq\(aq
#The target system\(aqs ssh port number. #ssh_port: 22
# Comma-separated list of ports to scan. #ssh_scan_ports: 22
# Scanning socket timeout for salt-ssh. #ssh_scan_timeout: 0.01
# Boolean to run command via sudo. #ssh_sudo: False
# Number of seconds to wait for a response when establishing an SSH connection. #ssh_timeout: 60
# The user to log in as. #ssh_user: root
# The log file of the salt-ssh command: #ssh_log_file: /var/log/salt/ssh
# Pass in minion option overrides that will be inserted into the SHIM for # salt-ssh calls. The local minion config is not used for salt-ssh. Can be # overridden on a per-minion basis in the roster (`minion_opts`) #ssh_minion_opts: # gpg_keydir: /root/gpg
# Set this to True to default to using ~/.ssh/id_rsa for salt-ssh # authentication with minions #ssh_use_home_key: False
# Set this to True to default salt-ssh to run with ``-o IdentitiesOnly=yes``. # This option is intended for situations where the ssh-agent offers many # different identities and allows ssh to ignore those identities and use the # only one specified in options. #ssh_identities_only: False
# List-only nodegroups for salt-ssh. Each group must be formed as either a # comma-separated list, or a YAML list. This option is useful to group minions # into easy-to-target groups when using salt-ssh. These groups can then be # targeted with the normal -N argument to salt-ssh. #ssh_list_nodegroups: {}
# salt-ssh has the ability to update the flat roster file if a minion is not # found in the roster. Set this to True to enable it. #ssh_update_roster: False
##### Master Module Management ##### ########################################## # Manage how master side modules are loaded.
# Add any additional locations to look for master runners: #runner_dirs: []
# Add any additional locations to look for master utils: #utils_dirs: []
# Enable Cython for master side modules: #cython_enable: False

##### State System settings ##### ########################################## # The state system uses a "top" file to tell the minions what environment to # use and what modules to use. The state_top file is defined relative to the # root of the base environment as defined in "File Server settings" below. #state_top: top.sls
# The master_tops option replaces the external_nodes option by creating # a plugable system for the generation of external top data. The external_nodes # option is deprecated by the master_tops option. # # To gain the capabilities of the classic external_nodes system, use the # following configuration: # master_tops: # ext_nodes: <Shell command which returns yaml> # #master_tops: {}
# The renderer to use on the minions to render the state data #renderer: jinja|yaml
# Default Jinja environment options for all templates except sls templates #jinja_env: # block_start_string: \(aq{%\(aq # block_end_string: \(aq%}\(aq # variable_start_string: \(aq{{\(aq # variable_end_string: \(aq}}\(aq # comment_start_string: \(aq{#\(aq # comment_end_string: \(aq#}\(aq # line_statement_prefix: # line_comment_prefix: # trim_blocks: False # lstrip_blocks: False # newline_sequence: \(aq\n\(aq # keep_trailing_newline: False
# Jinja environment options for sls templates #jinja_sls_env: # block_start_string: \(aq{%\(aq # block_end_string: \(aq%}\(aq # variable_start_string: \(aq{{\(aq # variable_end_string: \(aq}}\(aq # comment_start_string: \(aq{#\(aq # comment_end_string: \(aq#}\(aq # line_statement_prefix: # line_comment_prefix: # trim_blocks: False # lstrip_blocks: False # newline_sequence: \(aq\n\(aq # keep_trailing_newline: False
# The failhard option tells the minions to stop immediately after the first # failure detected in the state execution, defaults to False #failhard: False
# The state_verbose and state_output settings can be used to change the way # state system data is printed to the display. By default all data is printed. # The state_verbose setting can be set to True or False, when set to False # all data that has a result of True and no changes will be suppressed. #state_verbose: True
# The state_output setting controls which results will be output full multi line # full, terse - each state will be full/terse # mixed - only states with errors will be full # changes - states with changes and errors will be full # full_id, mixed_id, changes_id and terse_id are also allowed; # when set, the state ID will be used as name in the output #state_output: full
# The state_output_diff setting changes whether or not the output from # successful states is returned. Useful when even the terse output of these # states is cluttering the logs. Set it to True to ignore them. #state_output_diff: False
# Automatically aggregate all states that have support for mod_aggregate by # setting to \(aqTrue\(aq. Or pass a list of state module names to automatically # aggregate just those types. # # state_aggregate: # - pkg # #state_aggregate: False
# Send progress events as each function in a state run completes execution # by setting to \(aqTrue\(aq. Progress events are in the format # \(aqsalt/job/<JID>/prog/<MID>/<RUN NUM>\(aq. #state_events: False
##### File Server settings ##### ########################################## # Salt runs a lightweight file server written in zeromq to deliver files to # minions. This file server is built into the master daemon and does not # require a dedicated port.
# The file server works on environments passed to the master, each environment # can have multiple root directories, the subdirectories in the multiple file # roots cannot match, otherwise the downloaded files will not be able to be # reliably ensured. A base environment is required to house the top file. # Example: # file_roots: # base: # - /srv/salt/ # dev: # - /srv/salt/dev/services # - /srv/salt/dev/states # prod: # - /srv/salt/prod/services # - /srv/salt/prod/states # #file_roots: # base: # - /srv/salt #
# The master_roots setting configures a master-only copy of the file_roots dictionary, # used by the state compiler. #master_roots: /srv/salt-master
# When using multiple environments, each with their own top file, the # default behaviour is an unordered merge. To prevent top files from # being merged together and instead to only use the top file from the # requested environment, set this value to \(aqsame\(aq. #top_file_merging_strategy: merge
# To specify the order in which environments are merged, set the ordering # in the env_order option. Given a conflict, the last matching value will # win. #env_order: [\(aqbase\(aq, \(aqdev\(aq, \(aqprod\(aq]
# If top_file_merging_strategy is set to \(aqsame\(aq and an environment does not # contain a top file, the top file in the environment specified by default_top # will be used instead. #default_top: base
# The hash_type is the hash to use when discovering the hash of a file on # the master server. The default is sha256, but md5, sha1, sha224, sha384 and # sha512 are also supported. # # WARNING: While md5 and sha1 are also supported, do not use them due to the # high chance of possible collisions and thus security breach. # # Prior to changing this value, the master should be stopped and all Salt # caches should be cleared. #hash_type: sha256
# The buffer size in the file server can be adjusted here: #file_buffer_size: 1048576
# A regular expression (or a list of expressions) that will be matched # against the file path before syncing the modules and states to the minions. # This includes files affected by the file.recurse state. # For example, if you manage your custom modules and states in subversion # and don\(aqt want all the \(aq.svn\(aq folders and content synced to your minions, # you could set this to \(aq/\.svn($|/)\(aq. By default nothing is ignored. #file_ignore_regex: # - \(aq/\.svn($|/)\(aq # - \(aq/\.git($|/)\(aq
# A file glob (or list of file globs) that will be matched against the file # path before syncing the modules and states to the minions. This is similar # to file_ignore_regex above, but works on globs instead of regex. By default # nothing is ignored. # file_ignore_glob: # - \(aq*.pyc\(aq # - \(aq*/somefolder/*.bak\(aq # - \(aq*.swp\(aq
# File Server Backend # # Salt supports a modular fileserver backend system, this system allows # the salt master to link directly to third party systems to gather and # manage the files available to minions. Multiple backends can be # configured and will be searched for the requested file in the order in which # they are defined here. The default setting only enables the standard backend # "roots" which uses the "file_roots" option. #fileserver_backend: # - roots # # To use multiple backends list them in the order they are searched: #fileserver_backend: # - git # - roots # # Uncomment the line below if you do not want the file_server to follow # symlinks when walking the filesystem tree. This is set to True # by default. Currently this only applies to the default roots # fileserver_backend. #fileserver_followsymlinks: False # # Uncomment the line below if you do not want symlinks to be # treated as the files they are pointing to. By default this is set to # False. By uncommenting the line below, any detected symlink while listing # files on the Master will not be returned to the Minion. #fileserver_ignoresymlinks: True # # By default, the Salt fileserver recurses fully into all defined environments # to attempt to find files. To limit this behavior so that the fileserver only # traverses directories with SLS files and special Salt directories like _modules, # enable the option below. This might be useful for installations where a file root # has a very large number of files and performance is impacted. Default is False. # fileserver_limit_traversal: False # # The fileserver can fire events off every time the fileserver is updated, # these are disabled by default, but can be easily turned on by setting this # flag to True #fileserver_events: False
# Git File Server Backend Configuration # # Optional parameter used to specify the provider to be used for gitfs. Must be # either pygit2 or gitpython. If unset, then both will be tried (in that # order), and the first one with a compatible version installed will be the # provider that is used. # #gitfs_provider: pygit2
# Along with gitfs_password, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes. # gitfs_user: \(aq\(aq
# Along with gitfs_user, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes. # This parameter is not required if the repository does not use authentication. #gitfs_password: \(aq\(aq
# By default, Salt will not authenticate to an HTTP (non-HTTPS) remote. # This parameter enables authentication over HTTP. Enable this at your own risk. #gitfs_insecure_auth: False
# Along with gitfs_privkey (and optionally gitfs_passphrase), is used to # authenticate to SSH remotes. This parameter (or its per-remote counterpart) # is required for SSH remotes. #gitfs_pubkey: \(aq\(aq
# Along with gitfs_pubkey (and optionally gitfs_passphrase), is used to # authenticate to SSH remotes. This parameter (or its per-remote counterpart) # is required for SSH remotes. #gitfs_privkey: \(aq\(aq
# This parameter is optional, required only when the SSH key being used to # authenticate is protected by a passphrase. #gitfs_passphrase: \(aq\(aq
# When using the git fileserver backend at least one git remote needs to be # defined. The user running the salt master will need read access to the repo. # # The repos will be searched in order to find the file requested by a client # and the first repo to have the file will return it. # When using the git backend branches and tags are translated into salt # environments. # Note: file:// repos will be treated as a remote, so refs you want used must # exist in that repo as *local* refs. #gitfs_remotes: # - git://github.com/saltstack/salt-states.git # - file:///var/git/saltmaster # # The gitfs_ssl_verify option specifies whether to ignore ssl certificate # errors when contacting the gitfs backend. You might want to set this to # false if you\(aqre using a git backend that uses a self-signed certificate but # keep in mind that setting this flag to anything other than the default of True # is a security concern, you may want to try using the ssh transport. #gitfs_ssl_verify: True # # The gitfs_root option gives the ability to serve files from a subdirectory # within the repository. The path is defined relative to the root of the # repository and defaults to the repository root. #gitfs_root: somefolder/otherfolder # # The refspecs fetched by gitfs remotes #gitfs_refspecs: # - \(aq+refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*\(aq # - \(aq+refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*\(aq # # ##### Pillar settings ##### ########################################## # Salt Pillars allow for the building of global data that can be made selectively # available to different minions based on minion grain filtering. The Salt # Pillar is laid out in the same fashion as the file server, with environments, # a top file and sls files. However, pillar data does not need to be in the # highstate format, and is generally just key/value pairs. #pillar_roots: # base: # - /srv/pillar # #ext_pillar: # - hiera: /etc/hiera.yaml # - cmd_yaml: cat /etc/salt/yaml

# A list of paths to be recursively decrypted during pillar compilation. # Entries in this list can be formatted either as a simple string, or as a # key/value pair, with the key being the pillar location, and the value being # the renderer to use for pillar decryption. If the former is used, the # renderer specified by decrypt_pillar_default will be used. #decrypt_pillar: # - \(aqfoo:bar\(aq: gpg # - \(aqlorem:ipsum:dolor\(aq
# The delimiter used to distinguish nested data structures in the # decrypt_pillar option. #decrypt_pillar_delimiter: \(aq:\(aq
# The default renderer used for decryption, if one is not specified for a given # pillar key in decrypt_pillar. #decrypt_pillar_default: gpg
# List of renderers which are permitted to be used for pillar decryption. #decrypt_pillar_renderers: # - gpg
# The ext_pillar_first option allows for external pillar sources to populate # before file system pillar. This allows for targeting file system pillar from # ext_pillar. #ext_pillar_first: False
# The external pillars permitted to be used on-demand using pillar.ext #on_demand_ext_pillar: # - libvirt # - virtkey
# The pillar_gitfs_ssl_verify option specifies whether to ignore ssl certificate # errors when contacting the pillar gitfs backend. You might want to set this to # false if you\(aqre using a git backend that uses a self-signed certificate but # keep in mind that setting this flag to anything other than the default of True # is a security concern, you may want to try using the ssh transport. #pillar_gitfs_ssl_verify: True
# The pillar_opts option adds the master configuration file data to a dict in # the pillar called "master". This is used to set simple configurations in the # master config file that can then be used on minions. #pillar_opts: False
# The pillar_safe_render_error option prevents the master from passing pillar # render errors to the minion. This is set on by default because the error could # contain templating data which would give that minion information it shouldn\(aqt # have, like a password! When set true the error message will only show: # Rendering SLS \(aqmy.sls\(aq failed. Please see master log for details. #pillar_safe_render_error: True
# The pillar_source_merging_strategy option allows you to configure merging strategy # between different sources. It accepts five values: none, recurse, aggregate, overwrite, # or smart. None will not do any merging at all. Recurse will merge recursively mapping of data. # Aggregate instructs aggregation of elements between sources that use the #!yamlex renderer. Overwrite # will overwrite elements according the order in which they are processed. This is # behavior of the 2014.1 branch and earlier. Smart guesses the best strategy based # on the "renderer" setting and is the default value. #pillar_source_merging_strategy: smart
# Recursively merge lists by aggregating them instead of replacing them. #pillar_merge_lists: False
# Set this option to True to force the pillarenv to be the same as the effective # saltenv when running states. If pillarenv is specified this option will be # ignored. #pillarenv_from_saltenv: False
# Set this option to \(aqTrue\(aq to force a \(aqKeyError\(aq to be raised whenever an # attempt to retrieve a named value from pillar fails. When this option is set # to \(aqFalse\(aq, the failed attempt returns an empty string. Default is \(aqFalse\(aq. #pillar_raise_on_missing: False
# Git External Pillar (git_pillar) Configuration Options # # Specify the provider to be used for git_pillar. Must be either pygit2 or # gitpython. If unset, then both will be tried in that same order, and the # first one with a compatible version installed will be the provider that # is used. #git_pillar_provider: pygit2
# If the desired branch matches this value, and the environment is omitted # from the git_pillar configuration, then the environment for that git_pillar # remote will be base. #git_pillar_base: master
# If the branch is omitted from a git_pillar remote, then this branch will # be used instead #git_pillar_branch: master
# Environment to use for git_pillar remotes. This is normally derived from # the branch/tag (or from a per-remote env parameter), but if set this will # override the process of deriving the env from the branch/tag name. #git_pillar_env: \(aq\(aq
# Path relative to the root of the repository where the git_pillar top file # and SLS files are located. #git_pillar_root: \(aq\(aq
# Specifies whether or not to ignore SSL certificate errors when contacting # the remote repository. #git_pillar_ssl_verify: False
# When set to False, if there is an update/checkout lock for a git_pillar # remote and the pid written to it is not running on the master, the lock # file will be automatically cleared and a new lock will be obtained. #git_pillar_global_lock: True
# Git External Pillar Authentication Options # # Along with git_pillar_password, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes. #git_pillar_user: \(aq\(aq
# Along with git_pillar_user, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes. # This parameter is not required if the repository does not use authentication. #git_pillar_password: \(aq\(aq
# By default, Salt will not authenticate to an HTTP (non-HTTPS) remote. # This parameter enables authentication over HTTP. #git_pillar_insecure_auth: False
# Along with git_pillar_privkey (and optionally git_pillar_passphrase), # is used to authenticate to SSH remotes. #git_pillar_pubkey: \(aq\(aq
# Along with git_pillar_pubkey (and optionally git_pillar_passphrase), # is used to authenticate to SSH remotes. #git_pillar_privkey: \(aq\(aq
# This parameter is optional, required only when the SSH key being used # to authenticate is protected by a passphrase. #git_pillar_passphrase: \(aq\(aq
# The refspecs fetched by git_pillar remotes #git_pillar_refspecs: # - \(aq+refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*\(aq # - \(aq+refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*\(aq
# A master can cache pillars locally to bypass the expense of having to render them # for each minion on every request. This feature should only be enabled in cases # where pillar rendering time is known to be unsatisfactory and any attendant security # concerns about storing pillars in a master cache have been addressed. # # When enabling this feature, be certain to read through the additional ``pillar_cache_*`` # configuration options to fully understand the tunable parameters and their implications. # # Note: setting ``pillar_cache: True`` has no effect on targeting Minions with Pillars. # See https://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/topics/targeting/pillar.html #pillar_cache: False
# If and only if a master has set ``pillar_cache: True``, the cache TTL controls the amount # of time, in seconds, before the cache is considered invalid by a master and a fresh # pillar is recompiled and stored. #pillar_cache_ttl: 3600
# If and only if a master has set `pillar_cache: True`, one of several storage providers # can be utilized. # # `disk`: The default storage backend. This caches rendered pillars to the master cache. # Rendered pillars are serialized and deserialized as msgpack structures for speed. # Note that pillars are stored UNENCRYPTED. Ensure that the master cache # has permissions set appropriately. (Same defaults are provided.) # # memory: [EXPERIMENTAL] An optional backend for pillar caches which uses a pure-Python # in-memory data structure for maximal performance. There are several caveats, # however. First, because each master worker contains its own in-memory cache, # there is no guarantee of cache consistency between minion requests. This # works best in situations where the pillar rarely if ever changes. Secondly, # and perhaps more importantly, this means that unencrypted pillars will # be accessible to any process which can examine the memory of the ``salt-master``! # This may represent a substantial security risk. # #pillar_cache_backend: disk

###### Reactor Settings ##### ########################################### # Define a salt reactor. See https://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/topics/reactor/ #reactor: []
#Set the TTL for the cache of the reactor configuration. #reactor_refresh_interval: 60
#Configure the number of workers for the runner/wheel in the reactor. #reactor_worker_threads: 10
#Define the queue size for workers in the reactor. #reactor_worker_hwm: 10000

##### Syndic settings ##### ########################################## # The Salt syndic is used to pass commands through a master from a higher # master. Using the syndic is simple. If this is a master that will have # syndic servers(s) below it, then set the "order_masters" setting to True. # # If this is a master that will be running a syndic daemon for passthrough, then # the "syndic_master" setting needs to be set to the location of the master server # to receive commands from.
# Set the order_masters setting to True if this master will command lower # masters\(aq syndic interfaces. #order_masters: False
# If this master will be running a salt syndic daemon, syndic_master tells # this master where to receive commands from. #syndic_master: masterofmasters
# This is the \(aqret_port\(aq of the MasterOfMaster: #syndic_master_port: 4506
# PID file of the syndic daemon: #syndic_pidfile: /var/run/salt-syndic.pid
# The log file of the salt-syndic daemon: #syndic_log_file: /var/log/salt/syndic
# The behaviour of the multi-syndic when connection to a master of masters failed. # Can specify ``random`` (default) or ``ordered``. If set to ``random``, masters # will be iterated in random order. If ``ordered`` is specified, the configured # order will be used. #syndic_failover: random
# The number of seconds for the salt client to wait for additional syndics to # check in with their lists of expected minions before giving up. #syndic_wait: 5

##### Peer Publish settings ##### ########################################## # Salt minions can send commands to other minions, but only if the minion is # allowed to. By default "Peer Publication" is disabled, and when enabled it # is enabled for specific minions and specific commands. This allows secure # compartmentalization of commands based on individual minions.
# The configuration uses regular expressions to match minions and then a list # of regular expressions to match functions. The following will allow the # minion authenticated as foo.example.com to execute functions from the test # and pkg modules. #peer: # foo.example.com: # - test.* # - pkg.* # # This will allow all minions to execute all commands: #peer: # .*: # - .* # # This is not recommended, since it would allow anyone who gets root on any # single minion to instantly have root on all of the minions!
# Minions can also be allowed to execute runners from the salt master. # Since executing a runner from the minion could be considered a security risk, # it needs to be enabled. This setting functions just like the peer setting # except that it opens up runners instead of module functions. # # All peer runner support is turned off by default and must be enabled before # using. This will enable all peer runners for all minions: #peer_run: # .*: # - .* # # To enable just the manage.up runner for the minion foo.example.com: #peer_run: # foo.example.com: # - manage.up # # ##### Mine settings ##### ##################################### # Restrict mine.get access from minions. By default any minion has a full access # to get all mine data from master cache. In acl definion below, only pcre matches # are allowed. # mine_get: # .*: # - .* # # The example below enables minion foo.example.com to get \(aqnetwork.interfaces\(aq mine # data only, minions web* to get all network.* and disk.* mine data and all other # minions won\(aqt get any mine data. # mine_get: # foo.example.com: # - network.interfaces # web.*: # - network.* # - disk.*

##### Logging settings ##### ########################################## # The location of the master log file # The master log can be sent to a regular file, local path name, or network # location. Remote logging works best when configured to use rsyslogd(8) (e.g.: # ``file:///dev/log``), with rsyslogd(8) configured for network logging. The URI # format is: <file|udp|tcp>://<host|socketpath>:<port-if-required>/<log-facility> #log_file: /var/log/salt/master #log_file: file:///dev/log #log_file: udp://loghost:10514
#log_file: /var/log/salt/master #key_logfile: /var/log/salt/key
# The level of messages to send to the console. # One of \(aqgarbage\(aq, \(aqtrace\(aq, \(aqdebug\(aq, info\(aq, \(aqwarning\(aq, \(aqerror\(aq, \(aqcritical\(aq. # # The following log levels are considered INSECURE and may log sensitive data: # [\(aqgarbage\(aq, \(aqtrace\(aq, \(aqdebug\(aq] # #log_level: warning
# The level of messages to send to the log file. # One of \(aqgarbage\(aq, \(aqtrace\(aq, \(aqdebug\(aq, \(aqinfo\(aq, \(aqwarning\(aq, \(aqerror\(aq, \(aqcritical\(aq. # If using \(aqlog_granular_levels\(aq this must be set to the highest desired level. #log_level_logfile: warning
# The date and time format used in log messages. Allowed date/time formatting # can be seen here: http://docs.python.org/library/time.html#time.strftime #log_datefmt: \(aq%H:%M:%S\(aq #log_datefmt_logfile: \(aq%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S\(aq
# The format of the console logging messages. Allowed formatting options can # be seen here: http://docs.python.org/library/logging.html#logrecord-attributes # # Console log colors are specified by these additional formatters: # # %(colorlevel)s # %(colorname)s # %(colorprocess)s # %(colormsg)s # # Since it is desirable to include the surrounding brackets, \(aq[\(aq and \(aq]\(aq, in # the coloring of the messages, these color formatters also include padding as # well. Color LogRecord attributes are only available for console logging. # #log_fmt_console: \(aq%(colorlevel)s %(colormsg)s\(aq #log_fmt_console: \(aq[%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s\(aq # #log_fmt_logfile: \(aq%(asctime)s,%(msecs)03d [%(name)-17s][%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s\(aq
# This can be used to control logging levels more specificically. This # example sets the main salt library at the \(aqwarning\(aq level, but sets # \(aqsalt.modules\(aq to log at the \(aqdebug\(aq level: # log_granular_levels: # \(aqsalt\(aq: \(aqwarning\(aq # \(aqsalt.modules\(aq: \(aqdebug\(aq # #log_granular_levels: {}

##### Node Groups ###### ########################################## # Node groups allow for logical groupings of minion nodes. A group consists of # a group name and a compound target. Nodgroups can reference other nodegroups # with \(aqN@\(aq classifier. Ensure that you do not have circular references. # #nodegroups: # group1: \(aq,bar.domain.com,baz.domain.com or bl*.domain.com\(aq # group2: \(aqG@os:Debian and foo.domain.com\(aq # group3: \(aqG@os:Debian and N@group1\(aq # group4: # - \(aqG@foo:bar\(aq # - \(aqor\(aq # - \(aqG@foo:baz\(aq

##### Range Cluster settings ##### ########################################## # The range server (and optional port) that serves your cluster information # https://github.com/ytoolshed/range/wiki/%22yamlfile%22-module-file-spec # #range_server: range:80

##### Windows Software Repo settings ##### ########################################### # Location of the repo on the master: #winrepo_dir_ng: \(aq/srv/salt/win/repo-ng\(aq # # List of git repositories to include with the local repo: #winrepo_remotes_ng: # - \(aqhttps://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo-ng.git\(aq

##### Windows Software Repo settings - Pre 2015.8 ##### ######################################################## # Legacy repo settings for pre-2015.8 Windows minions. # # Location of the repo on the master: #winrepo_dir: \(aq/srv/salt/win/repo\(aq # # Location of the master\(aqs repo cache file: #winrepo_mastercachefile: \(aq/srv/salt/win/repo/winrepo.p\(aq # # List of git repositories to include with the local repo: #winrepo_remotes: # - \(aqhttps://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo.git\(aq
# The refspecs fetched by winrepo remotes #winrepo_refspecs: # - \(aq+refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*\(aq # - \(aq+refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*\(aq #
##### Returner settings ###### ############################################ # Which returner(s) will be used for minion\(aqs result: #return: mysql

###### Miscellaneous settings ###### ############################################ # Default match type for filtering events tags: startswith, endswith, find, regex, fnmatch #event_match_type: startswith
# Save runner returns to the job cache #runner_returns: True
# Permanently include any available Python 3rd party modules into thin and minimal Salt # when they are generated for Salt-SSH or other purposes. # The modules should be named by the names they are actually imported inside the Python. # The value of the parameters can be either one module or a comma separated list of them. #thin_extra_mods: foo,bar #min_extra_mods: foo,bar,baz

###### Keepalive settings ###### ############################################ # Warning: Failure to set TCP keepalives on the salt-master can result in # not detecting the loss of a minion when the connection is lost or when # it\(aqs host has been terminated without first closing the socket. # Salt\(aqs Presence System depends on this connection status to know if a minion # is "present". # ZeroMQ now includes support for configuring SO_KEEPALIVE if supported by # the OS. If connections between the minion and the master pass through # a state tracking device such as a firewall or VPN gateway, there is # the risk that it could tear down the connection the master and minion # without informing either party that their connection has been taken away. # Enabling TCP Keepalives prevents this from happening.
# Overall state of TCP Keepalives, enable (1 or True), disable (0 or False) # or leave to the OS defaults (-1), on Linux, typically disabled. Default True, enabled. #tcp_keepalive: True
# How long before the first keepalive should be sent in seconds. Default 300 # to send the first keepalive after 5 minutes, OS default (-1) is typically 7200 seconds # on Linux see /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_time. #tcp_keepalive_idle: 300
# How many lost probes are needed to consider the connection lost. Default -1 # to use OS defaults, typically 9 on Linux, see /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_probes. #tcp_keepalive_cnt: -1
# How often, in seconds, to send keepalives after the first one. Default -1 to # use OS defaults, typically 75 seconds on Linux, see # /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_intvl. #tcp_keepalive_intvl: -1

Example minion configuration file

##### Primary configuration settings #####
##########################################
# This configuration file is used to manage the behavior of the Salt Minion.
# With the exception of the location of the Salt Master Server, values that are
# commented out but have an empty line after the comment are defaults that need
# not be set in the config. If there is no blank line after the comment, the
# value is presented as an example and is not the default.

# Per default the minion will automatically include all config files # from minion.d/*.conf (minion.d is a directory in the same directory # as the main minion config file). #default_include: minion.d/*.conf
# Set the location of the salt master server. If the master server cannot be # resolved, then the minion will fail to start. #master: salt
# Set http proxy information for the minion when doing requests #proxy_host: #proxy_port: #proxy_username: #proxy_password:
# List of hosts to bypass HTTP proxy. This key does nothing unless proxy_host etc is # configured, it does not support any kind of wildcards. #no_proxy: []
# If multiple masters are specified in the \(aqmaster\(aq setting, the default behavior # is to always try to connect to them in the order they are listed. If random_master # is set to True, the order will be randomized upon Minion startup instead. This can # be helpful in distributing the load of many minions executing salt-call requests, # for example, from a cron job. If only one master is listed, this setting is ignored # and a warning will be logged. #random_master: False
# NOTE: Deprecated in Salt Fluorine. Use \(aqrandom_master\(aq instead. #master_shuffle: False
# Minions can connect to multiple masters simultaneously (all masters # are "hot"), or can be configured to failover if a master becomes # unavailable. Multiple hot masters are configured by setting this # value to "str". Failover masters can be requested by setting # to "failover". MAKE SURE TO SET master_alive_interval if you are # using failover. # Setting master_type to \(aqdisable\(aq let\(aqs you have a running minion (with engines and # beacons) without a master connection # master_type: str
# Poll interval in seconds for checking if the master is still there. Only # respected if master_type above is "failover". To disable the interval entirely, # set the value to -1. (This may be necessary on machines which have high numbers # of TCP connections, such as load balancers.) # master_alive_interval: 30
# If the minion is in multi-master mode and the master_type configuration option # is set to "failover", this setting can be set to "True" to force the minion # to fail back to the first master in the list if the first master is back online. #master_failback: False
# If the minion is in multi-master mode, the "master_type" configuration is set to # "failover", and the "master_failback" option is enabled, the master failback # interval can be set to ping the top master with this interval, in seconds. #master_failback_interval: 0
# Set whether the minion should connect to the master via IPv6: #ipv6: False
# Set the number of seconds to wait before attempting to resolve # the master hostname if name resolution fails. Defaults to 30 seconds. # Set to zero if the minion should shutdown and not retry. # retry_dns: 30
# Set the number of times to attempt to resolve # the master hostname if name resolution fails. Defaults to None, # which will attempt the resolution indefinitely. # retry_dns_count: 3
# Set the port used by the master reply and authentication server. #master_port: 4506
# The user to run salt. #user: root
# The user to run salt remote execution commands as via sudo. If this option is # enabled then sudo will be used to change the active user executing the remote # command. If enabled the user will need to be allowed access via the sudoers # file for the user that the salt minion is configured to run as. The most # common option would be to use the root user. If this option is set the user # option should also be set to a non-root user. If migrating from a root minion # to a non root minion the minion cache should be cleared and the minion pki # directory will need to be changed to the ownership of the new user. #sudo_user: root
# Specify the location of the daemon process ID file. #pidfile: /var/run/salt-minion.pid
# The root directory prepended to these options: pki_dir, cachedir, log_file, # sock_dir, pidfile. #root_dir: /
# The path to the minion\(aqs configuration file. #conf_file: /etc/salt/minion
# The directory to store the pki information in #pki_dir: /etc/salt/pki/minion
# Explicitly declare the id for this minion to use, if left commented the id # will be the hostname as returned by the python call: socket.getfqdn() # Since salt uses detached ids it is possible to run multiple minions on the # same machine but with different ids, this can be useful for salt compute # clusters. #id:
# Cache the minion id to a file when the minion\(aqs id is not statically defined # in the minion config. Defaults to "True". This setting prevents potential # problems when automatic minion id resolution changes, which can cause the # minion to lose connection with the master. To turn off minion id caching, # set this config to ``False``. #minion_id_caching: True
# Append a domain to a hostname in the event that it does not exist. This is # useful for systems where socket.getfqdn() does not actually result in a # FQDN (for instance, Solaris). #append_domain:
# Custom static grains for this minion can be specified here and used in SLS # files just like all other grains. This example sets 4 custom grains, with # the \(aqroles\(aq grain having two values that can be matched against. #grains: # roles: # - webserver # - memcache # deployment: datacenter4 # cabinet: 13 # cab_u: 14-15 # # Where cache data goes. # This data may contain sensitive data and should be protected accordingly. #cachedir: /var/cache/salt/minion
# Append minion_id to these directories. Helps with # multiple proxies and minions running on the same machine. # Allowed elements in the list: pki_dir, cachedir, extension_modules # Normally not needed unless running several proxies and/or minions on the same machine # Defaults to [\(aqcachedir\(aq] for proxies, [] (empty list) for regular minions #append_minionid_config_dirs:
# Verify and set permissions on configuration directories at startup. #verify_env: True
# The minion can locally cache the return data from jobs sent to it, this # can be a good way to keep track of jobs the minion has executed # (on the minion side). By default this feature is disabled, to enable, set # cache_jobs to True. #cache_jobs: False
# Set the directory used to hold unix sockets. #sock_dir: /var/run/salt/minion
# The minion can take a while to start up when lspci and/or dmidecode is used # to populate the grains for the minion. Set this to False if you do not need # GPU hardware grains for your minion. # enable_gpu_grains: True
# Set the default outputter used by the salt-call command. The default is # "nested". #output: nested
# To set a list of additional directories to search for salt outputters, set the # outputter_dirs option. #outputter_dirs: []
# By default output is colored. To disable colored output, set the color value # to False. #color: True
# Do not strip off the colored output from nested results and state outputs # (true by default). # strip_colors: False
# Backup files that are replaced by file.managed and file.recurse under # \(aqcachedir\(aq/file_backup relative to their original location and appended # with a timestamp. The only valid setting is "minion". Disabled by default. # # Alternatively this can be specified for each file in state files: # /etc/ssh/sshd_config: # file.managed: # - source: salt://ssh/sshd_config # - backup: minion # #backup_mode: minion
# When waiting for a master to accept the minion\(aqs public key, salt will # continuously attempt to reconnect until successful. This is the time, in # seconds, between those reconnection attempts. #acceptance_wait_time: 10
# If this is nonzero, the time between reconnection attempts will increase by # acceptance_wait_time seconds per iteration, up to this maximum. If this is # set to zero, the time between reconnection attempts will stay constant. #acceptance_wait_time_max: 0
# If the master rejects the minion\(aqs public key, retry instead of exiting. # Rejected keys will be handled the same as waiting on acceptance. #rejected_retry: False
# When the master key changes, the minion will try to re-auth itself to receive # the new master key. In larger environments this can cause a SYN flood on the # master because all minions try to re-auth immediately. To prevent this and # have a minion wait for a random amount of time, use this optional parameter. # The wait-time will be a random number of seconds between 0 and the defined value. #random_reauth_delay: 60

# To avoid overloading a master when many minions startup at once, a randomized # delay may be set to tell the minions to wait before connecting to the master. # This value is the number of seconds to choose from for a random number. For # example, setting this value to 60 will choose a random number of seconds to delay # on startup between zero seconds and sixty seconds. Setting to \(aq0\(aq will disable # this feature. #random_startup_delay: 0
# When waiting for a master to accept the minion\(aqs public key, salt will # continuously attempt to reconnect until successful. This is the timeout value, # in seconds, for each individual attempt. After this timeout expires, the minion # will wait for acceptance_wait_time seconds before trying again. Unless your master # is under unusually heavy load, this should be left at the default. #auth_timeout: 60
# Number of consecutive SaltReqTimeoutError that are acceptable when trying to # authenticate. #auth_tries: 7
# The number of attempts to connect to a master before giving up. # Set this to -1 for unlimited attempts. This allows for a master to have # downtime and the minion to reconnect to it later when it comes back up. # In \(aqfailover\(aq mode, it is the number of attempts for each set of masters. # In this mode, it will cycle through the list of masters for each attempt. # # This is different than auth_tries because auth_tries attempts to # retry auth attempts with a single master. auth_tries is under the # assumption that you can connect to the master but not gain # authorization from it. master_tries will still cycle through all # the masters in a given try, so it is appropriate if you expect # occasional downtime from the master(s). #master_tries: 1
# If authentication fails due to SaltReqTimeoutError during a ping_interval, # cause sub minion process to restart. #auth_safemode: False
# Ping Master to ensure connection is alive (minutes). #ping_interval: 0
# To auto recover minions if master changes IP address (DDNS) # auth_tries: 10 # auth_safemode: False # ping_interval: 2 # # Minions won\(aqt know master is missing until a ping fails. After the ping fail, # the minion will attempt authentication and likely fails out and cause a restart. # When the minion restarts it will resolve the masters IP and attempt to reconnect.
# If you don\(aqt have any problems with syn-floods, don\(aqt bother with the # three recon_* settings described below, just leave the defaults! # # The ZeroMQ pull-socket that binds to the masters publishing interface tries # to reconnect immediately, if the socket is disconnected (for example if # the master processes are restarted). In large setups this will have all # minions reconnect immediately which might flood the master (the ZeroMQ-default # is usually a 100ms delay). To prevent this, these three recon_* settings # can be used. # recon_default: the interval in milliseconds that the socket should wait before # trying to reconnect to the master (1000ms = 1 second) # # recon_max: the maximum time a socket should wait. each interval the time to wait # is calculated by doubling the previous time. if recon_max is reached, # it starts again at recon_default. Short example: # # reconnect 1: the socket will wait \(aqrecon_default\(aq milliseconds # reconnect 2: \(aqrecon_default\(aq * 2 # reconnect 3: (\(aqrecon_default\(aq * 2) * 2 # reconnect 4: value from previous interval * 2 # reconnect 5: value from previous interval * 2 # reconnect x: if value >= recon_max, it starts again with recon_default # # recon_randomize: generate a random wait time on minion start. The wait time will # be a random value between recon_default and recon_default + # recon_max. Having all minions reconnect with the same recon_default # and recon_max value kind of defeats the purpose of being able to # change these settings. If all minions have the same values and your # setup is quite large (several thousand minions), they will still # flood the master. The desired behavior is to have timeframe within # all minions try to reconnect. # # Example on how to use these settings. The goal: have all minions reconnect within a # 60 second timeframe on a disconnect. # recon_default: 1000 # recon_max: 59000 # recon_randomize: True # # Each minion will have a randomized reconnect value between \(aqrecon_default\(aq # and \(aqrecon_default + recon_max\(aq, which in this example means between 1000ms # 60000ms (or between 1 and 60 seconds). The generated random-value will be # doubled after each attempt to reconnect. Lets say the generated random # value is 11 seconds (or 11000ms). # reconnect 1: wait 11 seconds # reconnect 2: wait 22 seconds # reconnect 3: wait 33 seconds # reconnect 4: wait 44 seconds # reconnect 5: wait 55 seconds # reconnect 6: wait time is bigger than 60 seconds (recon_default + recon_max) # reconnect 7: wait 11 seconds # reconnect 8: wait 22 seconds # reconnect 9: wait 33 seconds # reconnect x: etc. # # In a setup with ~6000 thousand hosts these settings would average the reconnects # to about 100 per second and all hosts would be reconnected within 60 seconds. # recon_default: 100 # recon_max: 5000 # recon_randomize: False # # # The loop_interval sets how long in seconds the minion will wait between # evaluating the scheduler and running cleanup tasks. This defaults to 1 # second on the minion scheduler. #loop_interval: 1
# Some installations choose to start all job returns in a cache or a returner # and forgo sending the results back to a master. In this workflow, jobs # are most often executed with --async from the Salt CLI and then results # are evaluated by examining job caches on the minions or any configured returners. # WARNING: Setting this to False will **disable** returns back to the master. #pub_ret: True

# The grains can be merged, instead of overridden, using this option. # This allows custom grains to defined different subvalues of a dictionary # grain. By default this feature is disabled, to enable set grains_deep_merge # to ``True``. #grains_deep_merge: False
# The grains_refresh_every setting allows for a minion to periodically check # its grains to see if they have changed and, if so, to inform the master # of the new grains. This operation is moderately expensive, therefore # care should be taken not to set this value too low. # # Note: This value is expressed in __minutes__! # # A value of 10 minutes is a reasonable default. # # If the value is set to zero, this check is disabled. #grains_refresh_every: 1
# Cache grains on the minion. Default is False. #grains_cache: False
# Cache rendered pillar data on the minion. Default is False. # This may cause \(aqcachedir\(aq/pillar to contain sensitive data that should be # protected accordingly. #minion_pillar_cache: False
# Grains cache expiration, in seconds. If the cache file is older than this # number of seconds then the grains cache will be dumped and fully re-populated # with fresh data. Defaults to 5 minutes. Will have no effect if \(aqgrains_cache\(aq # is not enabled. # grains_cache_expiration: 300
# Determines whether or not the salt minion should run scheduled mine updates. # Defaults to "True". Set to "False" to disable the scheduled mine updates # (this essentially just does not add the mine update function to the minion\(aqs # scheduler). #mine_enabled: True
# Determines whether or not scheduled mine updates should be accompanied by a job # return for the job cache. Defaults to "False". Set to "True" to include job # returns in the job cache for mine updates. #mine_return_job: False
# Example functions that can be run via the mine facility # NO mine functions are established by default. # Note these can be defined in the minion\(aqs pillar as well. #mine_functions: # test.ping: [] # network.ip_addrs: # interface: eth0 # cidr: \(aq10.0.0.0/8\(aq
# The number of minutes between mine updates. #mine_interval: 60
# Windows platforms lack posix IPC and must rely on slower TCP based inter- # process communications. Set ipc_mode to \(aqtcp\(aq on such systems #ipc_mode: ipc
# Overwrite the default tcp ports used by the minion when ipc_mode is set to \(aqtcp\(aq #tcp_pub_port: 4510 #tcp_pull_port: 4511
# Passing very large events can cause the minion to consume large amounts of # memory. This value tunes the maximum size of a message allowed onto the # minion event bus. The value is expressed in bytes. #max_event_size: 1048576
# When a minion starts up it sends a notification on the event bus with a tag # that looks like this: `salt/minion/<minion_id>/start`. For historical reasons # the minion also sends a similar event with an event tag like this: # `minion_start`. This duplication can cause a lot of clutter on the event bus # when there are many minions. Set `enable_legacy_startup_events: False` in the # minion config to ensure only the `salt/minion/<minion_id>/start` events are # sent. Beginning with the `Sodium` Salt release this option will default to # `False` #enable_legacy_startup_events: True
# To detect failed master(s) and fire events on connect/disconnect, set # master_alive_interval to the number of seconds to poll the masters for # connection events. # #master_alive_interval: 30
# The minion can include configuration from other files. To enable this, # pass a list of paths to this option. The paths can be either relative or # absolute; if relative, they are considered to be relative to the directory # the main minion configuration file lives in (this file). Paths can make use # of shell-style globbing. If no files are matched by a path passed to this # option then the minion will log a warning message. # # Include a config file from some other path: # include: /etc/salt/extra_config # # Include config from several files and directories: #include: # - /etc/salt/extra_config # - /etc/roles/webserver
# The syndic minion can verify that it is talking to the correct master via the # key fingerprint of the higher-level master with the "syndic_finger" config. #syndic_finger: \(aq\(aq # # # ##### Minion module management ##### ########################################## # Disable specific modules. This allows the admin to limit the level of # access the master has to the minion. The default here is the empty list, # below is an example of how this needs to be formatted in the config file #disable_modules: # - cmdmod # - test #disable_returners: []
# This is the reverse of disable_modules. The default, like disable_modules, is the empty list, # but if this option is set to *anything* then *only* those modules will load. # Note that this is a very large hammer and it can be quite difficult to keep the minion working # the way you think it should since Salt uses many modules internally itself. At a bare minimum # you need the following enabled or else the minion won\(aqt start. #whitelist_modules: # - cmdmod # - test # - config
# Modules can be loaded from arbitrary paths. This enables the easy deployment # of third party modules. Modules for returners and minions can be loaded. # Specify a list of extra directories to search for minion modules and # returners. These paths must be fully qualified! #module_dirs: [] #returner_dirs: [] #states_dirs: [] #render_dirs: [] #utils_dirs: [] # # A module provider can be statically overwritten or extended for the minion # via the providers option, in this case the default module will be # overwritten by the specified module. In this example the pkg module will # be provided by the yumpkg5 module instead of the system default. #providers: # pkg: yumpkg5 # # Enable Cython modules searching and loading. (Default: False) #cython_enable: False # # Specify a max size (in bytes) for modules on import. This feature is currently # only supported on *nix operating systems and requires psutil. # modules_max_memory: -1

##### State Management Settings ##### ########################################### # The default renderer to use in SLS files. This is configured as a # pipe-delimited expression. For example, jinja|yaml will first run jinja # templating on the SLS file, and then load the result as YAML. This syntax is # documented in further depth at the following URL: # # https://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/ref/renderers/#composing-renderers # # NOTE: The "shebang" prefix (e.g. "#!jinja|yaml") described in the # documentation linked above is for use in an SLS file to override the default # renderer, it should not be used when configuring the renderer here. # #renderer: jinja|yaml # # The failhard option tells the minions to stop immediately after the first # failure detected in the state execution. Defaults to False. #failhard: False # # Reload the modules prior to a highstate run. #autoload_dynamic_modules: True # # clean_dynamic_modules keeps the dynamic modules on the minion in sync with # the dynamic modules on the master, this means that if a dynamic module is # not on the master it will be deleted from the minion. By default, this is # enabled and can be disabled by changing this value to False. #clean_dynamic_modules: True # # Normally, the minion is not isolated to any single environment on the master # when running states, but the environment can be isolated on the minion side # by statically setting it. Remember that the recommended way to manage # environments is to isolate via the top file. #environment: None # # Isolates the pillar environment on the minion side. This functions the same # as the environment setting, but for pillar instead of states. #pillarenv: None # # Set this option to True to force the pillarenv to be the same as the # effective saltenv when running states. Note that if pillarenv is specified, # this option will be ignored. #pillarenv_from_saltenv: False # # Set this option to \(aqTrue\(aq to force a \(aqKeyError\(aq to be raised whenever an # attempt to retrieve a named value from pillar fails. When this option is set # to \(aqFalse\(aq, the failed attempt returns an empty string. Default is \(aqFalse\(aq. #pillar_raise_on_missing: False # # If using the local file directory, then the state top file name needs to be # defined, by default this is top.sls. #state_top: top.sls # # Run states when the minion daemon starts. To enable, set startup_states to: # \(aqhighstate\(aq -- Execute state.highstate # \(aqsls\(aq -- Read in the sls_list option and execute the named sls files # \(aqtop\(aq -- Read top_file option and execute based on that file on the Master #startup_states: \(aq\(aq # # List of states to run when the minion starts up if startup_states is \(aqsls\(aq: #sls_list: # - edit.vim # - hyper # # Top file to execute if startup_states is \(aqtop\(aq: #top_file: \(aq\(aq
# Automatically aggregate all states that have support for mod_aggregate by # setting to True. Or pass a list of state module names to automatically # aggregate just those types. # # state_aggregate: # - pkg # #state_aggregate: False
##### File Directory Settings ##### ########################################## # The Salt Minion can redirect all file server operations to a local directory, # this allows for the same state tree that is on the master to be used if # copied completely onto the minion. This is a literal copy of the settings on # the master but used to reference a local directory on the minion.
# Set the file client. The client defaults to looking on the master server for # files, but can be directed to look at the local file directory setting # defined below by setting it to "local". Setting a local file_client runs the # minion in masterless mode. #file_client: remote
# The file directory works on environments passed to the minion, each environment # can have multiple root directories, the subdirectories in the multiple file # roots cannot match, otherwise the downloaded files will not be able to be # reliably ensured. A base environment is required to house the top file. # Example: # file_roots: # base: # - /srv/salt/ # dev: # - /srv/salt/dev/services # - /srv/salt/dev/states # prod: # - /srv/salt/prod/services # - /srv/salt/prod/states # #file_roots: # base: # - /srv/salt
# Uncomment the line below if you do not want the file_server to follow # symlinks when walking the filesystem tree. This is set to True # by default. Currently this only applies to the default roots # fileserver_backend. #fileserver_followsymlinks: False # # Uncomment the line below if you do not want symlinks to be # treated as the files they are pointing to. By default this is set to # False. By uncommenting the line below, any detected symlink while listing # files on the Master will not be returned to the Minion. #fileserver_ignoresymlinks: True # # By default, the Salt fileserver recurses fully into all defined environments # to attempt to find files. To limit this behavior so that the fileserver only # traverses directories with SLS files and special Salt directories like _modules, # enable the option below. This might be useful for installations where a file root # has a very large number of files and performance is negatively impacted. Default # is False. #fileserver_limit_traversal: False
# The hash_type is the hash to use when discovering the hash of a file on # the local fileserver. The default is sha256, but md5, sha1, sha224, sha384 # and sha512 are also supported. # # WARNING: While md5 and sha1 are also supported, do not use them due to the # high chance of possible collisions and thus security breach. # # Warning: Prior to changing this value, the minion should be stopped and all # Salt caches should be cleared. #hash_type: sha256
# The Salt pillar is searched for locally if file_client is set to local. If # this is the case, and pillar data is defined, then the pillar_roots need to # also be configured on the minion: #pillar_roots: # base: # - /srv/pillar
# Set a hard-limit on the size of the files that can be pushed to the master. # It will be interpreted as megabytes. Default: 100 #file_recv_max_size: 100 # # ###### Security settings ##### ########################################### # Enable "open mode", this mode still maintains encryption, but turns off # authentication, this is only intended for highly secure environments or for # the situation where your keys end up in a bad state. If you run in open mode # you do so at your own risk! #open_mode: False
# The size of key that should be generated when creating new keys. #keysize: 2048
# Enable permissive access to the salt keys. This allows you to run the # master or minion as root, but have a non-root group be given access to # your pki_dir. To make the access explicit, root must belong to the group # you\(aqve given access to. This is potentially quite insecure. #permissive_pki_access: False
# The state_verbose and state_output settings can be used to change the way # state system data is printed to the display. By default all data is printed. # The state_verbose setting can be set to True or False, when set to False # all data that has a result of True and no changes will be suppressed. #state_verbose: True
# The state_output setting controls which results will be output full multi line # full, terse - each state will be full/terse # mixed - only states with errors will be full # changes - states with changes and errors will be full # full_id, mixed_id, changes_id and terse_id are also allowed; # when set, the state ID will be used as name in the output #state_output: full
# The state_output_diff setting changes whether or not the output from # successful states is returned. Useful when even the terse output of these # states is cluttering the logs. Set it to True to ignore them. #state_output_diff: False
# The state_output_profile setting changes whether profile information # will be shown for each state run. #state_output_profile: True
# Fingerprint of the master public key to validate the identity of your Salt master # before the initial key exchange. The master fingerprint can be found by running # "salt-key -f master.pub" on the Salt master. #master_finger: \(aq\(aq
# Use TLS/SSL encrypted connection between master and minion. # Can be set to a dictionary containing keyword arguments corresponding to Python\(aqs # \(aqssl.wrap_socket\(aq method. # Default is None. #ssl: # keyfile: <path_to_keyfile> # certfile: <path_to_certfile> # ssl_version: PROTOCOL_TLSv1_2
# Grains to be sent to the master on authentication to check if the minion\(aqs key # will be accepted automatically. Needs to be configured on the master. #autosign_grains: # - uuid # - server_id

###### Reactor Settings ##### ########################################### # Define a salt reactor. See https://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/topics/reactor/ #reactor: []
#Set the TTL for the cache of the reactor configuration. #reactor_refresh_interval: 60
#Configure the number of workers for the runner/wheel in the reactor. #reactor_worker_threads: 10
#Define the queue size for workers in the reactor. #reactor_worker_hwm: 10000

###### Thread settings ##### ########################################### # Disable multiprocessing support, by default when a minion receives a # publication a new process is spawned and the command is executed therein. # # WARNING: Disabling multiprocessing may result in substantial slowdowns # when processing large pillars. See https://github.com/saltstack/salt/issues/38758 # for a full explanation. #multiprocessing: True
# Limit the maximum amount of processes or threads created by salt-minion. # This is useful to avoid resource exhaustion in case the minion receives more # publications than it is able to handle, as it limits the number of spawned # processes or threads. -1 is the default and disables the limit. #process_count_max: -1

##### Logging settings ##### ########################################## # The location of the minion log file # The minion log can be sent to a regular file, local path name, or network # location. Remote logging works best when configured to use rsyslogd(8) (e.g.: # ``file:///dev/log``), with rsyslogd(8) configured for network logging. The URI # format is: <file|udp|tcp>://<host|socketpath>:<port-if-required>/<log-facility> #log_file: /var/log/salt/minion #log_file: file:///dev/log #log_file: udp://loghost:10514 # #log_file: /var/log/salt/minion #key_logfile: /var/log/salt/key
# The level of messages to send to the console. # One of \(aqgarbage\(aq, \(aqtrace\(aq, \(aqdebug\(aq, \(aqinfo\(aq, \(aqwarning\(aq, \(aqerror\(aq, \(aqcritical\(aq. # # The following log levels are considered INSECURE and may log sensitive data: # [\(aqgarbage\(aq, \(aqtrace\(aq, \(aqdebug\(aq] # # Default: \(aqwarning\(aq #log_level: warning
# The level of messages to send to the log file. # One of \(aqgarbage\(aq, \(aqtrace\(aq, \(aqdebug\(aq, info\(aq, \(aqwarning\(aq, \(aqerror\(aq, \(aqcritical\(aq. # If using \(aqlog_granular_levels\(aq this must be set to the highest desired level. # Default: \(aqwarning\(aq #log_level_logfile:
# The date and time format used in log messages. Allowed date/time formatting # can be seen here: http://docs.python.org/library/time.html#time.strftime #log_datefmt: \(aq%H:%M:%S\(aq #log_datefmt_logfile: \(aq%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S\(aq
# The format of the console logging messages. Allowed formatting options can # be seen here: http://docs.python.org/library/logging.html#logrecord-attributes # # Console log colors are specified by these additional formatters: # # %(colorlevel)s # %(colorname)s # %(colorprocess)s # %(colormsg)s # # Since it is desirable to include the surrounding brackets, \(aq[\(aq and \(aq]\(aq, in # the coloring of the messages, these color formatters also include padding as # well. Color LogRecord attributes are only available for console logging. # #log_fmt_console: \(aq%(colorlevel)s %(colormsg)s\(aq #log_fmt_console: \(aq[%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s\(aq # #log_fmt_logfile: \(aq%(asctime)s,%(msecs)03d [%(name)-17s][%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s\(aq
# This can be used to control logging levels more specificically. This # example sets the main salt library at the \(aqwarning\(aq level, but sets # \(aqsalt.modules\(aq to log at the \(aqdebug\(aq level: # log_granular_levels: # \(aqsalt\(aq: \(aqwarning\(aq # \(aqsalt.modules\(aq: \(aqdebug\(aq # #log_granular_levels: {}
# To diagnose issues with minions disconnecting or missing returns, ZeroMQ # supports the use of monitor sockets to log connection events. This # feature requires ZeroMQ 4.0 or higher. # # To enable ZeroMQ monitor sockets, set \(aqzmq_monitor\(aq to \(aqTrue\(aq and log at a # debug level or higher. # # A sample log event is as follows: # # [DEBUG ] ZeroMQ event: {\(aqendpoint\(aq: \(aqtcp://127.0.0.1:4505\(aq, \(aqevent\(aq: 512, # \(aqvalue\(aq: 27, \(aqdescription\(aq: \(aqEVENT_DISCONNECTED\(aq} # # All events logged will include the string \(aqZeroMQ event\(aq. A connection event # should be logged as the minion starts up and initially connects to the # master. If not, check for debug log level and that the necessary version of # ZeroMQ is installed. # #zmq_monitor: False
# Number of times to try to authenticate with the salt master when reconnecting # to the master #tcp_authentication_retries: 5
###### Module configuration ##### ########################################### # Salt allows for modules to be passed arbitrary configuration data, any data # passed here in valid yaml format will be passed on to the salt minion modules # for use. It is STRONGLY recommended that a naming convention be used in which # the module name is followed by a . and then the value. Also, all top level # data must be applied via the yaml dict construct, some examples: # # You can specify that all modules should run in test mode: #test: True # # A simple value for the test module: #test.foo: foo # # A list for the test module: #test.bar: [baz,quo] # # A dict for the test module: #test.baz: {spam: sausage, cheese: bread} # # ###### Update settings ###### ########################################### # Using the features in Esky, a salt minion can both run as a frozen app and # be updated on the fly. These options control how the update process # (saltutil.update()) behaves. # # The url for finding and downloading updates. Disabled by default. #update_url: False # # The list of services to restart after a successful update. Empty by default. #update_restart_services: []

###### Keepalive settings ###### ############################################ # ZeroMQ now includes support for configuring SO_KEEPALIVE if supported by # the OS. If connections between the minion and the master pass through # a state tracking device such as a firewall or VPN gateway, there is # the risk that it could tear down the connection the master and minion # without informing either party that their connection has been taken away. # Enabling TCP Keepalives prevents this from happening.
# Overall state of TCP Keepalives, enable (1 or True), disable (0 or False) # or leave to the OS defaults (-1), on Linux, typically disabled. Default True, enabled. #tcp_keepalive: True
# How long before the first keepalive should be sent in seconds. Default 300 # to send the first keepalive after 5 minutes, OS default (-1) is typically 7200 seconds # on Linux see /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_time. #tcp_keepalive_idle: 300
# How many lost probes are needed to consider the connection lost. Default -1 # to use OS defaults, typically 9 on Linux, see /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_probes. #tcp_keepalive_cnt: -1
# How often, in seconds, to send keepalives after the first one. Default -1 to # use OS defaults, typically 75 seconds on Linux, see # /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_intvl. #tcp_keepalive_intvl: -1

###### Windows Software settings ###### ############################################ # Location of the repository cache file on the master: #win_repo_cachefile: \(aqsalt://win/repo/winrepo.p\(aq

###### Returner settings ###### ############################################ # Default Minion returners. Can be a comma delimited string or a list: # #return: mysql # #return: mysql,slack,redis # #return: # - mysql # - hipchat # - slack

###### Miscellaneous settings ###### ############################################ # Default match type for filtering events tags: startswith, endswith, find, regex, fnmatch #event_match_type: startswith

Example proxy minion configuration file

##### Primary configuration settings #####
##########################################
# This configuration file is used to manage the behavior of all Salt Proxy
# Minions on this host.
# With the exception of the location of the Salt Master Server, values that are
# commented out but have an empty line after the comment are defaults that need
# not be set in the config. If there is no blank line after the comment, the
# value is presented as an example and is not the default.

# Per default the minion will automatically include all config files # from minion.d/*.conf (minion.d is a directory in the same directory # as the main minion config file). #default_include: minion.d/*.conf
# Backwards compatibility option for proxymodules created before 2015.8.2 # This setting will default to \(aqFalse\(aq in the 2016.3.0 release # Setting this to True adds proxymodules to the __opts__ dictionary. # This breaks several Salt features (basically anything that serializes # __opts__ over the wire) but retains backwards compatibility. #add_proxymodule_to_opts: True
# Set the location of the salt master server. If the master server cannot be # resolved, then the minion will fail to start. #master: salt
# If a proxymodule has a function called \(aqgrains\(aq, then call it during # regular grains loading and merge the results with the proxy\(aqs grains # dictionary. Otherwise it is assumed that the module calls the grains # function in a custom way and returns the data elsewhere # # Default to False for 2016.3 and 2016.11. Switch to True for 2017.7.0. # proxy_merge_grains_in_module: True
# If a proxymodule has a function called \(aqalive\(aq returning a boolean # flag reflecting the state of the connection with the remove device, # when this option is set as True, a scheduled job on the proxy will # try restarting the connection. The polling frequency depends on the # next option, \(aqproxy_keep_alive_interval\(aq. Added in 2017.7.0. # proxy_keep_alive: True
# The polling interval (in minutes) to check if the underlying connection # with the remote device is still alive. This option requires # \(aqproxy_keep_alive\(aq to be configured as True and the proxymodule to # implement the \(aqalive\(aq function. Added in 2017.7.0. # proxy_keep_alive_interval: 1
# By default, any proxy opens the connection with the remote device when # initialized. Some proxymodules allow through this option to open/close # the session per command. This requires the proxymodule to have this # capability. Please consult the documentation to see if the proxy type # used can be that flexible. Added in 2017.7.0. # proxy_always_alive: True
# If multiple masters are specified in the \(aqmaster\(aq setting, the default behavior # is to always try to connect to them in the order they are listed. If random_master is # set to True, the order will be randomized instead. This can be helpful in distributing # the load of many minions executing salt-call requests, for example, from a cron job. # If only one master is listed, this setting is ignored and a warning will be logged. #random_master: False
# Minions can connect to multiple masters simultaneously (all masters # are "hot"), or can be configured to failover if a master becomes # unavailable. Multiple hot masters are configured by setting this # value to "str". Failover masters can be requested by setting # to "failover". MAKE SURE TO SET master_alive_interval if you are # using failover. # master_type: str
# Poll interval in seconds for checking if the master is still there. Only # respected if master_type above is "failover". # master_alive_interval: 30
# Set whether the minion should connect to the master via IPv6: #ipv6: False
# Set the number of seconds to wait before attempting to resolve # the master hostname if name resolution fails. Defaults to 30 seconds. # Set to zero if the minion should shutdown and not retry. # retry_dns: 30
# Set the port used by the master reply and authentication server. #master_port: 4506
# The user to run salt. #user: root
# Setting sudo_user will cause salt to run all execution modules under an sudo # to the user given in sudo_user. The user under which the salt minion process # itself runs will still be that provided in the user config above, but all # execution modules run by the minion will be rerouted through sudo. #sudo_user: saltdev
# Specify the location of the daemon process ID file. #pidfile: /var/run/salt-minion.pid
# The root directory prepended to these options: pki_dir, cachedir, log_file, # sock_dir, pidfile. #root_dir: /
# The directory to store the pki information in #pki_dir: /etc/salt/pki/minion
# Where cache data goes. # This data may contain sensitive data and should be protected accordingly. #cachedir: /var/cache/salt/minion
# Append minion_id to these directories. Helps with # multiple proxies and minions running on the same machine. # Allowed elements in the list: pki_dir, cachedir, extension_modules # Normally not needed unless running several proxies and/or minions on the same machine # Defaults to [\(aqcachedir\(aq] for proxies, [] (empty list) for regular minions # append_minionid_config_dirs: # - cachedir


# Verify and set permissions on configuration directories at startup. #verify_env: True
# The minion can locally cache the return data from jobs sent to it, this # can be a good way to keep track of jobs the minion has executed # (on the minion side). By default this feature is disabled, to enable, set # cache_jobs to True. #cache_jobs: False
# Set the directory used to hold unix sockets. #sock_dir: /var/run/salt/minion
# Set the default outputter used by the salt-call command. The default is # "nested". #output: nested # # By default output is colored. To disable colored output, set the color value # to False. #color: True
# Do not strip off the colored output from nested results and state outputs # (true by default). # strip_colors: False
# Backup files that are replaced by file.managed and file.recurse under # \(aqcachedir\(aq/file_backup relative to their original location and appended # with a timestamp. The only valid setting is "minion". Disabled by default. # # Alternatively this can be specified for each file in state files: # /etc/ssh/sshd_config: # file.managed: # - source: salt://ssh/sshd_config # - backup: minion # #backup_mode: minion
# When waiting for a master to accept the minion\(aqs public key, salt will # continuously attempt to reconnect until successful. This is the time, in # seconds, between those reconnection attempts. #acceptance_wait_time: 10
# If this is nonzero, the time between reconnection attempts will increase by # acceptance_wait_time seconds per iteration, up to this maximum. If this is # set to zero, the time between reconnection attempts will stay constant. #acceptance_wait_time_max: 0
# If the master rejects the minion\(aqs public key, retry instead of exiting. # Rejected keys will be handled the same as waiting on acceptance. #rejected_retry: False
# When the master key changes, the minion will try to re-auth itself to receive # the new master key. In larger environments this can cause a SYN flood on the # master because all minions try to re-auth immediately. To prevent this and # have a minion wait for a random amount of time, use this optional parameter. # The wait-time will be a random number of seconds between 0 and the defined value. #random_reauth_delay: 60
# When waiting for a master to accept the minion\(aqs public key, salt will # continuously attempt to reconnect until successful. This is the timeout value, # in seconds, for each individual attempt. After this timeout expires, the minion # will wait for acceptance_wait_time seconds before trying again. Unless your master # is under unusually heavy load, this should be left at the default. #auth_timeout: 60
# Number of consecutive SaltReqTimeoutError that are acceptable when trying to # authenticate. #auth_tries: 7
# If authentication fails due to SaltReqTimeoutError during a ping_interval, # cause sub minion process to restart. #auth_safemode: False
# Ping Master to ensure connection is alive (minutes). #ping_interval: 0
# To auto recover minions if master changes IP address (DDNS) # auth_tries: 10 # auth_safemode: False # ping_interval: 90 # # Minions won\(aqt know master is missing until a ping fails. After the ping fail, # the minion will attempt authentication and likely fails out and cause a restart. # When the minion restarts it will resolve the masters IP and attempt to reconnect.
# If you don\(aqt have any problems with syn-floods, don\(aqt bother with the # three recon_* settings described below, just leave the defaults! # # The ZeroMQ pull-socket that binds to the masters publishing interface tries # to reconnect immediately, if the socket is disconnected (for example if # the master processes are restarted). In large setups this will have all # minions reconnect immediately which might flood the master (the ZeroMQ-default # is usually a 100ms delay). To prevent this, these three recon_* settings # can be used. # recon_default: the interval in milliseconds that the socket should wait before # trying to reconnect to the master (1000ms = 1 second) # # recon_max: the maximum time a socket should wait. each interval the time to wait # is calculated by doubling the previous time. if recon_max is reached, # it starts again at recon_default. Short example: # # reconnect 1: the socket will wait \(aqrecon_default\(aq milliseconds # reconnect 2: \(aqrecon_default\(aq * 2 # reconnect 3: (\(aqrecon_default\(aq * 2) * 2 # reconnect 4: value from previous interval * 2 # reconnect 5: value from previous interval * 2 # reconnect x: if value >= recon_max, it starts again with recon_default # # recon_randomize: generate a random wait time on minion start. The wait time will # be a random value between recon_default and recon_default + # recon_max. Having all minions reconnect with the same recon_default # and recon_max value kind of defeats the purpose of being able to # change these settings. If all minions have the same values and your # setup is quite large (several thousand minions), they will still # flood the master. The desired behavior is to have timeframe within # all minions try to reconnect. # # Example on how to use these settings. The goal: have all minions reconnect within a # 60 second timeframe on a disconnect. # recon_default: 1000 # recon_max: 59000 # recon_randomize: True # # Each minion will have a randomized reconnect value between \(aqrecon_default\(aq # and \(aqrecon_default + recon_max\(aq, which in this example means between 1000ms # 60000ms (or between 1 and 60 seconds). The generated random-value will be # doubled after each attempt to reconnect. Lets say the generated random # value is 11 seconds (or 11000ms). # reconnect 1: wait 11 seconds # reconnect 2: wait 22 seconds # reconnect 3: wait 33 seconds # reconnect 4: wait 44 seconds # reconnect 5: wait 55 seconds # reconnect 6: wait time is bigger than 60 seconds (recon_default + recon_max) # reconnect 7: wait 11 seconds # reconnect 8: wait 22 seconds # reconnect 9: wait 33 seconds # reconnect x: etc. # # In a setup with ~6000 thousand hosts these settings would average the reconnects # to about 100 per second and all hosts would be reconnected within 60 seconds. # recon_default: 100 # recon_max: 5000 # recon_randomize: False # # # The loop_interval sets how long in seconds the minion will wait between # evaluating the scheduler and running cleanup tasks. This defaults to a # sane 60 seconds, but if the minion scheduler needs to be evaluated more # often lower this value #loop_interval: 60
# The grains_refresh_every setting allows for a minion to periodically check # its grains to see if they have changed and, if so, to inform the master # of the new grains. This operation is moderately expensive, therefore # care should be taken not to set this value too low. # # Note: This value is expressed in __minutes__! # # A value of 10 minutes is a reasonable default. # # If the value is set to zero, this check is disabled. #grains_refresh_every: 1
# Cache grains on the minion. Default is False. #grains_cache: False
# Grains cache expiration, in seconds. If the cache file is older than this # number of seconds then the grains cache will be dumped and fully re-populated # with fresh data. Defaults to 5 minutes. Will have no effect if \(aqgrains_cache\(aq # is not enabled. # grains_cache_expiration: 300
# Windows platforms lack posix IPC and must rely on slower TCP based inter- # process communications. Set ipc_mode to \(aqtcp\(aq on such systems #ipc_mode: ipc
# Overwrite the default tcp ports used by the minion when in tcp mode #tcp_pub_port: 4510 #tcp_pull_port: 4511
# Passing very large events can cause the minion to consume large amounts of # memory. This value tunes the maximum size of a message allowed onto the # minion event bus. The value is expressed in bytes. #max_event_size: 1048576
# To detect failed master(s) and fire events on connect/disconnect, set # master_alive_interval to the number of seconds to poll the masters for # connection events. # #master_alive_interval: 30
# The minion can include configuration from other files. To enable this, # pass a list of paths to this option. The paths can be either relative or # absolute; if relative, they are considered to be relative to the directory # the main minion configuration file lives in (this file). Paths can make use # of shell-style globbing. If no files are matched by a path passed to this # option then the minion will log a warning message. # # Include a config file from some other path: # include: /etc/salt/extra_config # # Include config from several files and directories: #include: # - /etc/salt/extra_config # - /etc/roles/webserver # # # ##### Minion module management ##### ########################################## # Disable specific modules. This allows the admin to limit the level of # access the master has to the minion. #disable_modules: [cmd,test] #disable_returners: [] # # Modules can be loaded from arbitrary paths. This enables the easy deployment # of third party modules. Modules for returners and minions can be loaded. # Specify a list of extra directories to search for minion modules and # returners. These paths must be fully qualified! #module_dirs: [] #returner_dirs: [] #states_dirs: [] #render_dirs: [] #utils_dirs: [] # # A module provider can be statically overwritten or extended for the minion # via the providers option, in this case the default module will be # overwritten by the specified module. In this example the pkg module will # be provided by the yumpkg5 module instead of the system default. #providers: # pkg: yumpkg5 # # Enable Cython modules searching and loading. (Default: False) #cython_enable: False # # Specify a max size (in bytes) for modules on import. This feature is currently # only supported on *nix operating systems and requires psutil. # modules_max_memory: -1

##### State Management Settings ##### ########################################### # The default renderer to use in SLS files. This is configured as a # pipe-delimited expression. For example, jinja|yaml will first run jinja # templating on the SLS file, and then load the result as YAML. This syntax is # documented in further depth at the following URL: # # https://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/ref/renderers/#composing-renderers # # NOTE: The "shebang" prefix (e.g. "#!jinja|yaml") described in the # documentation linked above is for use in an SLS file to override the default # renderer, it should not be used when configuring the renderer here. # #renderer: jinja|yaml # # The failhard option tells the minions to stop immediately after the first # failure detected in the state execution. Defaults to False. #failhard: False # # Reload the modules prior to a highstate run. #autoload_dynamic_modules: True # # clean_dynamic_modules keeps the dynamic modules on the minion in sync with # the dynamic modules on the master, this means that if a dynamic module is # not on the master it will be deleted from the minion. By default, this is # enabled and can be disabled by changing this value to False. #clean_dynamic_modules: True # # Normally, the minion is not isolated to any single environment on the master # when running states, but the environment can be isolated on the minion side # by statically setting it. Remember that the recommended way to manage # environments is to isolate via the top file. #environment: None # # If using the local file directory, then the state top file name needs to be # defined, by default this is top.sls. #state_top: top.sls # # Run states when the minion daemon starts. To enable, set startup_states to: # \(aqhighstate\(aq -- Execute state.highstate # \(aqsls\(aq -- Read in the sls_list option and execute the named sls files # \(aqtop\(aq -- Read top_file option and execute based on that file on the Master #startup_states: \(aq\(aq # # List of states to run when the minion starts up if startup_states is \(aqsls\(aq: #sls_list: # - edit.vim # - hyper # # Top file to execute if startup_states is \(aqtop\(aq: #top_file: \(aq\(aq
# Automatically aggregate all states that have support for mod_aggregate by # setting to True. Or pass a list of state module names to automatically # aggregate just those types. # # state_aggregate: # - pkg # #state_aggregate: False
##### File Directory Settings ##### ########################################## # The Salt Minion can redirect all file server operations to a local directory, # this allows for the same state tree that is on the master to be used if # copied completely onto the minion. This is a literal copy of the settings on # the master but used to reference a local directory on the minion.
# Set the file client. The client defaults to looking on the master server for # files, but can be directed to look at the local file directory setting # defined below by setting it to "local". Setting a local file_client runs the # minion in masterless mode. #file_client: remote
# The file directory works on environments passed to the minion, each environment # can have multiple root directories, the subdirectories in the multiple file # roots cannot match, otherwise the downloaded files will not be able to be # reliably ensured. A base environment is required to house the top file. # Example: # file_roots: # base: # - /srv/salt/ # dev: # - /srv/salt/dev/services # - /srv/salt/dev/states # prod: # - /srv/salt/prod/services # - /srv/salt/prod/states # #file_roots: # base: # - /srv/salt
# By default, the Salt fileserver recurses fully into all defined environments # to attempt to find files. To limit this behavior so that the fileserver only # traverses directories with SLS files and special Salt directories like _modules, # enable the option below. This might be useful for installations where a file root # has a very large number of files and performance is negatively impacted. Default # is False. #fileserver_limit_traversal: False
# The hash_type is the hash to use when discovering the hash of a file in # the local fileserver. The default is sha256 but sha224, sha384 and sha512 # are also supported. # # WARNING: While md5 and sha1 are also supported, do not use it due to the high chance # of possible collisions and thus security breach. # # WARNING: While md5 is also supported, do not use it due to the high chance # of possible collisions and thus security breach. # # Warning: Prior to changing this value, the minion should be stopped and all # Salt caches should be cleared. #hash_type: sha256
# The Salt pillar is searched for locally if file_client is set to local. If # this is the case, and pillar data is defined, then the pillar_roots need to # also be configured on the minion: #pillar_roots: # base: # - /srv/pillar # # ###### Security settings ##### ########################################### # Enable "open mode", this mode still maintains encryption, but turns off # authentication, this is only intended for highly secure environments or for # the situation where your keys end up in a bad state. If you run in open mode # you do so at your own risk! #open_mode: False
# Enable permissive access to the salt keys. This allows you to run the # master or minion as root, but have a non-root group be given access to # your pki_dir. To make the access explicit, root must belong to the group # you\(aqve given access to. This is potentially quite insecure. #permissive_pki_access: False
# The state_verbose and state_output settings can be used to change the way # state system data is printed to the display. By default all data is printed. # The state_verbose setting can be set to True or False, when set to False # all data that has a result of True and no changes will be suppressed. #state_verbose: True
# The state_output setting controls which results will be output full multi line # full, terse - each state will be full/terse # mixed - only states with errors will be full # changes - states with changes and errors will be full # full_id, mixed_id, changes_id and terse_id are also allowed; # when set, the state ID will be used as name in the output #state_output: full
# The state_output_diff setting changes whether or not the output from # successful states is returned. Useful when even the terse output of these # states is cluttering the logs. Set it to True to ignore them. #state_output_diff: False
# The state_output_profile setting changes whether profile information # will be shown for each state run. #state_output_profile: True
# Fingerprint of the master public key to validate the identity of your Salt master # before the initial key exchange. The master fingerprint can be found by running # "salt-key -F master" on the Salt master. #master_finger: \(aq\(aq

###### Thread settings ##### ########################################### # Disable multiprocessing support, by default when a minion receives a # publication a new process is spawned and the command is executed therein. #multiprocessing: True

##### Logging settings ##### ########################################## # The location of the minion log file # The minion log can be sent to a regular file, local path name, or network # location. Remote logging works best when configured to use rsyslogd(8) (e.g.: # ``file:///dev/log``), with rsyslogd(8) configured for network logging. The URI # format is: <file|udp|tcp>://<host|socketpath>:<port-if-required>/<log-facility> #log_file: /var/log/salt/minion #log_file: file:///dev/log #log_file: udp://loghost:10514 # #log_file: /var/log/salt/minion #key_logfile: /var/log/salt/key
# The level of messages to send to the console. # One of \(aqgarbage\(aq, \(aqtrace\(aq, \(aqdebug\(aq, \(aqinfo\(aq, \(aqwarning\(aq, \(aqerror\(aq, \(aqcritical\(aq. # # The following log levels are considered INSECURE and may log sensitive data: # [\(aqgarbage\(aq, \(aqtrace\(aq, \(aqdebug\(aq] # # Default: \(aqwarning\(aq #log_level: warning
# The level of messages to send to the log file. # One of \(aqgarbage\(aq, \(aqtrace\(aq, \(aqdebug\(aq, info\(aq, \(aqwarning\(aq, \(aqerror\(aq, \(aqcritical\(aq. # If using \(aqlog_granular_levels\(aq this must be set to the highest desired level. # Default: \(aqwarning\(aq #log_level_logfile:
# The date and time format used in log messages. Allowed date/time formatting # can be seen here: http://docs.python.org/library/time.html#time.strftime #log_datefmt: \(aq%H:%M:%S\(aq #log_datefmt_logfile: \(aq%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S\(aq
# The format of the console logging messages. Allowed formatting options can # be seen here: http://docs.python.org/library/logging.html#logrecord-attributes # # Console log colors are specified by these additional formatters: # # %(colorlevel)s # %(colorname)s # %(colorprocess)s # %(colormsg)s # # Since it is desirable to include the surrounding brackets, \(aq[\(aq and \(aq]\(aq, in # the coloring of the messages, these color formatters also include padding as # well. Color LogRecord attributes are only available for console logging. # #log_fmt_console: \(aq%(colorlevel)s %(colormsg)s\(aq #log_fmt_console: \(aq[%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s\(aq # #log_fmt_logfile: \(aq%(asctime)s,%(msecs)03d [%(name)-17s][%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s\(aq
# This can be used to control logging levels more specificically. This # example sets the main salt library at the \(aqwarning\(aq level, but sets # \(aqsalt.modules\(aq to log at the \(aqdebug\(aq level: # log_granular_levels: # \(aqsalt\(aq: \(aqwarning\(aq # \(aqsalt.modules\(aq: \(aqdebug\(aq # #log_granular_levels: {}
# To diagnose issues with minions disconnecting or missing returns, ZeroMQ # supports the use of monitor sockets # to log connection events. This # feature requires ZeroMQ 4.0 or higher. # # To enable ZeroMQ monitor sockets, set \(aqzmq_monitor\(aq to \(aqTrue\(aq and log at a # debug level or higher. # # A sample log event is as follows: # # [DEBUG ] ZeroMQ event: {\(aqendpoint\(aq: \(aqtcp://127.0.0.1:4505\(aq, \(aqevent\(aq: 512, # \(aqvalue\(aq: 27, \(aqdescription\(aq: \(aqEVENT_DISCONNECTED\(aq} # # All events logged will include the string \(aqZeroMQ event\(aq. A connection event # should be logged on the as the minion starts up and initially connects to the # master. If not, check for debug log level and that the necessary version of # ZeroMQ is installed. # #zmq_monitor: False
###### Module configuration ##### ########################################### # Salt allows for modules to be passed arbitrary configuration data, any data # passed here in valid yaml format will be passed on to the salt minion modules # for use. It is STRONGLY recommended that a naming convention be used in which # the module name is followed by a . and then the value. Also, all top level # data must be applied via the yaml dict construct, some examples: # # You can specify that all modules should run in test mode: #test: True # # A simple value for the test module: #test.foo: foo # # A list for the test module: #test.bar: [baz,quo] # # A dict for the test module: #test.baz: {spam: sausage, cheese: bread} # # ###### Update settings ###### ########################################### # Using the features in Esky, a salt minion can both run as a frozen app and # be updated on the fly. These options control how the update process # (saltutil.update()) behaves. # # The url for finding and downloading updates. Disabled by default. #update_url: False # # The list of services to restart after a successful update. Empty by default. #update_restart_services: []

###### Keepalive settings ###### ############################################ # ZeroMQ now includes support for configuring SO_KEEPALIVE if supported by # the OS. If connections between the minion and the master pass through # a state tracking device such as a firewall or VPN gateway, there is # the risk that it could tear down the connection the master and minion # without informing either party that their connection has been taken away. # Enabling TCP Keepalives prevents this from happening.
# Overall state of TCP Keepalives, enable (1 or True), disable (0 or False) # or leave to the OS defaults (-1), on Linux, typically disabled. Default True, enabled. #tcp_keepalive: True
# How long before the first keepalive should be sent in seconds. Default 300 # to send the first keepalive after 5 minutes, OS default (-1) is typically 7200 seconds # on Linux see /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_time. #tcp_keepalive_idle: 300
# How many lost probes are needed to consider the connection lost. Default -1 # to use OS defaults, typically 9 on Linux, see /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_probes. #tcp_keepalive_cnt: -1
# How often, in seconds, to send keepalives after the first one. Default -1 to # use OS defaults, typically 75 seconds on Linux, see # /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_intvl. #tcp_keepalive_intvl: -1

###### Windows Software settings ###### ############################################ # Location of the repository cache file on the master: #win_repo_cachefile: \(aqsalt://win/repo/winrepo.p\(aq

###### Returner settings ###### ############################################ # Which returner(s) will be used for minion\(aqs result: #return: mysql

Minion Blackout Configuration

New in version 2016.3.0.
Salt supports minion blackouts. When a minion is in blackout mode, all remote execution commands are disabled. This allows production minions to be put "on hold", eliminating the risk of an untimely configuration change.
Minion blackouts are configured via a special pillar key, minion_blackout. If this key is set to True, then the minion will reject all incoming commands, except for saltutil.refresh_pillar. (The exception is important, so minions can be brought out of blackout mode)
Salt also supports an explicit whitelist of additional functions that will be allowed during blackout. This is configured with the special pillar key minion_blackout_whitelist, which is formed as a list:
minion_blackout_whitelist:
  - test.ping
  - pillar.get

Access Control System

New in version 0.10.4.
Salt maintains a standard system used to open granular control to non administrative users to execute Salt commands. The access control system has been applied to all systems used to configure access to non administrative control interfaces in Salt.
These interfaces include, the peer system, the external auth system and the publisher acl system.
The access control system mandated a standard configuration syntax used in all of the three aforementioned systems. While this adds functionality to the configuration in 0.10.4, it does not negate the old configuration.
Now specific functions can be opened up to specific minions from specific users in the case of external auth and publisher ACLs, and for specific minions in the case of the peer system.

Publisher ACL system

The salt publisher ACL system is a means to allow system users other than root to have access to execute select salt commands on minions from the master.
The publisher ACL system is configured in the master configuration file via the publisher_acl configuration option. Under the publisher_acl configuration option the users open to send commands are specified and then a list of the minion functions which will be made available to specified user. Both users and functions could be specified by exact match, shell glob or regular expression. This configuration is much like the external_auth configuration:
publisher_acl:
  # Allow thatch to execute anything.
  thatch:
    - .*
  # Allow fred to use test and pkg, but only on "web*" minions.
  fred:
    - web*:
      - test.*
      - pkg.*
  # Allow admin and managers to use saltutil module functions
  admin|manager_.*:
    - saltutil.*
  # Allow users to use only my_mod functions on "web*" minions with specific arguments.
  user_.*:
    - web*:
      - \(aqmy_mod.*\(aq:
          args:
            - \(aqa.*\(aq
            - \(aqb.*\(aq
          kwargs:
            \(aqkwa\(aq: \(aqkwa.*\(aq
            \(aqkwb\(aq: \(aqkwb\(aq

Permission Issues

Directories required for publisher_acl must be modified to be readable by the users specified:
chmod 755 /var/cache/salt /var/cache/salt/master /var/cache/salt/master/jobs /var/run/salt /var/run/salt/master

NOTE: In addition to the changes above you will also need to modify the permissions of /var/log/salt and the existing log file to be writable by the user(s) which will be running the commands. If you do not wish to do this then you must disable logging or Salt will generate errors as it cannot write to the logs as the system users.
If you are upgrading from earlier versions of salt you must also remove any existing user keys and re-start the Salt master:
rm /var/cache/salt/.*key
service salt-master restart

Whitelist and Blacklist

Salt\(aqs authentication systems can be configured by specifying what is allowed using a whitelist, or by specifying what is disallowed using a blacklist. If you specify a whitelist, only specified operations are allowed. If you specify a blacklist, all operations are allowed except those that are blacklisted.
See publisher_acl and publisher_acl_blacklist.

External Authentication System

Salt\(aqs External Authentication System (eAuth) allows for Salt to pass through command authorization to any external authentication system, such as PAM or LDAP.
NOTE: eAuth using the PAM external auth system requires salt-master to be run as root as this system needs root access to check authentication.

External Authentication System Configuration

The external authentication system allows for specific users to be granted access to execute specific functions on specific minions. Access is configured in the master configuration file and uses the access control system:
external_auth:
  pam:
    thatch:
      - \(aqweb*\(aq:
        - test.*
        - network.*
    steve|admin.*:
      - .*

The above configuration allows the user thatch to execute functions in the test and network modules on the minions that match the web* target. User steve and the users whose logins start with admin, are granted unrestricted access to minion commands.
Salt respects the current PAM configuration in place, and uses the \(aqlogin\(aq service to authenticate.
NOTE: The PAM module does not allow authenticating as root.
NOTE: state.sls and state.highstate will return "Failed to authenticate!" if the request timeout is reached. Use -t flag to increase the timeout
To allow access to wheel modules or runner modules the following @ syntax must be used:
external_auth:
  pam:
    thatch:
      - \(aq@wheel\(aq   # to allow access to all wheel modules
      - \(aq@runner\(aq  # to allow access to all runner modules
      - \(aq@jobs\(aq    # to allow access to the jobs runner and/or wheel module

NOTE: The runner/wheel markup is different, since there are no minions to scope the acl to.
NOTE: Globs will not match wheel or runners! They must be explicitly allowed with @wheel or @runner.
WARNING: All users that have external authentication privileges are allowed to run saltutil.findjob. Be aware that this could inadvertently expose some data such as minion IDs.

Matching syntax

The structure of the external_auth dictionary can take the following shapes. User and function matches are exact matches, shell glob patterns or regular expressions; minion matches are compound targets.
By user:
external_auth:
  <eauth backend>:
    <user or group%>:
      - <regex to match function>

By user, by minion:
external_auth:
  <eauth backend>:
    <user or group%>:
      <minion compound target>:
        - <regex to match function>

By user, by runner/wheel:
external_auth:
  <eauth backend>:
    <user or group%>:
      <@runner or @wheel>:
        - <regex to match function>

By user, by runner+wheel module:
external_auth:
  <eauth backend>:
    <user or group%>:
      <@module_name>:
        - <regex to match function without module_name>

Groups

To apply permissions to a group of users in an external authentication system, append a % to the ID:
external_auth:
  pam:
    admins%:
      - \(aq*\(aq:
        - \(aqpkg.*\(aq

Limiting by function arguments

Positional arguments or keyword arguments to functions can also be whitelisted.
New in version 2016.3.0.
external_auth:
  pam:
    my_user:
      - \(aq*\(aq:
        - \(aqmy_mod.*\(aq:
            args:
              - \(aqa.*\(aq
              - \(aqb.*\(aq
            kwargs:
              \(aqkwa\(aq: \(aqkwa.*\(aq
              \(aqkwb\(aq: \(aqkwb\(aq
      - \(aq@runner\(aq:
        - \(aqrunner_mod.*\(aq:
            args:
            - \(aqa.*\(aq
            - \(aqb.*\(aq
            kwargs:
              \(aqkwa\(aq: \(aqkwa.*\(aq
              \(aqkwb\(aq: \(aqkwb\(aq

The rules:
1. The arguments values are matched as regexp.
2. If arguments restrictions are specified the only matched are allowed.
3. If an argument isn\(aqt specified any value is allowed.
4. To skip an arg use "everything" regexp .*. I.e. if arg0 and arg2 should be limited but arg1 and other arguments could have any value use:
args:
  - \(aqvalue0\(aq
  - \(aq.*\(aq
  - \(aqvalue2\(aq

Usage

The external authentication system can then be used from the command-line by any user on the same system as the master with the -a option:
$ salt -a pam web\* test.ping

The system will ask the user for the credentials required by the authentication system and then publish the command.

Tokens

With external authentication alone, the authentication credentials will be required with every call to Salt. This can be alleviated with Salt tokens.
Tokens are short term authorizations and can be easily created by just adding a -T option when authenticating:
$ salt -T -a pam web\* test.ping

Now a token will be created that has an expiration of 12 hours (by default). This token is stored in a file named salt_token in the active user\(aqs home directory.
Once the token is created, it is sent with all subsequent communications. User authentication does not need to be entered again until the token expires.
Token expiration time can be set in the Salt master config file.

LDAP and Active Directory

NOTE: LDAP usage requires that you have installed python-ldap.
Salt supports both user and group authentication for LDAP (and Active Directory accessed via its LDAP interface)

OpenLDAP and similar systems

LDAP configuration happens in the Salt master configuration file.
Server configuration values and their defaults:
# Server to auth against
auth.ldap.server: localhost

# Port to connect via auth.ldap.port: 389
# Use TLS when connecting auth.ldap.tls: False
# Use STARTTLS when connecting auth.ldap.starttls: False
# LDAP scope level, almost always 2 auth.ldap.scope: 2
# Server specified in URI format auth.ldap.uri: \(aq\(aq # Overrides .ldap.server, .ldap.port, .ldap.tls above
# Verify server\(aqs TLS certificate auth.ldap.no_verify: False
# Bind to LDAP anonymously to determine group membership # Active Directory does not allow anonymous binds without special configuration # In addition, if auth.ldap.anonymous is True, empty bind passwords are not permitted. auth.ldap.anonymous: False
# FOR TESTING ONLY, this is a VERY insecure setting. # If this is True, the LDAP bind password will be ignored and # access will be determined by group membership alone with # the group memberships being retrieved via anonymous bind auth.ldap.auth_by_group_membership_only: False
# Require authenticating user to be part of this Organizational Unit # This can be blank if your LDAP schema does not use this kind of OU auth.ldap.groupou: \(aqGroups\(aq
# Object Class for groups. An LDAP search will be done to find all groups of this # class to which the authenticating user belongs. auth.ldap.groupclass: \(aqposixGroup\(aq
# Unique ID attribute name for the user auth.ldap.accountattributename: \(aqmemberUid\(aq
# These are only for Active Directory auth.ldap.activedirectory: False auth.ldap.persontype: \(aqperson\(aq
auth.ldap.minion_stripdomains: []
# Redhat Identity Policy Audit auth.ldap.freeipa: False

Authenticating to the LDAP Server

There are two phases to LDAP authentication. First, Salt authenticates to search for a users\(aq Distinguished Name and group membership. The user it authenticates as in this phase is often a special LDAP system user with read-only access to the LDAP directory. After Salt searches the directory to determine the actual user\(aqs DN and groups, it re-authenticates as the user running the Salt commands.
If you are already aware of the structure of your DNs and permissions in your LDAP store are set such that users can look up their own group memberships, then the first and second users can be the same. To tell Salt this is the case, omit the auth.ldap.bindpw parameter. Note this is not the same thing as using an anonymous bind. Most LDAP servers will not permit anonymous bind, and as mentioned above, if auth.ldap.anonymous is False you cannot use an empty password.
You can template the binddn like this:
auth.ldap.basedn: dc=saltstack,dc=com
auth.ldap.binddn: uid={{ username }},cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=saltstack,dc=com

Salt will use the password entered on the salt command line in place of the bindpw.
To use two separate users, specify the LDAP lookup user in the binddn directive, and include a bindpw like so
auth.ldap.binddn: uid=ldaplookup,cn=sysaccounts,cn=etc,dc=saltstack,dc=com
auth.ldap.bindpw: mypassword

As mentioned before, Salt uses a filter to find the DN associated with a user. Salt substitutes the {{ username }} value for the username when querying LDAP
auth.ldap.filter: uid={{ username }}

Determining Group Memberships (OpenLDAP / non-Active Directory)

For OpenLDAP, to determine group membership, one can specify an OU that contains group data. This is prepended to the basedn to create a search path. Then the results are filtered against auth.ldap.groupclass, default posixGroup, and the account\(aqs \(aqname\(aq attribute, memberUid by default.
auth.ldap.groupou: Groups

Note that as of 2017.7, auth.ldap.groupclass can refer to either a groupclass or an objectClass. For some LDAP servers (notably OpenLDAP without the memberOf overlay enabled) to determine group membership we need to know both the objectClass and the memberUid attributes. Usually for these servers you will want a auth.ldap.groupclass of posixGroup and an auth.ldap.groupattribute of memberUid.
LDAP servers with the memberOf overlay will have entries similar to auth.ldap.groupclass: person and auth.ldap.groupattribute: memberOf.
When using the ldap(\(aqDC=domain,DC=com\(aq) eauth operator, sometimes the records returned from LDAP or Active Directory have fully-qualified domain names attached, while minion IDs instead are simple hostnames. The parameter below allows the administrator to strip off a certain set of domain names so the hostnames looked up in the directory service can match the minion IDs.
auth.ldap.minion_stripdomains: [\(aq.external.bigcorp.com\(aq, \(aq.internal.bigcorp.com\(aq]

Determining Group Memberships (Active Directory)

Active Directory handles group membership differently, and does not utilize the groupou configuration variable. AD needs the following options in the master config:
auth.ldap.activedirectory: True
auth.ldap.filter: sAMAccountName={{username}}
auth.ldap.accountattributename: sAMAccountName
auth.ldap.groupclass: group
auth.ldap.persontype: person

To determine group membership in AD, the username and password that is entered when LDAP is requested as the eAuth mechanism on the command line is used to bind to AD\(aqs LDAP interface. If this fails, then it doesn\(aqt matter what groups the user belongs to, he or she is denied access. Next, the distinguishedName of the user is looked up with the following LDAP search:
(&(<value of auth.ldap.accountattributename>={{username}})
  (objectClass=<value of auth.ldap.persontype>)
)

This should return a distinguishedName that we can use to filter for group membership. Then the following LDAP query is executed:
(&(member=<distinguishedName from search above>)
  (objectClass=<value of auth.ldap.groupclass>)
)

external_auth:
  ldap:
    test_ldap_user:
        - \(aq*\(aq:
            - test.ping

To configure a LDAP group, append a % to the ID:
external_auth:
  ldap:
    test_ldap_group%:
      - \(aq*\(aq:
        - test.echo

In addition, if there are a set of computers in the directory service that should be part of the eAuth definition, they can be specified like this:
external_auth:
  ldap:
    test_ldap_group%:
      - ldap(\(aqDC=corp,DC=example,DC=com\(aq):
        - test.echo

The string inside ldap() above is any valid LDAP/AD tree limiter. OU= in particular is permitted as long as it would return a list of computer objects.

Peer Communication

Salt 0.9.0 introduced the capability for Salt minions to publish commands. The intent of this feature is not for Salt minions to act as independent brokers one with another, but to allow Salt minions to pass commands to each other.
In Salt 0.10.0 the ability to execute runners from the master was added. This allows for the master to return collective data from runners back to the minions via the peer interface.
The peer interface is configured through two options in the master configuration file. For minions to send commands from the master the peer configuration is used. To allow for minions to execute runners from the master the peer_run configuration is used.
Since this presents a viable security risk by allowing minions access to the master publisher the capability is turned off by default. The minions can be allowed access to the master publisher on a per minion basis based on regular expressions. Minions with specific ids can be allowed access to certain Salt modules and functions.

Peer Configuration

The configuration is done under the peer setting in the Salt master configuration file, here are a number of configuration possibilities.
The simplest approach is to enable all communication for all minions, this is only recommended for very secure environments.
peer:
  .*:
    - .*

This configuration will allow minions with IDs ending in example.com access to the test, ps, and pkg module functions.
peer:
  .*example.com:
    - test.*
    - ps.*
    - pkg.*

The configuration logic is simple, a regular expression is passed for matching minion ids, and then a list of expressions matching minion functions is associated with the named minion. For instance, this configuration will also allow minions ending with foo.org access to the publisher.
peer:
  .*example.com:
    - test.*
    - ps.*
    - pkg.*
  .*foo.org:
    - test.*
    - ps.*
    - pkg.*

NOTE: Functions are matched using regular expressions.

Peer Runner Communication

Configuration to allow minions to execute runners from the master is done via the peer_run option on the master. The peer_run configuration follows the same logic as the peer option. The only difference is that access is granted to runner modules.
To open up access to all minions to all runners:
peer_run:
  .*:
    - .*

This configuration will allow minions with IDs ending in example.com access to the manage and jobs runner functions.
peer_run:
  .*example.com:
    - manage.*
    - jobs.*

NOTE: Functions are matched using regular expressions.

Using Peer Communication

The publish module was created to manage peer communication. The publish module comes with a number of functions to execute peer communication in different ways. Currently there are three functions in the publish module. These examples will show how to test the peer system via the salt-call command.
To execute test.ping on all minions:
# salt-call publish.publish \* test.ping

To execute the manage.up runner:
# salt-call publish.runner manage.up

To match minions using other matchers, use tgt_type:
# salt-call publish.publish \(aqwebserv* and not G@os:Ubuntu\(aq test.ping tgt_type=\(aqcompound\(aq

NOTE: In pre-2017.7.0 releases, use expr_form instead of tgt_type.

When to Use Each Authentication System

publisher_acl is useful for allowing local system users to run Salt commands without giving them root access. If you can log into the Salt master directly, then publisher_acl allows you to use Salt without root privileges. If the local system is configured to authenticate against a remote system, like LDAP or Active Directory, then publisher_acl will interact with the remote system transparently.
external_auth is useful for salt-api or for making your own scripts that use Salt\(aqs Python API. It can be used at the CLI (with the -a flag) but it is more cumbersome as there are more steps involved. The only time it is useful at the CLI is when the local system is not configured to authenticate against an external service but you still want Salt to authenticate against an external service.

Examples

The access controls are manifested using matchers in these configurations:
publisher_acl:
  fred:
    - web\*:
      - pkg.list_pkgs
      - test.*
      - apache.*

In the above example, fred is able to send commands only to minions which match the specified glob target. This can be expanded to include other functions for other minions based on standard targets (all matchers are supported except the compound one).
external_auth:
  pam:
    dave:
      - test.ping
      - mongo\*:
        - network.*
      - log\*:
        - network.*
        - pkg.*
      - \(aqG@os:RedHat\(aq:
        - kmod.*
    steve:
      - .*

The above allows for all minions to be hit by test.ping by dave, and adds a few functions that dave can execute on other minions. It also allows steve unrestricted access to salt commands.
NOTE: Functions are matched using regular expressions.

Job Management

New in version 0.9.7.
Since Salt executes jobs running on many systems, Salt needs to be able to manage jobs running on many systems.

The Minion proc System

Salt Minions maintain a proc directory in the Salt cachedir. The proc directory maintains files named after the executed job ID. These files contain the information about the current running jobs on the minion and allow for jobs to be looked up. This is located in the proc directory under the cachedir, with a default configuration it is under /var/cache/salt/{master|minion}/proc.

Functions in the saltutil Module

Salt 0.9.7 introduced a few new functions to the saltutil module for managing jobs. These functions are:
1. running Returns the data of all running jobs that are found in the proc directory.
2. find_job Returns specific data about a certain job based on job id.
3. signal_job Allows for a given jid to be sent a signal.
4. term_job Sends a termination signal (SIGTERM, 15) to the process controlling the specified job.
5. kill_job Sends a kill signal (SIGKILL, 9) to the process controlling the specified job.
These functions make up the core of the back end used to manage jobs at the minion level.

The jobs Runner

A convenience runner front end and reporting system has been added as well. The jobs runner contains functions to make viewing data easier and cleaner.
The jobs runner contains a number of functions...

active

The active function runs saltutil.running on all minions and formats the return data about all running jobs in a much more usable and compact format. The active function will also compare jobs that have returned and jobs that are still running, making it easier to see what systems have completed a job and what systems are still being waited on.
# salt-run jobs.active

lookup_jid

When jobs are executed the return data is sent back to the master and cached. By default it is cached for 24 hours, but this can be configured via the keep_jobs option in the master configuration. Using the lookup_jid runner will display the same return data that the initial job invocation with the salt command would display.
# salt-run jobs.lookup_jid <job id number>

list_jobs

Before finding a historic job, it may be required to find the job id. list_jobs will parse the cached execution data and display all of the job data for jobs that have already, or partially returned.
# salt-run jobs.list_jobs

Scheduling Jobs

Salt\(aqs scheduling system allows incremental executions on minions or the master. The schedule system exposes the execution of any execution function on minions or any runner on the master.
Scheduling can be enabled by multiple methods:
o schedule option in either the master or minion config files. These require the master or minion application to be restarted in order for the schedule to be implemented.
o Minion pillar data. Schedule is implemented by refreshing the minion\(aqs pillar data, for example by using saltutil.refresh_pillar.
o The schedule state or schedule module
NOTE: The scheduler executes different functions on the master and minions. When running on the master the functions reference runner functions, when running on the minion the functions specify execution functions.
A scheduled run has no output on the minion unless the config is set to info level or higher. Refer to minion-logging-settings.
States are executed on the minion, as all states are. You can pass positional arguments and provide a YAML dict of named arguments.
schedule:
  job1:
    function: state.sls
    seconds: 3600
    args:
      - httpd
    kwargs:
      test: True

This will schedule the command: state.sls httpd test=True every 3600 seconds (every hour).
schedule:
  job1:
    function: state.sls
    seconds: 3600
    args:
      - httpd
    kwargs:
      test: True
    splay: 15

This will schedule the command: state.sls httpd test=True every 3600 seconds (every hour) splaying the time between 0 and 15 seconds.
schedule:
  job1:
    function: state.sls
    seconds: 3600
    args:
      - httpd
    kwargs:
      test: True
    splay:
      start: 10
      end: 15

This will schedule the command: state.sls httpd test=True every 3600 seconds (every hour) splaying the time between 10 and 15 seconds.

Schedule by Date and Time

New in version 2014.7.0.
Frequency of jobs can also be specified using date strings supported by the Python dateutil library. This requires the Python dateutil library to be installed.
schedule:
  job1:
    function: state.sls
    args:
      - httpd
    kwargs:
      test: True
    when: 5:00pm

This will schedule the command: state.sls httpd test=True at 5:00 PM minion localtime.
schedule:
  job1:
    function: state.sls
    args:
      - httpd
    kwargs:
      test: True
    when:
      - Monday 5:00pm
      - Tuesday 3:00pm
      - Wednesday 5:00pm
      - Thursday 3:00pm
      - Friday 5:00pm

This will schedule the command: state.sls httpd test=True at 5:00 PM on Monday, Wednesday and Friday, and 3:00 PM on Tuesday and Thursday.
schedule:
  job1:
    function: state.sls
    args:
      - httpd
    kwargs:
      test: True
    when:
      - \(aqtea time\(aq

whens:
  tea time: 1:40pm
  deployment time: Friday 5:00pm

The Salt scheduler also allows custom phrases to be used for the when parameter. These whens can be stored as either pillar values or grain values.
schedule:
  job1:
    function: state.sls
    seconds: 3600
    args:
      - httpd
    kwargs:
      test: True
    range:
      start: 8:00am
      end: 5:00pm

This will schedule the command: state.sls httpd test=True every 3600 seconds (every hour) between the hours of 8:00 AM and 5:00 PM. The range parameter must be a dictionary with the date strings using the dateutil format.
schedule:
  job1:
    function: state.sls
    seconds: 3600
    args:
      - httpd
    kwargs:
      test: True
    range:
      invert: True
      start: 8:00am
      end: 5:00pm

Using the invert option for range, this will schedule the command state.sls httpd test=True every 3600 seconds (every hour) until the current time is between the hours of 8:00 AM and 5:00 PM. The range parameter must be a dictionary with the date strings using the dateutil format.
schedule:
  job1:
    function: pkg.install
    kwargs:
      pkgs: [{\(aqbar\(aq: \(aq>1.2.3\(aq}]
      refresh: true
    once: \(aq2016-01-07T14:30:00\(aq

This will schedule the function pkg.install to be executed once at the specified time. The schedule entry job1 will not be removed after the job completes, therefore use schedule.delete to manually remove it afterwards.
The default date format is ISO 8601 but can be overridden by also specifying the once_fmt option, like this:
schedule:
  job1:
    function: test.ping
    once: 2015-04-22T20:21:00
    once_fmt: \(aq%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S\(aq

Maximum Parallel Jobs Running

New in version 2014.7.0.
The scheduler also supports ensuring that there are no more than N copies of a particular routine running. Use this for jobs that may be long-running and could step on each other or pile up in case of infrastructure outage.
The default for maxrunning is 1.
schedule:
  long_running_job:
    function: big_file_transfer
    jid_include: True
    maxrunning: 1

Cron-like Schedule

New in version 2014.7.0.
schedule:
  job1:
    function: state.sls
    cron: \(aq*/15 * * * *\(aq
    args:
      - httpd
    kwargs:
      test: True

The scheduler also supports scheduling jobs using a cron like format. This requires the Python croniter library.

Job Data Return

New in version 2015.5.0.
By default, data about jobs runs from the Salt scheduler is returned to the master. Setting the return_job parameter to False will prevent the data from being sent back to the Salt master.
schedule:
  job1:
    function: scheduled_job_function
    return_job: False

Job Metadata

New in version 2015.5.0.
It can be useful to include specific data to differentiate a job from other jobs. Using the metadata parameter special values can be associated with a scheduled job. These values are not used in the execution of the job, but can be used to search for specific jobs later if combined with the return_job parameter. The metadata parameter must be specified as a dictionary, othewise it will be ignored.
schedule:
  job1:
    function: scheduled_job_function
    metadata:
      foo: bar

Run on Start

New in version 2015.5.0.
By default, any job scheduled based on the startup time of the minion will run the scheduled job when the minion starts up. Sometimes this is not the desired situation. Using the run_on_start parameter set to False will cause the scheduler to skip this first run and wait until the next scheduled run:
schedule:
  job1:
    function: state.sls
    seconds: 3600
    run_on_start: False
    args:
      - httpd
    kwargs:
      test: True

Until and After

New in version 2015.8.0.
schedule:
  job1:
    function: state.sls
    seconds: 15
    until: \(aq12/31/2015 11:59pm\(aq
    args:
      - httpd
    kwargs:
      test: True

Using the until argument, the Salt scheduler allows you to specify an end time for a scheduled job. If this argument is specified, jobs will not run once the specified time has passed. Time should be specified in a format supported by the dateutil library. This requires the Python dateutil library to be installed.
New in version 2015.8.0.
schedule:
  job1:
    function: state.sls
    seconds: 15
    after: \(aq12/31/2015 11:59pm\(aq
    args:
      - httpd
    kwargs:
      test: True

Using the after argument, the Salt scheduler allows you to specify an start time for a scheduled job. If this argument is specified, jobs will not run until the specified time has passed. Time should be specified in a format supported by the dateutil library. This requires the Python dateutil library to be installed.

Scheduling States

schedule:
  log-loadavg:
    function: cmd.run
    seconds: 3660
    args:
      - \(aqlogger -t salt < /proc/loadavg\(aq
    kwargs:
      stateful: False
      shell: /bin/sh

Scheduling Highstates

To set up a highstate to run on a minion every 60 minutes set this in the minion config or pillar:
schedule:
  highstate:
    function: state.highstate
    minutes: 60

Time intervals can be specified as seconds, minutes, hours, or days.

Scheduling Runners

Runner executions can also be specified on the master within the master configuration file:
schedule:
  run_my_orch:
    function: state.orchestrate
    hours: 6
    splay: 600
    args:
      - orchestration.my_orch

The above configuration is analogous to running salt-run state.orch orchestration.my_orch every 6 hours.

Scheduler With Returner

The scheduler is also useful for tasks like gathering monitoring data about a minion, this schedule option will gather status data and send it to a MySQL returner database:
schedule:
  uptime:
    function: status.uptime
    seconds: 60
    returner: mysql
  meminfo:
    function: status.meminfo
    minutes: 5
    returner: mysql

Since specifying the returner repeatedly can be tiresome, the schedule_returner option is available to specify one or a list of global returners to be used by the minions when scheduling.

Managing the Job Cache

The Salt Master maintains a job cache of all job executions which can be queried via the jobs runner. This job cache is called the Default Job Cache.

Default Job Cache

A number of options are available when configuring the job cache. The default caching system uses local storage on the Salt Master and can be found in the job cache directory (on Linux systems this is typically /var/cache/salt/master/jobs). The default caching system is suitable for most deployments as it does not typically require any further configuration or management.
The default job cache is a temporary cache and jobs will be stored for 24 hours. If the default cache needs to store jobs for a different period the time can be easily adjusted by changing the keep_jobs parameter in the Salt Master configuration file. The value passed in is measured via hours:
keep_jobs: 24

Reducing the Size of the Default Job Cache

The Default Job Cache can sometimes be a burden on larger deployments (over 5000 minions). Disabling the job cache will make previously executed jobs unavailable to the jobs system and is not generally recommended. Normally it is wise to make sure the master has access to a faster IO system or a tmpfs is mounted to the jobs dir.
However, you can disable the job_cache by setting it to False in the Salt Master configuration file. Setting this value to False means that the Salt Master will no longer cache minion returns, but a JID directory and jid file for each job will still be created. This JID directory is necessary for checking for and preventing JID collisions.
The default location for the job cache is in the /var/cache/salt/master/jobs/ directory.
Setting the job_cache to False in addition to setting the keep_jobs option to a smaller value, such as 1, in the Salt Master configuration file will reduce the size of the Default Job Cache, and thus the burden on the Salt Master.
NOTE: Changing the keep_jobs option sets the number of hours to keep old job information and defaults to 24 hours. Do not set this value to 0 when trying to make the cache cleaner run more frequently, as this means the cache cleaner will never run.

Additional Job Cache Options

Many deployments may wish to use an external database to maintain a long term register of executed jobs. Salt comes with two main mechanisms to do this, the master job cache and the external job cache.
See Storing Job Results in an External System.

Storing Job Results in an External System

After a job executes, job results are returned to the Salt Master by each Salt Minion. These results are stored in the Default Job Cache.
In addition to the Default Job Cache, Salt provides two additional mechanisms to send job results to other systems (databases, local syslog, and others):
o External Job Cache
o Master Job Cache
The major difference between these two mechanism is from where results are returned (from the Salt Master or Salt Minion). Configuring either of these options will also make the Jobs Runner functions to automatically query the remote stores for information.

External Job Cache - Minion-Side Returner

When an External Job Cache is configured, data is returned to the Default Job Cache on the Salt Master like usual, and then results are also sent to an External Job Cache using a Salt returner module running on the Salt Minion. [image]
o Advantages: Data is stored without placing additional load on the Salt Master.
o Disadvantages: Each Salt Minion connects to the external job cache, which can result in a large number of connections. Also requires additional configuration to get returner module settings on all Salt Minions.

Master Job Cache - Master-Side Returner

New in version 2014.7.0.
Instead of configuring an External Job Cache on each Salt Minion, you can configure the Master Job Cache to send job results from the Salt Master instead. In this configuration, Salt Minions send data to the Default Job Cache as usual, and then the Salt Master sends the data to the external system using a Salt returner module running on the Salt Master. [image]
o Advantages: A single connection is required to the external system. This is preferred for databases and similar systems.
o Disadvantages: Places additional load on your Salt Master.

Configure an External or Master Job Cache

Step 1: Understand Salt Returners

Before you configure a job cache, it is essential to understand Salt returner modules ("returners"). Returners are pluggable Salt Modules that take the data returned by jobs, and then perform any necessary steps to send the data to an external system. For example, a returner might establish a connection, authenticate, and then format and transfer data.
The Salt Returner system provides the core functionality used by the External and Master Job Cache systems, and the same returners are used by both systems.
Salt currently provides many different returners that let you connect to a wide variety of systems. A complete list is available at all Salt returners. Each returner is configured differently, so make sure you read and follow the instructions linked from that page.
For example, the MySQL returner requires:
o A database created using provided schema (structure is available at MySQL returner)
o A user created with privileges to the database
o Optional SSL configuration
A simpler returner, such as Slack or HipChat, requires:
o An API key/version
o The target channel/room
o The username that should be used to send the message

Step 2: Configure the Returner

After you understand the configuration and have the external system ready, the configuration requirements must be declared.

External Job Cache

The returner configuration settings can be declared in the Salt Minion configuration file, the Minion\(aqs pillar data, or the Minion\(aqs grains.
If external_job_cache configuration settings are specified in more than one place, the options are retrieved in the following order. The first configuration location that is found is the one that will be used.
o Minion configuration file
o Minion\(aqs grains
o Minion\(aqs pillar data

Master Job Cache

The returner configuration settings for the Master Job Cache should be declared in the Salt Master\(aqs configuration file.

Configuration File Examples

MySQL requires:
mysql.host: \(aqsalt\(aq
mysql.user: \(aqsalt\(aq
mysql.pass: \(aqsalt\(aq
mysql.db: \(aqsalt\(aq
mysql.port: 3306

Slack requires:
slack.channel: \(aqchannel\(aq
slack.api_key: \(aqkey\(aq
slack.from_name: \(aqname\(aq

After you have configured the returner and added settings to the configuration file, you can enable the External or Master Job Cache.

Step 3: Enable the External or Master Job Cache

Configuration is a single line that specifies an already-configured returner to use to send all job data to an external system.

External Job Cache

To enable a returner as the External Job Cache (Minion-side), add the following line to the Salt Master configuration file:
ext_job_cache: <returner>

For example:
ext_job_cache: mysql

NOTE: When configuring an External Job Cache (Minion-side), the returner settings are added to the Minion configuration file, but the External Job Cache setting is configured in the Master configuration file.

Master Job Cache

To enable a returner as a Master Job Cache (Master-side), add the following line to the Salt Master configuration file:
master_job_cache: <returner>

For example:
master_job_cache: mysql

Verify that the returner configuration settings are in the Master configuration file, and be sure to restart the salt-master service after you make configuration changes. (service salt-master restart).

Logging

The salt project tries to get the logging to work for you and help us solve any issues you might find along the way.
If you want to get some more information on the nitty-gritty of salt\(aqs logging system, please head over to the logging development document, if all you\(aqre after is salt\(aqs logging configurations, please continue reading.

Log Levels

The log levels are ordered numerically such that setting the log level to a specific level will record all log statements at that level and higher. For example, setting log_level: error will log statements at error, critical, and quiet levels, although nothing should be logged at quiet level.
Most of the logging levels are defined by default in Python\(aqs logging library and can be found in the official Python documentation. Salt uses some more levels in addition to the standard levels. All levels available in salt are shown in the table below.
NOTE: Python dependencies used by salt may define and use additional logging levels. For example, the Python 2 version of the multiprocessing standard Python library uses the levels subwarning, 25 and subdebug, 5.
Level Numeric value Description
quiet 1000 Nothing should be logged at this level
critical 50 Critical errors
error 40 Errors
warning 30 Warnings
info 20 Normal log information
profile 15 Profiling information on salt performance
debug 10 Information useful for debugging both salt implementations and salt code
trace 5 More detailed code debugging information
garbage 1 Even more debugging information
all 0 Everything

Available Configuration Settings

log_file

The log records can be sent to a regular file, local path name, or network location. Remote logging works best when configured to use rsyslogd(8) (e.g.: file:///dev/log), with rsyslogd(8) configured for network logging. The format for remote addresses is:
<file|udp|tcp>://<host|socketpath>:<port-if-required>/<log-facility>

Where log-facility is the symbolic name of a syslog facility as defined in the SysLogHandler documentation. It defaults to LOG_USER.
Default: Dependent of the binary being executed, for example, for salt-master, /var/log/salt/master.
Examples:
log_file: /var/log/salt/master

log_file: /var/log/salt/minion

log_file: file:///dev/log

log_file: file:///dev/log/LOG_DAEMON

log_file: udp://loghost:10514

log_level

Default: warning
The level of log record messages to send to the console. One of all, garbage, trace, debug, profile, info, warning, error, critical, quiet.
log_level: warning

NOTE: Add log_level: quiet in salt configuration file to completely disable logging. In case of running salt in command line use --log-level=quiet instead.

log_level_logfile

Default: info
The level of messages to send to the log file. One of all, garbage, trace, debug, profile, info, warning, error, critical, quiet.
log_level_logfile: warning

log_datefmt

Default: %H:%M:%S
The date and time format used in console log messages. Allowed date/time formatting matches those used in time.strftime().
log_datefmt: \(aq%H:%M:%S\(aq

log_datefmt_logfile

Default: %Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S
The date and time format used in log file messages. Allowed date/time formatting matches those used in time.strftime().
log_datefmt_logfile: \(aq%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S\(aq

log_fmt_console

Default: [%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s
The format of the console logging messages. All standard python logging LogRecord attributes can be used. Salt also provides these custom LogRecord attributes to colorize console log output:
\(aq%(colorlevel)s\(aq   # log level name colorized by level
\(aq%(colorname)s\(aq    # colorized module name
\(aq%(colorprocess)s\(aq # colorized process number
\(aq%(colormsg)s\(aq     # log message colorized by level

NOTE: The %(colorlevel)s, %(colorname)s, and %(colorprocess) LogRecord attributes also include padding and enclosing brackets, [ and ] to match the default values of their collateral non-colorized LogRecord attributes.
log_fmt_console: \(aq[%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s\(aq

log_fmt_logfile

Default: %(asctime)s,%(msecs)03d [%(name)-17s][%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s
The format of the log file logging messages. All standard python logging LogRecord attributes can be used. Salt also provides these custom LogRecord attributes that include padding and enclosing brackets [ and ]:
\(aq%(bracketlevel)s\(aq   # equivalent to [%(levelname)-8s]
\(aq%(bracketname)s\(aq    # equivalent to [%(name)-17s]
\(aq%(bracketprocess)s\(aq # equivalent to [%(process)5s]

log_fmt_logfile: \(aq%(asctime)s,%(msecs)03d [%(name)-17s][%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s\(aq

log_granular_levels

Default: {}
This can be used to control logging levels more specifically, based on log call name. The example sets the main salt library at the \(aqwarning\(aq level, sets salt.modules to log at the debug level, and sets a custom module to the all level:
log_granular_levels:
  \(aqsalt\(aq: \(aqwarning\(aq
  \(aqsalt.modules\(aq: \(aqdebug\(aq
  \(aqsalt.loader.saltmaster.ext.module.custom_module\(aq: \(aqall\(aq

log_fmt_jid

Default: [JID: %(jid)s]
The format of the JID when added to logging messages.
log_fmt_jid: \(aq[JID: %(jid)s]\(aq

External Logging Handlers

Besides the internal logging handlers used by salt, there are some external which can be used, see the external logging handlers document.

External Logging Handlers

fluent_mod Fluent Logging Handler
log4mongo_mod Log4Mongo Logging Handler
logstash_mod Logstash Logging Handler
sentry_mod Sentry Logging Handler

salt.log.handlers.fluent_mod

Fluent Logging Handler

New in version 2015.8.0.
This module provides some fluentd logging handlers.

Fluent Logging Handler

In the fluent configuration file:
<source>
  type forward
  bind localhost
  port 24224
</source>

Then, to send logs via fluent in Logstash format, add the following to the salt (master and/or minion) configuration file:
fluent_handler:
  host: localhost
  port: 24224

To send logs via fluent in the Graylog raw json format, add the following to the salt (master and/or minion) configuration file:
fluent_handler:
  host: localhost
  port: 24224
  payload_type: graylog
  tags:
  - salt_master.SALT

The above also illustrates the tags option, which allows one to set descriptive (or useful) tags on records being sent. If not provided, this defaults to the single tag: \(aqsalt\(aq. Also note that, via Graylog "magic", the \(aqfacility\(aq of the logged message is set to \(aqSALT\(aq (the portion of the tag after the first period), while the tag itself will be set to simply \(aqsalt_master\(aq. This is a feature, not a bug :)
Note: There is a third emitter, for the GELF format, but it is largely untested, and I don\(aqt currently have a setup supporting this config, so while it runs cleanly and outputs what LOOKS to be valid GELF, any real-world feedback on its usefulness, and correctness, will be appreciated.

Log Level

The fluent_handler configuration section accepts an additional setting log_level. If not set, the logging level used will be the one defined for log_level in the global configuration file section.
Inspiration
This work was inspired in fluent-logger-python

salt.log.handlers.log4mongo_mod

Log4Mongo Logging Handler

This module provides a logging handler for sending salt logs to MongoDB

Configuration

In the salt configuration file (e.g. /etc/salt/{master,minion}):
log4mongo_handler:
  host: mongodb_host
  port: 27017
  database_name: logs
  collection: salt_logs
  username: logging
  password: reindeerflotilla
  write_concern: 0
  log_level: warning

Log Level

If not set, the log_level will be set to the level defined in the global configuration file setting.
Inspiration
This work was inspired by the Salt logging handlers for LogStash and Sentry and by the log4mongo Python implementation.

salt.log.handlers.logstash_mod

Logstash Logging Handler

New in version 0.17.0.
This module provides some Logstash logging handlers.

UDP Logging Handler

For versions of Logstash before 1.2.0:
In the salt configuration file:
logstash_udp_handler:
  host: 127.0.0.1
  port: 9999
  version: 0
  msg_type: logstash

In the Logstash configuration file:
input {
  udp {
    type => "udp-type"
    format => "json_event"
  }
}

For version 1.2.0 of Logstash and newer:
In the salt configuration file:
logstash_udp_handler:
  host: 127.0.0.1
  port: 9999
  version: 1
  msg_type: logstash

In the Logstash configuration file:
input {
  udp {
    port => 9999
    codec => json
  }
}

Please read the UDP input configuration page for additional information.

ZeroMQ Logging Handler

For versions of Logstash before 1.2.0:
In the salt configuration file:
logstash_zmq_handler:
  address: tcp://127.0.0.1:2021
  version: 0

In the Logstash configuration file:
input {
  zeromq {
    type => "zeromq-type"
    mode => "server"
    topology => "pubsub"
    address => "tcp://0.0.0.0:2021"
    charset => "UTF-8"
    format => "json_event"
  }
}

For version 1.2.0 of Logstash and newer:
In the salt configuration file:
logstash_zmq_handler:
  address: tcp://127.0.0.1:2021
  version: 1

In the Logstash configuration file:
input {
  zeromq {
    topology => "pubsub"
    address => "tcp://0.0.0.0:2021"
    codec => json
  }
}

Please read the ZeroMQ input configuration page for additional information.
Important Logstash Setting
One of the most important settings that you should not forget on your Logstash configuration file regarding these logging handlers is format. Both the UDP and ZeroMQ inputs need to have format as json_event which is what we send over the wire.

Log Level

Both the logstash_udp_handler and the logstash_zmq_handler configuration sections accept an additional setting log_level. If not set, the logging level used will be the one defined for log_level in the global configuration file section.

HWM

The high water mark for the ZMQ socket setting. Only applicable for the logstash_zmq_handler.
Inspiration
This work was inspired in pylogstash, python-logstash, canary and the PyZMQ logging handler.

salt.log.handlers.sentry_mod

Sentry Logging Handler

New in version 0.17.0.
This module provides a Sentry logging handler. Sentry is an open source error tracking platform that provides deep context about exceptions that happen in production. Details about stack traces along with the context variables available at the time of the exception are easily browsable and filterable from the online interface. For more details please see Sentry.
Note
The Raven library needs to be installed on the system for this logging handler to be available.
Configuring the python Sentry client, Raven, should be done under the sentry_handler configuration key. Additional context may be provided for corresponding grain item(s). At the bare minimum, you need to define the DSN. As an example:
sentry_handler:
  dsn: /app-id" class="out link">https://pub-key:/app-id

More complex configurations can be achieved, for example:
sentry_handler:
  servers:
    - https://sentry.example.com
    - http://192.168.1.1
  project: app-id
  public_key: deadbeefdeadbeefdeadbeefdeadbeef
  secret_key: beefdeadbeefdeadbeefdeadbeefdead
  context:
    - os
    - master
    - saltversion
    - cpuarch
    - ec2.tags.environment

Note
The public_key and secret_key variables are not supported with Sentry > 3.0. The DSN key should be used instead.
All the client configuration keys are supported, please see the Raven client documentation.
The default logging level for the sentry handler is ERROR. If you wish to define a different one, define log_level under the sentry_handler configuration key:
sentry_handler:
  dsn: /app-id" class="out link">https://pub-key:/app-id
  log_level: warning

The available log levels are those also available for the salt cli tools and configuration; salt --help should give you the required information.

Threaded Transports

Raven\(aqs documents rightly suggest using its threaded transport for critical applications. However, don\(aqt forget that if you start having troubles with Salt after enabling the threaded transport, please try switching to a non-threaded transport to see if that fixes your problem.

Salt File Server

Salt comes with a simple file server suitable for distributing files to the Salt minions. The file server is a stateless ZeroMQ server that is built into the Salt master.
The main intent of the Salt file server is to present files for use in the Salt state system. With this said, the Salt file server can be used for any general file transfer from the master to the minions.

File Server Backends

In Salt 0.12.0, the modular fileserver was introduced. This feature added the ability for the Salt Master to integrate different file server backends. File server backends allow the Salt file server to act as a transparent bridge to external resources. A good example of this is the git backend, which allows Salt to serve files sourced from one or more git repositories, but there are several others as well. Click here for a full list of Salt\(aqs fileserver backends.

Enabling a Fileserver Backend

Fileserver backends can be enabled with the fileserver_backend option.
fileserver_backend:
  - git

See the documentation for each backend to find the correct value to add to fileserver_backend in order to enable them.

Using Multiple Backends

If fileserver_backend is not defined in the Master config file, Salt will use the roots backend, but the fileserver_backend option supports multiple backends. When more than one backend is in use, the files from the enabled backends are merged into a single virtual filesystem. When a file is requested, the backends will be searched in order for that file, and the first backend to match will be the one which returns the file.
fileserver_backend:
  - roots
  - git

With this configuration, the environments and files defined in the file_roots parameter will be searched first, and if the file is not found then the git repositories defined in gitfs_remotes will be searched.

Defining Environments

Just as the order of the values in fileserver_backend matters, so too does the order in which different sources are defined within a fileserver environment. For example, given the below file_roots configuration, if both /srv/salt/dev/foo.txt and /srv/salt/prod/foo.txt exist on the Master, then salt://foo.txt would point to /srv/salt/dev/foo.txt in the dev environment, but it would point to /srv/salt/prod/foo.txt in the base environment.
file_roots:
  base:
    - /srv/salt/prod
  qa:
    - /srv/salt/qa
    - /srv/salt/prod
  dev:
    - /srv/salt/dev
    - /srv/salt/qa
    - /srv/salt/prod

Similarly, when using the git backend, if both repositories defined below have a hotfix23 branch/tag, and both of them also contain the file bar.txt in the root of the repository at that branch/tag, then salt://bar.txt in the hotfix23 environment would be served from the first repository.
gitfs_remotes:
  - https://mydomain.tld/repos/first.git
  - https://mydomain.tld/repos/second.git

NOTE: Environments map differently based on the fileserver backend. For instance, the mappings are explicitly defined in roots backend, while in the VCS backends (git, hg, svn) the environments are created from branches/tags/bookmarks/etc. For the minion backend, the files are all in a single environment, which is specified by the minionfs_env option.
See the documentation for each backend for a more detailed explanation of how environments are mapped.

Requesting Files from Specific Environments

The Salt fileserver supports multiple environments, allowing for SLS files and other files to be isolated for better organization.
For the default backend (called roots), environments are defined using the roots option. Other backends (such as gitfs) define environments in their own ways. For a list of available fileserver backends, see here.

Querystring Syntax

Any salt:// file URL can specify its fileserver environment using a querystring syntax, like so:
salt://path/to/file?saltenv=foo

In Reactor configurations, this method must be used to pull files from an environment other than base.

In States

Minions can be instructed which environment to use both globally, and for a single state, and multiple methods for each are available:

Globally

A minion can be pinned to an environment using the environment option in the minion config file.
Additionally, the environment can be set for a single call to the following functions:
o state.apply
o state.highstate
o state.sls
o state.top
NOTE: When the saltenv parameter is used to trigger a highstate using either state.apply or state.highstate, only states from that environment will be applied.

On a Per-State Basis

Within an individual state, there are two ways of specifying the environment. The first is to add a saltenv argument to the state. This example will pull the file from the config environment:
/etc/foo/bar.conf:
  file.managed:
    - source: salt://foo/bar.conf
    - user: foo
    - mode: 600
    - saltenv: config

Another way of doing the same thing is to use the querystring syntax described above:
/etc/foo/bar.conf:
  file.managed:
    - source: salt://foo/bar.conf?saltenv=config
    - user: foo
    - mode: 600

NOTE: Specifying the environment using either of the above methods is only necessary in cases where a state from one environment needs to access files from another environment. If the SLS file containing this state was in the config environment, then it would look in that environment by default.

File Server Configuration

The Salt file server is a high performance file server written in ZeroMQ. It manages large files quickly and with little overhead, and has been optimized to handle small files in an extremely efficient manner.
The Salt file server is an environment aware file server. This means that files can be allocated within many root directories and accessed by specifying both the file path and the environment to search. The individual environments can span across multiple directory roots to create overlays and to allow for files to be organized in many flexible ways.

Environments

The Salt file server defaults to the mandatory base environment. This environment MUST be defined and is used to download files when no environment is specified.
Environments allow for files and sls data to be logically separated, but environments are not isolated from each other. This allows for logical isolation of environments by the engineer using Salt, but also allows for information to be used in multiple environments.

Directory Overlay

The environment setting is a list of directories to publish files from. These directories are searched in order to find the specified file and the first file found is returned.
This means that directory data is prioritized based on the order in which they are listed. In the case of this file_roots configuration:
file_roots:
  base:
    - /srv/salt/base
    - /srv/salt/failover

If a file\(aqs URI is salt://httpd/httpd.conf, it will first search for the file at /srv/salt/base/httpd/httpd.conf. If the file is found there it will be returned. If the file is not found there, then /srv/salt/failover/httpd/httpd.conf will be used for the source.
This allows for directories to be overlaid and prioritized based on the order they are defined in the configuration.
It is also possible to have file_roots which supports multiple environments:
file_roots:
  base:
    - /srv/salt/base
  dev:
    - /srv/salt/dev
    - /srv/salt/base
  prod:
    - /srv/salt/prod
    - /srv/salt/base

This example ensures that each environment will check the associated environment directory for files first. If a file is not found in the appropriate directory, the system will default to using the base directory.

Local File Server

New in version 0.9.8.
The file server can be rerouted to run from the minion. This is primarily to enable running Salt states without a Salt master. To use the local file server interface, copy the file server data to the minion and set the file_roots option on the minion to point to the directories copied from the master. Once the minion file_roots option has been set, change the file_client option to local to make sure that the local file server interface is used.

The cp Module

The cp module is the home of minion side file server operations. The cp module is used by the Salt state system, salt-cp, and can be used to distribute files presented by the Salt file server.

Escaping Special Characters

The salt:// url format can potentially contain a query string, for example salt://dir/file.txt?saltenv=base. You can prevent the fileclient/fileserver from interpreting ? as the initial token of a query string by referencing the file with salt://| rather than salt://.
/etc/marathon/conf/?checkpoint:
  file.managed:
    - source: salt://|hw/config/?checkpoint
    - makedirs: True

Environments

Since the file server is made to work with the Salt state system, it supports environments. The environments are defined in the master config file and when referencing an environment the file specified will be based on the root directory of the environment.

get_file

The cp.get_file function can be used on the minion to download a file from the master, the syntax looks like this:
# salt \(aq*\(aq cp.get_file salt://vimrc /etc/vimrc

This will instruct all Salt minions to download the vimrc file and copy it to /etc/vimrc
Template rendering can be enabled on both the source and destination file names like so:
# salt \(aq*\(aq cp.get_file "salt://{{grains.os}}/vimrc" /etc/vimrc template=jinja

This example would instruct all Salt minions to download the vimrc from a directory with the same name as their OS grain and copy it to /etc/vimrc
For larger files, the cp.get_file module also supports gzip compression. Because gzip is CPU-intensive, this should only be used in scenarios where the compression ratio is very high (e.g. pretty-printed JSON or YAML files).
To use compression, use the gzip named argument. Valid values are integers from 1 to 9, where 1 is the lightest compression and 9 the heaviest. In other words, 1 uses the least CPU on the master (and minion), while 9 uses the most.
# salt \(aq*\(aq cp.get_file salt://vimrc /etc/vimrc gzip=5

Finally, note that by default cp.get_file does not create new destination directories if they do not exist. To change this, use the makedirs argument:
# salt \(aq*\(aq cp.get_file salt://vimrc /etc/vim/vimrc makedirs=True

In this example, /etc/vim/ would be created if it didn\(aqt already exist.

get_dir

The cp.get_dir function can be used on the minion to download an entire directory from the master. The syntax is very similar to get_file:
# salt \(aq*\(aq cp.get_dir salt://etc/apache2 /etc

cp.get_dir supports template rendering and gzip compression arguments just like get_file:
# salt \(aq*\(aq cp.get_dir salt://etc/{{pillar.webserver}} /etc gzip=5 template=jinja

File Server Client Instance

A client instance is available which allows for modules and applications to be written which make use of the Salt file server.
The file server uses the same authentication and encryption used by the rest of the Salt system for network communication.

fileclient Module

The salt/fileclient.py module is used to set up the communication from the minion to the master. When creating a client instance using the fileclient module, the minion configuration needs to be passed in. When using the fileclient module from within a minion module the built in __opts__ data can be passed:
import salt.minion
import salt.fileclient

def get_file(path, dest, saltenv=\(aqbase\(aq): \(aq\(aq\(aq Used to get a single file from the Salt master
CLI Example: salt \(aq*\(aq cp.get_file salt://vimrc /etc/vimrc \(aq\(aq\(aq # Get the fileclient object client = salt.fileclient.get_file_client(__opts__) # Call get_file return client.get_file(path, dest, False, saltenv)
Creating a fileclient instance outside of a minion module where the __opts__ data is not available, it needs to be generated:
import salt.fileclient
import salt.config

def get_file(path, dest, saltenv=\(aqbase\(aq): \(aq\(aq\(aq Used to get a single file from the Salt master \(aq\(aq\(aq # Get the configuration data opts = salt.config.minion_config(\(aq/etc/salt/minion\(aq) # Get the fileclient object client = salt.fileclient.get_file_client(opts) # Call get_file return client.get_file(path, dest, False, saltenv)

Git Fileserver Backend Walkthrough

NOTE: This walkthrough assumes basic knowledge of Salt. To get up to speed, check out the Salt Walkthrough.
The gitfs backend allows Salt to serve files from git repositories. It can be enabled by adding git to the fileserver_backend list, and configuring one or more repositories in gitfs_remotes.
Branches and tags become Salt fileserver environments.
NOTE: Branching and tagging can result in a lot of potentially-conflicting top files, for this reason it may be useful to set top_file_merging_strategy to same in the minions\(aq config files if the top files are being managed in a GitFS repo.

Installing Dependencies

Both pygit2 and GitPython are supported Python interfaces to git. If compatible versions of both are installed, pygit2 will be preferred. In these cases, GitPython can be forced using the gitfs_provider parameter in the master config file.
NOTE: It is recommended to always run the most recent version of any the below dependencies. Certain features of GitFS may not be available without the most recent version of the chosen library.

pygit2

The minimum supported version of pygit2 is 0.20.3. Availability for this version of pygit2 is still limited, though the SaltStack team is working to get compatible versions available for as many platforms as possible.
For the Fedora/EPEL versions which have a new enough version packaged, the following command would be used to install pygit2:
# yum install python-pygit2

Provided a valid version is packaged for Debian/Ubuntu (which is not currently the case), the package name would be the same, and the following command would be used to install it:
# apt-get install python-pygit2

If pygit2 is not packaged for the platform on which the Master is running, the pygit2 website has installation instructions here. Keep in mind however that following these instructions will install libgit2 and pygit2 without system packages. Additionally, keep in mind that SSH authentication in pygit2 requires libssh2 (not libssh) development libraries to be present before libgit2 is built. On some Debian-based distros pkg-config is also required to link libgit2 with libssh2.
NOTE: If you are receiving the error "Unsupported URL Protocol" in the Salt Master log when making a connection using SSH, review the libssh2 details listed above.
Additionally, version 0.21.0 of pygit2 introduced a dependency on python-cffi, which in turn depends on newer releases of libffi. Upgrading libffi is not advisable as several other applications depend on it, so on older LTS linux releases pygit2 0.20.3 and libgit2 0.20.0 is the recommended combination.
WARNING: pygit2 is actively developed and frequently makes non-backwards-compatible API changes, even in minor releases. It is not uncommon for pygit2 upgrades to result in errors in Salt. Please take care when upgrading pygit2, and pay close attention to the changelog, keeping an eye out for API changes. Errors can be reported on the SaltStack issue tracker.

RedHat Pygit2 Issues

The release of RedHat/CentOS 7.3 upgraded both python-cffi and http-parser, both of which are dependencies for pygit2/ libgit2. Both pygit2 and libgit2 packages (which are from the EPEL repository) should be upgraded to the most recent versions, at least to 0.24.2.
The below errors will show up in the master log if an incompatible python-pygit2 package is installed:
2017-02-10 09:07:34,892 [salt.utils.gitfs ][ERROR ][11211] Import pygit2 failed: CompileError: command \(aqgcc\(aq failed with exit status 1
2017-02-10 09:07:34,907 [salt.utils.gitfs ][ERROR ][11211] gitfs is configured but could not be loaded, are pygit2 and libgit2 installed?
2017-02-10 09:07:34,907 [salt.utils.gitfs ][CRITICAL][11211] No suitable gitfs provider module is installed.
2017-02-10 09:07:34,912 [salt.master ][CRITICAL][11211] Master failed pre flight checks, exiting

The below errors will show up in the master log if an incompatible libgit2 package is installed:
2017-02-15 18:04:45,211 [salt.utils.gitfs ][ERROR   ][6211] Error occurred fetching gitfs remote \(aqhttps://foo.com/bar.git\(aq: No Content-Type header in response

A restart of the salt-master daemon and gitfs cache directory clean up may be required to allow http(s) repositories to continue to be fetched.

GitPython

GitPython 0.3.0 or newer is required to use GitPython for gitfs. For RHEL-based Linux distros, a compatible version is available in EPEL, and can be easily installed on the master using yum:
# yum install GitPython

Ubuntu 14.04 LTS and Debian Wheezy (7.x) also have a compatible version packaged:
# apt-get install python-git

GitPython requires the git CLI utility to work. If installed from a system package, then git should already be installed, but if installed via pip then it may still be necessary to install git separately. For MacOS users, GitPython comes bundled in with the Salt installer, but git must still be installed for it to work properly. Git can be installed in several ways, including by installing XCode.
WARNING: Keep in mind that if GitPython has been previously installed on the master using pip (even if it was subsequently uninstalled), then it may still exist in the build cache (typically /tmp/pip-build-root/GitPython) if the cache is not cleared after installation. The package in the build cache will override any requirement specifiers, so if you try upgrading to version 0.3.2.RC1 by running pip install \(aqGitPython==0.3.2.RC1\(aq then it will ignore this and simply install the version from the cache directory. Therefore, it may be necessary to delete the GitPython directory from the build cache in order to ensure that the specified version is installed.
WARNING: GitPython 2.0.9 and newer is not compatible with Python 2.6. If installing GitPython using pip on a machine running Python 2.6, make sure that a version earlier than 2.0.9 is installed. This can be done on the CLI by running pip install \(aqGitPython<2.0.9\(aq, or in a pip.installed state using the following SLS:
GitPython:
  pip.installed:
    - name: \(aqGitPython < 2.0.9\(aq

Simple Configuration

To use the gitfs backend, only two configuration changes are required on the master:
1. Include gitfs in the fileserver_backend list in the master config file:
fileserver_backend:
  - gitfs

NOTE: git also works here. Prior to the 2018.3.0 release, only git would work.
2. Specify one or more git://, https://, file://, or ssh:// URLs in gitfs_remotes to configure which repositories to cache and search for requested files:
gitfs_remotes:
  - https://github.com/saltstack-formulas/salt-formula.git

SSH remotes can also be configured using scp-like syntax:
gitfs_remotes:
  - :user/repo.git
  - ssh:///path/to/repo.git

Information on how to authenticate to SSH remotes can be found here.
3. Restart the master to load the new configuration.
NOTE: In a master/minion setup, files from a gitfs remote are cached once by the master, so minions do not need direct access to the git repository.

Multiple Remotes

The gitfs_remotes option accepts an ordered list of git remotes to cache and search, in listed order, for requested files.
A simple scenario illustrates this cascading lookup behavior:
If the gitfs_remotes option specifies three remotes:
gitfs_remotes:
  - git://github.com/example/first.git
  - https://github.com/example/second.git
  - file:///root/third

And each repository contains some files:
first.git:
    top.sls
    edit/vim.sls
    edit/vimrc
    nginx/init.sls

second.git: edit/dev_vimrc haproxy/init.sls
third: haproxy/haproxy.conf edit/dev_vimrc
Salt will attempt to lookup the requested file from each gitfs remote repository in the order in which they are defined in the configuration. The git://github.com/example/first.git remote will be searched first. If the requested file is found, then it is served and no further searching is executed. For example:
o A request for the file salt://haproxy/init.sls will be served from the https://github.com/example/second.git git repo.
o A request for the file salt://haproxy/haproxy.conf will be served from the file:///root/third repo.
NOTE: This example is purposefully contrived to illustrate the behavior of the gitfs backend. This example should not be read as a recommended way to lay out files and git repos.
The file:// prefix denotes a git repository in a local directory. However, it will still use the given file:// URL as a remote, rather than copying the git repo to the salt cache. This means that any refs you want accessible must exist as local refs in the specified repo.
WARNING: Salt versions prior to 2014.1.0 are not tolerant of changing the order of remotes or modifying the URI of existing remotes. In those versions, when modifying remotes it is a good idea to remove the gitfs cache directory (/var/cache/salt/master/gitfs) before restarting the salt-master service.

Per-remote Configuration Parameters

New in version 2014.7.0.
The following master config parameters are global (that is, they apply to all configured gitfs remotes):
o gitfs_base
o gitfs_root
o gitfs_ssl_verify
o gitfs_mountpoint (new in 2014.7.0)
o gitfs_user (pygit2 only, new in 2014.7.0)
o gitfs_password (pygit2 only, new in 2014.7.0)
o gitfs_insecure_auth (pygit2 only, new in 2014.7.0)
o gitfs_pubkey (pygit2 only, new in 2014.7.0)
o gitfs_privkey (pygit2 only, new in 2014.7.0)
o gitfs_passphrase (pygit2 only, new in 2014.7.0)
o gitfs_refspecs (new in 2017.7.0)
o gitfs_disable_saltenv_mapping (new in 2018.3.0)
o gitfs_ref_types (new in 2018.3.0)
o gitfs_update_interval (new in 2018.3.0)
NOTE: pygit2 only supports disabling SSL verification in versions 0.23.2 and newer.
These parameters can now be overridden on a per-remote basis. This allows for a tremendous amount of customization. Here\(aqs some example usage:
gitfs_provider: pygit2
gitfs_base: develop

gitfs_remotes: - https://foo.com/foo.git - https://foo.com/bar.git: - root: salt - mountpoint: salt://bar - base: salt-base - ssl_verify: False - update_interval: 120 - https://foo.com/bar.git: - name: second_bar_repo - root: other/salt - mountpoint: salt://other/bar - base: salt-base - ref_types: - branch - http://foo.com/baz.git: - root: salt/states - user: joe - password: mysupersecretpassword - insecure_auth: True - disable_saltenv_mapping: True - saltenv: - foo: - ref: foo - http://foo.com/quux.git: - all_saltenvs: master
IMPORTANT: There are two important distinctions which should be noted for per-remote configuration:
1. The URL of a remote which has per-remote configuration must be suffixed with a colon.
2. Per-remote configuration parameters are named like the global versions, with the gitfs_ removed from the beginning. The exception being the name, saltenv, and all_saltenvs parameters, which are only available to per-remote configurations.
The all_saltenvs parameter is new in the 2018.3.0 release.
In the example configuration above, the following is true:
1. The first and fourth gitfs remotes will use the develop branch/tag as the base environment, while the second and third will use the salt-base branch/tag as the base environment.
2. The first remote will serve all files in the repository. The second remote will only serve files from the salt directory (and its subdirectories). The third remote will only server files from the other/salt directory (and its subdirectories), while the fourth remote will only serve files from the salt/states directory (and its subdirectories).
3. The third remote will only serve files from branches, and not from tags or SHAs.
4. The fourth remote will only have two saltenvs available: base (pointed at develop), and foo (pointed at foo).
5. The first and fourth remotes will have files located under the root of the Salt fileserver namespace (salt://). The files from the second remote will be located under salt://bar, while the files from the third remote will be located under salt://other/bar.
6. The second and third remotes reference the same repository and unique names need to be declared for duplicate gitfs remotes.
7. The fourth remote overrides the default behavior of not authenticating to insecure (non-HTTPS) remotes.
8. Because all_saltenvs is configured for the fifth remote, files from the branch/tag master will appear in every fileserver environment.
NOTE: The use of http:// (instead of https://) is permitted here only because authentication is not being used. Otherwise, the insecure_auth parameter must be used (as in the fourth remote) to force Salt to authenticate to an http:// remote.
9. The first remote will wait 120 seconds between updates instead of 60.

Per-Saltenv Configuration Parameters

New in version 2016.11.0.
For more granular control, Salt allows the following three things to be overridden for individual saltenvs within a given repo:
o The mountpoint
o The root
o The branch/tag to be used for a given saltenv
Here is an example:
gitfs_root: salt

gitfs_saltenv: - dev: - mountpoint: salt://gitfs-dev - ref: develop
gitfs_remotes: - https://foo.com/bar.git: - saltenv: - staging: - ref: qa - mountpoint: salt://bar-staging - dev: - ref: development - https://foo.com/baz.git: - saltenv: - staging: - mountpoint: salt://baz-staging
Given the above configuration, the following is true:
1. For all gitfs remotes, files for the dev saltenv will be located under salt://gitfs-dev.
2. For the dev saltenv, files from the first remote will be sourced from the development branch, while files from the second remote will be sourced from the develop branch.
3. For the staging saltenv, files from the first remote will be located under salt://bar-staging, while files from the second remote will be located under salt://baz-staging.
4. For all gitfs remotes, and in all saltenvs, files will be served from the salt directory (and its subdirectories).

Custom Refspecs

New in version 2017.7.0.
GitFS will by default fetch remote branches and tags. However, sometimes it can be useful to fetch custom refs (such as those created for GitHub pull requests). To change the refspecs GitFS fetches, use the gitfs_refspecs config option:
gitfs_refspecs:
  - \(aq+refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*\(aq
  - \(aq+refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*\(aq
  - \(aq+refs/pull/*/head:refs/remotes/origin/pr/*\(aq
  - \(aq+refs/pull/*/merge:refs/remotes/origin/merge/*\(aq

In the above example, in addition to fetching remote branches and tags, GitHub\(aqs custom refs for pull requests and merged pull requests will also be fetched. These special head refs represent the head of the branch which is requesting to be merged, and the merge refs represent the result of the base branch after the merge.
IMPORTANT: When using custom refspecs, the destination of the fetched refs must be under refs/remotes/origin/, preferably in a subdirectory like in the example above. These custom refspecs will map as environment names using their relative path underneath refs/remotes/origin/. For example, assuming the configuration above, the head branch for pull request 12345 would map to fileserver environment pr/12345 (slash included).
Refspecs can be configured on a per-remote basis. For example, the below configuration would only alter the default refspecs for the second GitFS remote. The first remote would only fetch branches and tags (the default).
gitfs_remotes:
  - https://domain.tld/foo.git
  - https://domain.tld/bar.git:
    - refspecs:
      - \(aq+refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*\(aq
      - \(aq+refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*\(aq
      - \(aq+refs/pull/*/head:refs/remotes/origin/pr/*\(aq
      - \(aq+refs/pull/*/merge:refs/remotes/origin/merge/*\(aq

Global Remotes

New in version 2018.3.0.
The all_saltenvs per-remote configuration parameter overrides the logic Salt uses to map branches/tags to fileserver environments (i.e. saltenvs). This allows a single branch/tag to appear in all saltenvs.
This is very useful in particular when working with salt formulas. Prior to the addition of this feature, it was necessary to push a branch/tag to the remote repo for each saltenv in which that formula was to be used. If the formula needed to be updated, this update would need to be reflected in all of the other branches/tags. This is both inconvenient and not scalable.
With all_saltenvs, it is now possible to define your formula once, in a single branch.
gitfs_remotes:
  - http://foo.com/quux.git:
    - all_saltenvs: anything

Update Intervals

Prior to the 2018.3.0 release, GitFS would update its fileserver backends as part of a dedicated "maintenance" process, in which various routine maintenance tasks were performed. This tied the update interval to the loop_interval config option, and also forced all fileservers to update at the same interval.
Now it is possible to make GitFS update at its own interval, using gitfs_update_interval:
gitfs_update_interval: 180

gitfs_remotes: - https://foo.com/foo.git - https://foo.com/bar.git: - update_interval: 120
Using the above configuration, the first remote would update every three minutes, while the second remote would update every two minutes.

Configuration Order of Precedence

The order of precedence for GitFS configuration is as follows (each level overrides all levels below it):
1. Per-saltenv configuration (defined under a per-remote saltenv param)
gitfs_remotes:
  - https://foo.com/bar.git:
    - saltenv:
      - dev:
        - mountpoint: salt://bar

2. Global per-saltenv configuration (defined in gitfs_saltenv)
gitfs_saltenv:
  - dev:
    - mountpoint: salt://bar

3. Per-remote configuration parameter
gitfs_remotes:
  - https://foo.com/bar.git:
    - mountpoint: salt://bar

4. Global configuration parameter
gitfs_mountpoint: salt://bar

NOTE: The one exception to the above is when all_saltenvs is used. This value overrides all logic for mapping branches/tags to fileserver environments. So, even if gitfs_saltenv is used to globally override the mapping for a given saltenv, all_saltenvs would take precedence for any remote which uses it.
It\(aqs important to note however that any root and mountpoint values configured in gitfs_saltenv (or per-saltenv configuration) would be unaffected by this.

Serving from a Subdirectory

The gitfs_root parameter allows files to be served from a subdirectory within the repository. This allows for only part of a repository to be exposed to the Salt fileserver.
Assume the below layout:
.gitignore
README.txt
foo/
foo/bar/
foo/bar/one.txt
foo/bar/two.txt
foo/bar/three.txt
foo/baz/
foo/baz/top.sls
foo/baz/edit/vim.sls
foo/baz/edit/vimrc
foo/baz/nginx/init.sls

The below configuration would serve only the files under foo/baz, ignoring the other files in the repository:
gitfs_remotes:
  - git://mydomain.com/stuff.git

gitfs_root: foo/baz
The root can also be configured on a per-remote basis.

Mountpoints

New in version 2014.7.0.
The gitfs_mountpoint parameter will prepend the specified path to the files served from gitfs. This allows an existing repository to be used, rather than needing to reorganize a repository or design it around the layout of the Salt fileserver.
Before the addition of this feature, if a file being served up via gitfs was deeply nested within the root directory (for example, salt://webapps/foo/files/foo.conf, it would be necessary to ensure that the file was properly located in the remote repository, and that all of the parent directories were present (for example, the directories webapps/foo/files/ would need to exist at the root of the repository).
The below example would allow for a file foo.conf at the root of the repository to be served up from the Salt fileserver path salt://webapps/foo/files/foo.conf.
gitfs_remotes:
  - https://mydomain.com/stuff.git

gitfs_mountpoint: salt://webapps/foo/files
Mountpoints can also be configured on a per-remote basis.

Using gitfs in Masterless Mode

Since 2014.7.0, gitfs can be used in masterless mode. To do so, simply add the gitfs configuration parameters (and set fileserver_backend) in the _minion_ config file instead of the master config file.

Using gitfs Alongside Other Backends

Sometimes it may make sense to use multiple backends; for instance, if sls files are stored in git but larger files are stored directly on the master.
The cascading lookup logic used for multiple remotes is also used with multiple backends. If the fileserver_backend option contains multiple backends:
fileserver_backend:
  - roots
  - git

Then the roots backend (the default backend of files in /srv/salt) will be searched first for the requested file; then, if it is not found on the master, each configured git remote will be searched.

Branches, Environments, and Top Files

When using the GitFS backend, branches, and tags will be mapped to environments using the branch/tag name as an identifier.
There is one exception to this rule: the master branch is implicitly mapped to the base environment.
So, for a typical base, qa, dev setup, the following branches could be used:
master
qa
dev

top.sls files from different branches will be merged into one at runtime. Since this can lead to overly complex configurations, the recommended setup is to have a separate repository, containing only the top.sls file with just one single master branch.
To map a branch other than master as the base environment, use the gitfs_base parameter.
gitfs_base: salt-base

The base can also be configured on a per-remote basis.

Environment Whitelist/Blacklist

New in version 2014.7.0.
The gitfs_saltenv_whitelist and gitfs_saltenv_blacklist parameters allow for greater control over which branches/tags are exposed as fileserver environments. Exact matches, globs, and regular expressions are supported, and are evaluated in that order. If using a regular expression, ^ and $ must be omitted, and the expression must match the entire branch/tag.
gitfs_saltenv_whitelist:
  - base
  - v1.*
  - \(aqmybranch\d+\(aq

NOTE: v1.*, in this example, will match as both a glob and a regular expression (though it will have been matched as a glob, since globs are evaluated before regular expressions).
The behavior of the blacklist/whitelist will differ depending on which combination of the two options is used:
o If only gitfs_saltenv_whitelist is used, then only branches/tags which match the whitelist will be available as environments
o If only gitfs_saltenv_blacklist is used, then the branches/tags which match the blacklist will not be available as environments
o If both are used, then the branches/tags which match the whitelist, but do not match the blacklist, will be available as environments.

Authentication

pygit2

New in version 2014.7.0.
Both HTTPS and SSH authentication are supported as of version 0.20.3, which is the earliest version of pygit2 supported by Salt for gitfs.
NOTE: The examples below make use of per-remote configuration parameters, a feature new to Salt 2014.7.0. More information on these can be found here.

HTTPS

For HTTPS repositories which require authentication, the username and password can be provided like so:
gitfs_remotes:
  - https://domain.tld/myrepo.git:
    - user: git
    - password: mypassword

If the repository is served over HTTP instead of HTTPS, then Salt will by default refuse to authenticate to it. This behavior can be overridden by adding an insecure_auth parameter:
gitfs_remotes:
  - http://domain.tld/insecure_repo.git:
    - user: git
    - password: mypassword
    - insecure_auth: True

SSH

SSH repositories can be configured using the ssh:// protocol designation, or using scp-like syntax. So, the following two configurations are equivalent:
o ssh:///user/repo.git
o :user/repo.git
Both gitfs_pubkey and gitfs_privkey (or their per-remote counterparts) must be configured in order to authenticate to SSH-based repos. If the private key is protected with a passphrase, it can be configured using gitfs_passphrase (or simply passphrase if being configured per-remote). For example:
gitfs_remotes:
  - :user/repo.git:
    - pubkey: /root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
    - privkey: /root/.ssh/id_rsa
    - passphrase: myawesomepassphrase

Finally, the SSH host key must be added to the known_hosts file.
NOTE: There is a known issue with public-key SSH authentication to Microsoft Visual Studio (VSTS) with pygit2. This is due to a bug or lack of support for VSTS in older libssh2 releases. Known working releases include libssh2 1.7.0 and later, and known incompatible releases include 1.5.0 and older. At the time of this writing, 1.6.0 has not been tested.
Since upgrading libssh2 would require rebuilding many other packages (curl, etc.), followed by a rebuild of libgit2 and a reinstall of pygit2, an easier workaround for systems with older libssh2 is to use GitPython with a passphraseless key for authentication.

GitPython

HTTPS

For HTTPS repositories which require authentication, the username and password can be configured in one of two ways. The first way is to include them in the URL using the format https://<user>:<password>@<url>, like so:
gitfs_remotes:
  - /myrepo.git" class="out link">https://git:/myrepo.git

The other way would be to configure the authentication in ~/.netrc:
machine domain.tld
login git
password mypassword

If the repository is served over HTTP instead of HTTPS, then Salt will by default refuse to authenticate to it. This behavior can be overridden by adding an insecure_auth parameter:
gitfs_remotes:
  - /insecure_repo.git" class="out link">http://git:/insecure_repo.git:
    - insecure_auth: True

SSH

Only passphrase-less SSH public key authentication is supported using GitPython. The auth parameters (pubkey, privkey, etc.) shown in the pygit2 authentication examples above do not work with GitPython.
gitfs_remotes:
  - ssh:///example/salt-states.git

Since GitPython wraps the git CLI, the private key must be located in ~/.ssh/id_rsa for the user under which the Master is running, and should have permissions of 0600. Also, in the absence of a user in the repo URL, GitPython will (just as SSH does) attempt to login as the current user (in other words, the user under which the Master is running, usually root).
If a key needs to be used, then ~/.ssh/config can be configured to use the desired key. Information on how to do this can be found by viewing the manpage for ssh_config. Here\(aqs an example entry which can be added to the ~/.ssh/config to use an alternate key for gitfs:
Host github.com
    IdentityFile /root/.ssh/id_rsa_gitfs

The Host parameter should be a hostname (or hostname glob) that matches the domain name of the git repository.
It is also necessary to add the SSH host key to the known_hosts file. The exception to this would be if strict host key checking is disabled, which can be done by adding StrictHostKeyChecking no to the entry in ~/.ssh/config
Host github.com
    IdentityFile /root/.ssh/id_rsa_gitfs
    StrictHostKeyChecking no

However, this is generally regarded as insecure, and is not recommended.

Adding the SSH Host Key to the known_hosts File

To use SSH authentication, it is necessary to have the remote repository\(aqs SSH host key in the ~/.ssh/known_hosts file. If the master is also a minion, this can be done using the ssh.set_known_host function:
# salt mymaster ssh.set_known_host user=root hostname=github.com
mymaster:
    ----------
    new:
        ----------
        enc:
            ssh-rsa
        fingerprint:
            16:27:ac:a5:76:28:2d:36:63:1b:56:4d:eb:df:a6:48
        hostname:
            |1|OiefWWqOD4kwO3BhoIGa0loR5AA=|BIXVtmcTbPER+68HvXmceodDcfI=
        key:
            AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAABIwAAAQEAq2A7hRGmdnm9tUDbO9IDSwBK6TbQa+PXYPCPy6rbTrTtw7PHkccKrpp0yVhp5HdEIcKr6pLlVDBfOLX9QUsyCOV0wzfjIJNlGEYsdlLJizHhbn2mUjvSAHQqZETYP81eFzLQNnPHt4EVVUh7VfDESU84KezmD5QlWpXLmvU31/yMf+Se8xhHTvKSCZIFImWwoG6mbUoWf9nzpIoaSjB+weqqUUmpaaasXVal72J+UX2B+2RPW3RcT0eOzQgqlJL3RKrTJvdsjE3JEAvGq3lGHSZXy28G3skua2SmVi/w4yCE6gbODqnTWlg7+wC604ydGXA8VJiS5ap43JXiUFFAaQ==
    old:
        None
    status:
        updated

If not, then the easiest way to add the key is to su to the user (usually root) under which the salt-master runs and attempt to login to the server via SSH:
$ su -
Password:
# ssh github.com
The authenticity of host \(aqgithub.com (192.30.252.128)\(aq can\(aqt be established.
RSA key fingerprint is 16:27:ac:a5:76:28:2d:36:63:1b:56:4d:eb:df:a6:48.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added \(aqgithub.com,192.30.252.128\(aq (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
Permission denied (publickey).

It doesn\(aqt matter if the login was successful, as answering yes will write the fingerprint to the known_hosts file.

Verifying the Fingerprint

To verify that the correct fingerprint was added, it is a good idea to look it up. One way to do this is to use nmap:
$ nmap -p 22 github.com --script ssh-hostkey

Starting Nmap 5.51 ( http://nmap.org ) at 2014-08-18 17:47 CDT Nmap scan report for github.com (192.30.252.129) Host is up (0.17s latency). Not shown: 996 filtered ports PORT STATE SERVICE 22/tcp open ssh | ssh-hostkey: 1024 ad:1c:08:a4:40:e3:6f:9c:f5:66:26:5d:4b:33:5d:8c (DSA) |_2048 16:27:ac:a5:76:28:2d:36:63:1b:56:4d:eb:df:a6:48 (RSA) 80/tcp open http 443/tcp open https 9418/tcp open git
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 28.78 seconds
Another way is to check one\(aqs own known_hosts file, using this one-liner:
$ ssh-keygen -l -f /dev/stdin <<<`ssh-keyscan github.com 2>/dev/null` | awk \(aq{print $2}\(aq
16:27:ac:a5:76:28:2d:36:63:1b:56:4d:eb:df:a6:48

WARNING: AWS tracks usage of nmap and may flag it as abuse. On AWS hosts, the ssh-keygen method is recommended for host key verification.
NOTE: As of OpenSSH 6.8 the SSH fingerprint is now shown as a base64-encoded SHA256 checksum of the host key. So, instead of the fingerprint looking like 16:27:ac:a5:76:28:2d:36:63:1b:56:4d:eb:df:a6:48, it would look like SHA256:nThbg6kXUpJWGl7E1IGOCspRomTxdCARLviKw6E5SY8.

Refreshing gitfs Upon Push

By default, Salt updates the remote fileserver backends every 60 seconds. However, if it is desirable to refresh quicker than that, the Reactor System can be used to signal the master to update the fileserver on each push, provided that the git server is also a Salt minion. There are three steps to this process:
1. On the master, create a file /srv/reactor/update_fileserver.sls, with the following contents:
update_fileserver:
  runner.fileserver.update

2. Add the following reactor configuration to the master config file:
reactor:
  - \(aqsalt/fileserver/gitfs/update\(aq:
    - /srv/reactor/update_fileserver.sls

3. On the git server, add a post-receive hook
a. If the user executing git push is the same as the minion user, use the following hook:
#!/usr/bin/env sh
salt-call event.fire_master update salt/fileserver/gitfs/update

b. To enable other git users to run the hook after a push, use sudo in the hook script:
#!/usr/bin/env sh
sudo -u root salt-call event.fire_master update salt/fileserver/gitfs/update

4. If using sudo in the git hook (above), the policy must be changed to permit all users to fire the event. Add the following policy to the sudoers file on the git server.
Cmnd_Alias SALT_GIT_HOOK = /bin/salt-call event.fire_master update salt/fileserver/gitfs/update
Defaults!SALT_GIT_HOOK !requiretty
ALL ALL=(root) NOPASSWD: SALT_GIT_HOOK

The update argument right after event.fire_master in this example can really be anything, as it represents the data being passed in the event, and the passed data is ignored by this reactor.
Similarly, the tag name salt/fileserver/gitfs/update can be replaced by anything, so long as the usage is consistent.
The root user name in the hook script and sudo policy should be changed to match the user under which the minion is running.

Using Git as an External Pillar Source

The git external pillar (a.k.a. git_pillar) has been rewritten for the 2015.8.0 release. This rewrite brings with it pygit2 support (allowing for access to authenticated repositories), as well as more granular support for per-remote configuration. This configuration schema is detailed here.

Why aren\(aqt my custom modules/states/etc. syncing to my Minions?

In versions 0.16.3 and older, when using the git fileserver backend, certain versions of GitPython may generate errors when fetching, which Salt fails to catch. While not fatal to the fetch process, these interrupt the fileserver update that takes place before custom types are synced, and thus interrupt the sync itself. Try disabling the git fileserver backend in the master config, restarting the master, and attempting the sync again.
This issue is worked around in Salt 0.16.4 and newer.

MinionFS Backend Walkthrough

New in version 2014.1.0.
NOTE: This walkthrough assumes basic knowledge of Salt and cp.push. To get up to speed, check out the Salt Walkthrough.
Sometimes it is desirable to deploy a file located on one minion to one or more other minions. This is supported in Salt, and can be accomplished in two parts:
1. Minion support for pushing files to the master (using cp.push)
2. The minionfs fileserver backend
This walkthrough will show how to use both of these features.

Enabling File Push

To set the master to accept files pushed from minions, the file_recv option in the master config file must be set to True (the default is False).
file_recv: True

NOTE: This change requires a restart of the salt-master service.

Pushing Files

Once this has been done, files can be pushed to the master using the cp.push function:
salt \(aqminion-id\(aq cp.push /path/to/the/file

This command will store the file in a subdirectory named minions under the master\(aqs cachedir. On most masters, this path will be /var/cache/salt/master/minions. Within this directory will be one directory for each minion which has pushed a file to the master, and underneath that the full path to the file on the minion. So, for example, if a minion with an ID of dev1 pushed a file /var/log/myapp.log to the master, it would be saved to /var/cache/salt/master/minions/dev1/var/log/myapp.log.

Serving Pushed Files Using MinionFS

While it is certainly possible to add /var/cache/salt/master/minions to the master\(aqs file_roots and serve these files, it may only be desirable to expose files pushed from certain minions. Adding /var/cache/salt/master/minions/<minion-id> for each minion that needs to be exposed can be cumbersome and prone to errors.
Enter minionfs. This fileserver backend will make files pushed using cp.push available to the Salt fileserver, and provides an easy mechanism to restrict which minions\(aq pushed files are made available.

Simple Configuration

To use the minionfs backend, add minionfs to the list of backends in the fileserver_backend configuration option on the master:
file_recv: True

fileserver_backend: - roots - minionfs
NOTE: minion also works here. Prior to the 2018.3.0 release, only minion would work.
Also, as described earlier, file_recv: True is needed to enable the master to receive files pushed from minions. As always, changes to the master configuration require a restart of the salt-master service.
Files made available via minionfs are by default located at salt://<minion-id>/path/to/file. Think back to the earlier example, in which dev1 pushed a file /var/log/myapp.log to the master. With minionfs enabled, this file would be addressable in Salt at salt://dev1/var/log/myapp.log.
If many minions have pushed to the master, this will result in many directories in the root of the Salt fileserver. For this reason, it is recommended to use the minionfs_mountpoint config option to organize these files underneath a subdirectory:
minionfs_mountpoint: salt://minionfs

Using the above mountpoint, the file in the example would be located at salt://minionfs/dev1/var/log/myapp.log.

Restricting Certain Minions\(aq Files from Being Available Via MinionFS

A whitelist and blacklist can be used to restrict the minions whose pushed files are available via minionfs. These lists can be managed using the minionfs_whitelist and minionfs_blacklist config options. Click the links for both of them for a detailed explanation of how to use them.
A more complex configuration example, which uses both a whitelist and blacklist, can be found below:
file_recv: True

fileserver_backend: - roots - minionfs
minionfs_mountpoint: salt://minionfs
minionfs_whitelist: - host04 - web* - \(aqmail\d+\.domain\.tld\(aq
minionfs_blacklist: - web21

Potential Concerns

o There is no access control in place to restrict which minions have access to files served up by minionfs. All minions will have access to these files.
o Unless the minionfs_whitelist and/or minionfs_blacklist config options are used, all minions which push files to the master will have their files made available via minionfs.

Salt Package Manager

The Salt Package Manager, or SPM, enables Salt formulas to be packaged to simplify distribution to Salt masters. The design of SPM was influenced by other existing packaging systems including RPM, Yum, and Pacman. [image]
NOTE: The previous diagram shows each SPM component as a different system, but this is not required. You can build packages and host the SPM repo on a single Salt master if you\(aqd like.
Packaging System
The packaging system is used to package the state, pillar, file templates, and other files used by your formula into a single file. After a formula package is created, it is copied to the Repository System where it is made available to Salt masters.
See Building SPM Packages
Repo System
The Repo system stores the SPM package and metadata files and makes them available to Salt masters via http(s), ftp, or file URLs. SPM repositories can be hosted on a Salt Master, a Salt Minion, or on another system.
See Distributing SPM Packages
Salt Master
SPM provides Salt master settings that let you configure the URL of one or more SPM repos. You can then quickly install packages that contain entire formulas to your Salt masters using SPM.
See Installing SPM Packages
Contents

Building SPM Packages

The first step when using Salt Package Manager is to build packages for each of of the formulas that you want to distribute. Packages can be built on any system where you can install Salt.

Package Build Overview

To build a package, all state, pillar, jinja, and file templates used by your formula are assembled into a folder on the build system. These files can be cloned from a Git repository, such as those found at the saltstack-formulas organization on GitHub, or copied directly to the folder.
The following diagram demonstrates a typical formula layout on the build system: [image]
In this example, all formula files are placed in a myapp-formula folder. This is the folder that is targeted by the spm build command when this package is built.
Within this folder, pillar data is placed in a pillar.example file at the root, and all state, jinja, and template files are placed within a subfolder that is named after the application being packaged. State files are typically contained within a subfolder, similar to how state files are organized in the state tree. Any non-pillar files in your package that are not contained in a subfolder are placed at the root of the spm state tree.
Additionally, a FORMULA file is created and placed in the root of the folder. This file contains package metadata that is used by SPM.

Package Installation Overview

When building packages, it is useful to know where files are installed on the Salt master. During installation, all files except pillar.example and FORMULA are copied directly to the spm state tree on the Salt master (located at \srv\spm\salt).
If a pillar.example file is present in the root, it is renamed to <formula name>.sls.orig and placed in the pillar_path. [image]
NOTE: Even though the pillar data file is copied to the pillar root, you still need to manually assign this pillar data to systems using the pillar top file. This file can also be duplicated and renamed so the .orig version is left intact in case you need to restore it later.

Building an SPM Formula Package

1. Assemble formula files in a folder on the build system.
2. Create a FORMULA file and place it in the root of the package folder.
3. Run spm build <folder name>. The package is built and placed in the /srv/spm_build folder.
spm build /path/to/salt-packages-source/myapp-formula

4. Copy the .spm file to a folder on the repository system.

Types of Packages

SPM supports different types of packages. The function of each package is denoted by its name. For instance, packages which end in -formula are considered to be Salt States (the most common type of formula). Packages which end in -conf contain configuration which is to be placed in the /etc/salt/ directory. Packages which do not contain one of these names are treated as if they have a -formula name.

formula

By default, most files from this type of package live in the /srv/spm/salt/ directory. The exception is the pillar.example file, which will be renamed to <package_name>.sls and placed in the pillar directory (/srv/spm/pillar/ by default).

reactor

By default, files from this type of package live in the /srv/spm/reactor/ directory.

conf

The files in this type of package are configuration files for Salt, which normally live in the /etc/salt/ directory. Configuration files for packages other than Salt can and should be handled with a Salt State (using a formula type of package).

Technical Information

Packages are built using BZ2-compressed tarballs. By default, the package database is stored using the sqlite3 driver (see Loader Modules below).
Support for these are built into Python, and so no external dependencies are needed.
All other files belonging to SPM use YAML, for portability and ease of use and maintainability.

SPM-Specific Loader Modules

SPM was designed to behave like traditional package managers, which apply files to the filesystem and store package metadata in a local database. However, because modern infrastructures often extend beyond those use cases, certain parts of SPM have been broken out into their own set of modules.

Package Database

By default, the package database is stored using the sqlite3 module. This module was chosen because support for SQLite3 is built into Python itself.
Please see the SPM Development Guide for information on creating new modules for package database management.

Package Files

By default, package files are installed using the local module. This module applies files to the local filesystem, on the machine that the package is installed on.
Please see the SPM Development Guide for information on creating new modules for package file management.

Distributing SPM Packages

SPM packages can be distributed to Salt masters over HTTP(S), FTP, or through the file system. The SPM repo can be hosted on any system where you can install Salt. Salt is installed so you can run the spm create_repo command when you update or add a package to the repo. SPM repos do not require the salt-master, salt-minion, or any other process running on the system.
NOTE: If you are hosting the SPM repo on a system where you can not or do not want to install Salt, you can run the spm create_repo command on the build system and then copy the packages and the generated SPM-METADATA file to the repo. You can also install SPM files directly on a Salt master, bypassing the repository completely.

Setting up a Package Repository

After packages are built, the generated SPM files are placed in the srv/spm_build folder.
Where you place the built SPM files on your repository server depends on how you plan to make them available to your Salt masters.
You can share the srv/spm_build folder on the network, or copy the files to your FTP or Web server.

Adding a Package to the repository

New packages are added by simply copying the SPM file to the repo folder, and then generating repo metadata.

Generate Repo Metadata

Each time you update or add an SPM package to your repository, issue an spm create_repo command:
spm create_repo /srv/spm_build

SPM generates the repository metadata for all of the packages in that directory and places it in an SPM-METADATA file at the folder root. This command is used even if repository metadata already exists in that directory.

Installing SPM Packages

SPM packages are installed to your Salt master, where they are available to Salt minions using all of Salt\(aqs package management functions.

Configuring Remote Repositories

Before SPM can use a repository, two things need to happen. First, the Salt master needs to know where the repository is through a configuration process. Then it needs to pull down the repository metadata.

Repository Configuration Files

Repositories are configured by adding each of them to the /etc/salt/spm.repos.d/spm.repo file on each Salt master. This file contains the name of the repository, and the link to the repository:
my_repo:
  url: https://spm.example.com/

For HTTP/HTTPS Basic authorization you can define credentials:
my_repo:
  url: https://spm.example.com/
  username: user
  password: pass

Beware of unauthorized access to this file, please set at least 0640 permissions for this configuration file:
The URL can use http, https, ftp, or file.
my_repo:
  url: file:///srv/spm_build

Updating Local Repository Metadata

After the repository is configured on the Salt master, repository metadata is downloaded using the spm update_repo command:
spm update_repo

NOTE: A file for each repo is placed in /var/cache/salt/spm on the Salt master after you run the update_repo command. If you add a repository and it does not seem to be showing up, check this path to verify that the repository was found.

Update File Roots

SPM packages are installed to the srv/spm/salt folder on your Salt master. This path needs to be added to the file roots on your Salt master manually.
file_roots:
  base:
    1. /srv/salt
    2. /srv/spm/salt

Restart the salt-master service after updating the file_roots setting.

Installing Packages

To install a package, use the spm install command:
spm install apache

WARNING: Currently, SPM does not check to see if files are already in place before installing them. That means that existing files will be overwritten without warning.

Installing directly from an SPM file

You can also install SPM packages using a local SPM file using the spm local install command:
spm local install /srv/spm/apache-201506-1.spm

An SPM repository is not required when using spm local install.

Pillars

If an installed package includes Pillar data, be sure to target the installed pillar to the necessary systems using the pillar Top file.

Removing Packages

Packages may be removed after they are installed using the spm remove command.
spm remove apache

If files have been modified, they will not be removed. Empty directories will also be removed.

SPM Configuration

There are a number of options that are specific to SPM. They may be configured in the master configuration file, or in SPM\(aqs own spm configuration file (normally located at /etc/salt/spm). If configured in both places, the spm file takes precedence. In general, these values will not need to be changed from the defaults.

spm_logfile

Default: /var/log/salt/spm
Where SPM logs messages.

spm_repos_config

Default: /etc/salt/spm.repos
SPM repositories are configured with this file. There is also a directory which corresponds to it, which ends in .d. For instance, if the filename is /etc/salt/spm.repos, the directory will be /etc/salt/spm.repos.d/.

spm_cache_dir

Default: /var/cache/salt/spm
When SPM updates package repository metadata and downloads packaged, they will be placed in this directory. The package database, normally called packages.db, also lives in this directory.

spm_db

Default: /var/cache/salt/spm/packages.db
The location and name of the package database. This database stores the names of all of the SPM packages installed on the system, the files that belong to them, and the metadata for those files.

spm_build_dir

Default: /srv/spm_build
When packages are built, they will be placed in this directory.

spm_build_exclude

Default: [\(aq.git\(aq]
When SPM builds a package, it normally adds all files in the formula directory to the package. Files listed here will be excluded from that package. This option requires a list to be specified.
spm_build_exclude:
  - .git
  - .svn

Types of Packages

SPM supports different types of formula packages. The function of each package is denoted by its name. For instance, packages which end in -formula are considered to be Salt States (the most common type of formula). Packages which end in -conf contain configuration which is to be placed in the /etc/salt/ directory. Packages which do not contain one of these names are treated as if they have a -formula name.

formula

By default, most files from this type of package live in the /srv/spm/salt/ directory. The exception is the pillar.example file, which will be renamed to <package_name>.sls and placed in the pillar directory (/srv/spm/pillar/ by default).

reactor

By default, files from this type of package live in the /srv/spm/reactor/ directory.

conf

The files in this type of package are configuration files for Salt, which normally live in the /etc/salt/ directory. Configuration files for packages other than Salt can and should be handled with a Salt State (using a formula type of package).

FORMULA File

In addition to the formula itself, a FORMULA file must exist which describes the package. An example of this file is:
name: apache
os: RedHat, Debian, Ubuntu, SUSE, FreeBSD
os_family: RedHat, Debian, Suse, FreeBSD
version: 201506
release: 2
summary: Formula for installing Apache
description: Formula for installing Apache

Required Fields

This file must contain at least the following fields:

name

The name of the package, as it will appear in the package filename, in the repository metadata, and the package database. Even if the source formula has -formula in its name, this name should probably not include that. For instance, when packaging the apache-formula, the name should be set to apache.

os

The value of the os grain that this formula supports. This is used to help users know which operating systems can support this package.

os_family

The value of the os_family grain that this formula supports. This is used to help users know which operating system families can support this package.

version

The version of the package. While it is up to the organization that manages this package, it is suggested that this version is specified in a YYYYMM format. For instance, if this version was released in June 2015, the package version should be 201506. If multiple releases are made in a month, the release field should be used.

minimum_version

Minimum recommended version of Salt to use this formula. Not currently enforced.

release

This field refers primarily to a release of a version, but also to multiple versions within a month. In general, if a version has been made public, and immediate updates need to be made to it, this field should also be updated.

summary

A one-line description of the package.

description

A more detailed description of the package which can contain more than one line.

Optional Fields

The following fields may also be present.

top_level_dir

This field is optional, but highly recommended. If it is not specified, the package name will be used.
Formula repositories typically do not store .sls files in the root of the repository; instead they are stored in a subdirectory. For instance, an apache-formula repository would contain a directory called apache, which would contain an init.sls, plus a number of other related files. In this instance, the top_level_dir should be set to apache.
Files outside the top_level_dir, such as README.rst, FORMULA, and LICENSE will not be installed. The exceptions to this rule are files that are already treated specially, such as pillar.example and _modules/.

dependencies

A comma-separated list of packages that must be installed along with this package. When this package is installed, SPM will attempt to discover and install these packages as well. If it is unable to, then it will refuse to install this package.
This is useful for creating packages which tie together other packages. For instance, a package called wordpress-mariadb-apache would depend upon wordpress, mariadb, and apache.

optional

A comma-separated list of packages which are related to this package, but are neither required nor necessarily recommended. This list is displayed in an informational message when the package is installed to SPM.

recommended

A comma-separated list of optional packages that are recommended to be installed with the package. This list is displayed in an informational message when the package is installed to SPM.

files

A files section can be added, to specify a list of files to add to the SPM. Such a section might look like:
files:
  - _pillar
  - FORMULA
  - _runners
  - d|mymodule/index.rst
  - r|README.rst

When files are specified, then only those files will be added to the SPM, regardless of what other files exist in the directory. They will also be added in the order specified, which is useful if you have a need to lay down files in a specific order.
As can be seen in the example above, you may also tag files as being a specific type. This is done by pre-pending a filename with its type, followed by a pipe (|) character. The above example contains a document file and a readme. The available file types are:
o c: config file
o d: documentation file
o g: ghost file (i.e. the file contents are not included in the package payload)
o l: license file
o r: readme file
o s: SLS file
o m: Salt module
The first 5 of these types (c, d, g, l, r) will be placed in /usr/share/salt/spm/ by default. This can be changed by setting an spm_share_dir value in your /etc/salt/spm configuration file.
The last two types (s and m) are currently ignored, but they are reserved for future use.

Pre and Post States

It is possible to run Salt states before and after installing a package by using pre and post states. The following sections may be declared in a FORMULA:
o pre_local_state
o pre_tgt_state
o post_local_state
o post_tgt_state
Sections with pre in their name are evaluated before a package is installed and sections with post are evaluated after a package is installed. local states are evaluated before tgt states.
Each of these sections needs to be evaluated as text, rather than as YAML. Consider the following block:
pre_local_state: >
  echo test > /tmp/spmtest:
    cmd:
      - run

Note that this declaration uses > after pre_local_state. This is a YAML marker that marks the next multi-line block as text, including newlines. It is important to use this marker whenever declaring pre or post states, so that the text following it can be evaluated properly.

local States

local states are evaluated locally; this is analogous to issuing a state run using a salt-call --local command. These commands will be issued on the local machine running the spm command, whether that machine is a master or a minion.
local states do not require any special arguments, but they must still use the > marker to denote that the state is evaluated as text, not a data structure.
pre_local_state: >
  echo test > /tmp/spmtest:
    cmd:
      - run

tgt States

tgt states are issued against a remote target. This is analogous to issuing a state using the salt command. As such it requires that the machine that the spm command is running on is a master.
Because tgt states require that a target be specified, their code blocks are a little different. Consider the following state:
pre_tgt_state:
  tgt: \(aq*\(aq
  data: >
    echo test > /tmp/spmtest:
      cmd:
        - run

With tgt states, the state data is placed under a data section, inside the *_tgt_state code block. The target is of course specified as a tgt and you may also optionally specify a tgt_type (the default is glob).
You still need to use the > marker, but this time it follows the data line, rather than the *_tgt_state line.

Templating States

The reason that state data must be evaluated as text rather than a data structure is because that state data is first processed through the rendering engine, as it would be with a standard state run.
This means that you can use Jinja or any other supported renderer inside of Salt. All formula variables are available to the renderer, so you can reference FORMULA data inside your state if you need to:
pre_tgt_state:
  tgt: \(aq*\(aq
  data: >
     echo {{ name }} > /tmp/spmtest:
      cmd:
        - run

You may also declare your own variables inside the FORMULA. If SPM doesn\(aqt recognize them then it will ignore them, so there are no restrictions on variable names, outside of avoiding reserved words.
By default the renderer is set to jinja|yaml. You may change this by changing the renderer setting in the FORMULA itself.

Building a Package

Once a FORMULA file has been created, it is placed into the root of the formula that is to be turned into a package. The spm build command is used to turn that formula into a package:
spm build /path/to/saltstack-formulas/apache-formula

The resulting file will be placed in the build directory. By default this directory is located at /srv/spm/.

Loader Modules

When an execution module is placed in <file_roots>/_modules/ on the master, it will automatically be synced to minions, the next time a sync operation takes place. Other modules are also propagated this way: state modules can be placed in _states/, and so on.
When SPM detects a file in a package which resides in one of these directories, that directory will be placed in <file_roots> instead of in the formula directory with the rest of the files.

Removing Packages

Packages may be removed once they are installed using the spm remove command.
spm remove apache

If files have been modified, they will not be removed. Empty directories will also be removed.

Technical Information

Packages are built using BZ2-compressed tarballs. By default, the package database is stored using the sqlite3 driver (see Loader Modules below).
Support for these are built into Python, and so no external dependencies are needed.
All other files belonging to SPM use YAML, for portability and ease of use and maintainability.

SPM-Specific Loader Modules

SPM was designed to behave like traditional package managers, which apply files to the filesystem and store package metadata in a local database. However, because modern infrastructures often extend beyond those use cases, certain parts of SPM have been broken out into their own set of modules.

Package Database

By default, the package database is stored using the sqlite3 module. This module was chosen because support for SQLite3 is built into Python itself.
Please see the SPM Development Guide for information on creating new modules for package database management.

Package Files

By default, package files are installed using the local module. This module applies files to the local filesystem, on the machine that the package is installed on.
Please see the SPM Development Guide for information on creating new modules for package file management.

Types of Packages

SPM supports different types of formula packages. The function of each package is denoted by its name. For instance, packages which end in -formula are considered to be Salt States (the most common type of formula). Packages which end in -conf contain configuration which is to be placed in the /etc/salt/ directory. Packages which do not contain one of these names are treated as if they have a -formula name.

formula

By default, most files from this type of package live in the /srv/spm/salt/ directory. The exception is the pillar.example file, which will be renamed to <package_name>.sls and placed in the pillar directory (/srv/spm/pillar/ by default).

reactor

By default, files from this type of package live in the /srv/spm/reactor/ directory.

conf

The files in this type of package are configuration files for Salt, which normally live in the /etc/salt/ directory. Configuration files for packages other than Salt can and should be handled with a Salt State (using a formula type of package).

SPM Development Guide

This document discusses developing additional code for SPM.

SPM-Specific Loader Modules

SPM was designed to behave like traditional package managers, which apply files to the filesystem and store package metadata in a local database. However, because modern infrastructures often extend beyond those use cases, certain parts of SPM have been broken out into their own set of modules.
Each function that accepts arguments has a set of required and optional arguments. Take note that SPM will pass all arguments in, and therefore each function must accept each of those arguments. However, arguments that are marked as required are crucial to SPM\(aqs core functionality, while arguments that are marked as optional are provided as a benefit to the module, if it needs to use them.

Package Database

By default, the package database is stored using the sqlite3 module. This module was chosen because support for SQLite3 is built into Python itself.
Modules for managing the package database are stored in the salt/spm/pkgdb/ directory. A number of functions must exist to support database management.

init()

Get a database connection, and initialize the package database if necessary.
This function accepts no arguments. If a database is used which supports a connection object, then that connection object is returned. For instance, the sqlite3 module returns a connect() object from the sqlite3 library:
conn = sqlite3.connect(__opts__[\(aqspm_db\(aq], isolation_level=None)
...
return conn

SPM itself will not use this connection object; it will be passed in as-is to the other functions in the module. Therefore, when you set up this object, make sure to do so in a way that is easily usable throughout the module.

info()

Return information for a package. This generally consists of the information that is stored in the FORMULA file in the package.
The arguments that are passed in, in order, are package (required) and conn (optional).
package is the name of the package, as specified in the FORMULA. conn is the connection object returned from init().

list_files()

Return a list of files for an installed package. Only the filename should be returned, and no other information.
The arguments that are passed in, in order, are package (required) and conn (optional).
package is the name of the package, as specified in the FORMULA. conn is the connection object returned from init().

register_pkg()

Register a package in the package database. Nothing is expected to be returned from this function.
The arguments that are passed in, in order, are name (required), formula_def (required), and conn (optional).
name is the name of the package, as specified in the FORMULA. formula_def is the contents of the FORMULA file, as a dict. conn is the connection object returned from init().

register_file()

Register a file in the package database. Nothing is expected to be returned from this function.
The arguments that are passed in are name (required), member (required), path (required), digest (optional), and conn (optional).
name is the name of the package.
member is a tarfile object for the package file. It is included, because it contains most of the information for the file.
path is the location of the file on the local filesystem.
digest is the SHA1 checksum of the file.
conn is the connection object returned from init().

unregister_pkg()

Unregister a package from the package database. This usually only involves removing the package\(aqs record from the database. Nothing is expected to be returned from this function.
The arguments that are passed in, in order, are name (required) and conn (optional).
name is the name of the package, as specified in the FORMULA. conn is the connection object returned from init().

unregister_file()

Unregister a package from the package database. This usually only involves removing the package\(aqs record from the database. Nothing is expected to be returned from this function.
The arguments that are passed in, in order, are name (required), pkg (optional) and conn (optional).
name is the path of the file, as it was installed on the filesystem.
pkg is the name of the package that the file belongs to.
conn is the connection object returned from init().

db_exists()

Check to see whether the package database already exists. This is the path to the package database file. This function will return True or False.
The only argument that is expected is db_, which is the package database file.

Package Files

By default, package files are installed using the local module. This module applies files to the local filesystem, on the machine that the package is installed on.
Modules for managing the package database are stored in the salt/spm/pkgfiles/ directory. A number of functions must exist to support file management.

init()

Initialize the installation location for the package files. Normally these will be directory paths, but other external destinations such as databases can be used. For this reason, this function will return a connection object, which can be a database object. However, in the default local module, this object is a dict containing the paths. This object will be passed into all other functions.
Three directories are used for the destinations: formula_path, pillar_path, and reactor_path.
formula_path is the location of most of the files that will be installed. The default is specific to the operating system, but is normally /srv/salt/.
pillar_path is the location that the pillar.example file will be installed to. The default is specific to the operating system, but is normally /srv/pillar/.
reactor_path is the location that reactor files will be installed to. The default is specific to the operating system, but is normally /srv/reactor/.

check_existing()

Check the filesystem for existing files. All files for the package will be checked, and if any are existing, then this function will normally state that SPM will refuse to install the package.
This function returns a list of the files that exist on the system.
The arguments that are passed into this function are, in order: package (required), pkg_files (required), formula_def (formula_def), and conn (optional).
package is the name of the package that is to be installed.
pkg_files is a list of the files to be checked.
formula_def is a copy of the information that is stored in the FORMULA file.
conn is the file connection object.

install_file()

Install a single file to the destination (normally on the filesystem). Nothing is expected to be returned from this function.
This function returns the final location that the file was installed to.
The arguments that are passed into this function are, in order, package (required), formula_tar (required), member (required), formula_def (required), and conn (optional).
package is the name of the package that is to be installed.
formula_tar is the tarfile object for the package. This is passed in so that the function can call formula_tar.extract() for the file.
member is the tarfile object which represents the individual file. This may be modified as necessary, before being passed into formula_tar.extract().
formula_def is a copy of the information from the FORMULA file.
conn is the file connection object.

remove_file()

Remove a single file from file system. Normally this will be little more than an os.remove(). Nothing is expected to be returned from this function.
The arguments that are passed into this function are, in order, path (required) and conn (optional).
path is the absolute path to the file to be removed.
conn is the file connection object.

hash_file()

Returns the hexdigest hash value of a file.
The arguments that are passed into this function are, in order, path (required), hashobj (required), and conn (optional).
path is the absolute path to the file.
hashobj is a reference to hashlib.sha1(), which is used to pull the hexdigest() for the file.
conn is the file connection object.
This function will not generally be more complex than:
def hash_file(path, hashobj, conn=None):
    with salt.utils.files.fopen(path, \(aqr\(aq) as f:
        hashobj.update(f.read())
        return hashobj.hexdigest()

path_exists()

Check to see whether the file already exists on the filesystem. Returns True or False.
This function expects a path argument, which is the absolute path to the file to be checked.

path_isdir()

Check to see whether the path specified is a directory. Returns True or False.
This function expects a path argument, which is the absolute path to be checked.

Storing Data in Other Databases

The SDB interface is designed to store and retrieve data that, unlike pillars and grains, is not necessarily minion-specific. The initial design goal was to allow passwords to be stored in a secure database, such as one managed by the keyring package, rather than as plain-text files. However, as a generic database interface, it could conceptually be used for a number of other purposes.
SDB was added to Salt in version 2014.7.0.

SDB Configuration

In order to use the SDB interface, a configuration profile must be set up. To be available for master commands, such as runners, it needs to be configured in the master configuration. For modules executed on a minion, it can be set either in the minion configuration file, or as a pillar. The configuration stanza includes the name/ID that the profile will be referred to as, a driver setting, and any other arguments that are necessary for the SDB module that will be used. For instance, a profile called mykeyring, which uses the system service in the keyring module would look like:
mykeyring:
  driver: keyring
  service: system

It is recommended to keep the name of the profile simple, as it is used in the SDB URI as well.

SDB URIs

SDB is designed to make small database queries (hence the name, SDB) using a compact URL. This allows users to reference a database value quickly inside a number of Salt configuration areas, without a lot of overhead. The basic format of an SDB URI is:
sdb://<profile>/<args>

The profile refers to the configuration profile defined in either the master or the minion configuration file. The args are specific to the module referred to in the profile, but will typically only need to refer to the key of a key/value pair inside the database. This is because the profile itself should define as many other parameters as possible.
For example, a profile might be set up to reference credentials for a specific OpenStack account. The profile might look like:
kevinopenstack:
  driver: keyring
  service: salt.cloud.openstack.kevin

And the URI used to reference the password might look like:
sdb://kevinopenstack/password

Getting, Setting and Deleting SDB Values

Once an SDB driver is configured, you can use the sdb execution module to get, set and delete values from it. There are two functions that may appear in most SDB modules: get, set and delete.
Getting a value requires only the SDB URI to be specified. To retrieve a value from the kevinopenstack profile above, you would use:
salt-call sdb.get sdb://kevinopenstack/password

Setting a value uses the same URI as would be used to retrieve it, followed by the value as another argument.
salt-call sdb.set \(aqsdb://myvault/secret/salt/saltstack\(aq \(aqsuper awesome\(aq

Deleting values (if supported by the driver) is done pretty much the same way as getting them. Provided that you have a profile called mykvstore that uses a driver allowing to delete values you would delete a value as shown below:
salt-call sdb.delete \(aqsdb://mykvstore/foobar\(aq

The sdb.get, sdb.set and sdb.delete functions are also available in the runner system:
salt-run sdb.get \(aqsdb://myvault/secret/salt/saltstack\(aq
salt-run sdb.set \(aqsdb://myvault/secret/salt/saltstack\(aq \(aqsuper awesome\(aq
salt-run sdb.delete \(aqsdb://mykvstore/foobar\(aq

Using SDB URIs in Files

SDB URIs can be used in both configuration files, and files that are processed by the renderer system (jinja, mako, etc.). In a configuration file (such as /etc/salt/master, /etc/salt/minion, /etc/salt/cloud, etc.), make an entry as usual, and set the value to the SDB URI. For instance:
mykey: sdb://myetcd/mykey

To retrieve this value using a module, the module in question must use the config.get function to retrieve configuration values. This would look something like:
mykey = __salt__[\(aqconfig.get\(aq](\(aqmykey\(aq)

Templating renderers use a similar construct. To get the mykey value from above in Jinja, you would use:
{{ salt[\(aqconfig.get\(aq](\(aqmykey\(aq) }}

When retrieving data from configuration files using config.get, the SDB URI need only appear in the configuration file itself.
If you would like to retrieve a key directly from SDB, you would call the sdb.get function directly, using the SDB URI. For instance, in Jinja:
{{ salt[\(aqsdb.get\(aq](\(aqsdb://myetcd/mykey\(aq) }}

When writing Salt modules, it is not recommended to call sdb.get directly, as it requires the user to provide values in SDB, using a specific URI. Use config.get instead.

Writing SDB Modules

There is currently one function that MUST exist in any SDB module (get()), one that SHOULD exist (set_()) and one that MAY exist (delete()). If using a (set_()) function, a __func_alias__ dictionary MUST be declared in the module as well:
__func_alias__ = {
    \(aqset_\(aq: \(aqset\(aq,
}

This is because set is a Python built-in, and therefore functions should not be created which are called set(). The __func_alias__ functionality is provided via Salt\(aqs loader interfaces, and allows legally-named functions to be referred to using names that would otherwise be unwise to use.
The get() function is required, as it will be called via functions in other areas of the code which make use of the sdb:// URI. For example, the config.get function in the config execution module uses this function.
The set_() function may be provided, but is not required, as some sources may be read-only, or may be otherwise unwise to access via a URI (for instance, because of SQL injection attacks).
The delete() function may be provided as well, but is not required, as many sources may be read-only or restrict such operations.
A simple example of an SDB module is salt/sdb/keyring_db.py, as it provides basic examples of most, if not all, of the types of functionality that are available not only for SDB modules, but for Salt modules in general.

Running the Salt Master/Minion as an Unprivileged User

While the default setup runs the master and minion as the root user, some may consider it an extra measure of security to run the master as a non-root user. Keep in mind that doing so does not change the master\(aqs capability to access minions as the user they are running as. Due to this many feel that running the master as a non-root user does not grant any real security advantage which is why the master has remained as root by default.
NOTE: Some of Salt\(aqs operations cannot execute correctly when the master is not running as root, specifically the pam external auth system, as this system needs root access to check authentication.
As of Salt 0.9.10 it is possible to run Salt as a non-root user. This can be done by setting the user parameter in the master configuration file. and restarting the salt-master service.
The minion has it\(aqs own user parameter as well, but running the minion as an unprivileged user will keep it from making changes to things like users, installed packages, etc. unless access controls (sudo, etc.) are setup on the minion to permit the non-root user to make the needed changes.
In order to allow Salt to successfully run as a non-root user, ownership, and permissions need to be set such that the desired user can read from and write to the following directories (and their subdirectories, where applicable):
o /etc/salt
o /var/cache/salt
o /var/log/salt
o /var/run/salt
Ownership can be easily changed with chown, like so:
# chown -R user /etc/salt /var/cache/salt /var/log/salt /var/run/salt

WARNING: Running either the master or minion with the root_dir parameter specified will affect these paths, as will setting options like pki_dir, cachedir, log_file, and other options that normally live in the above directories.

Using cron with Salt

The Salt Minion can initiate its own highstate using the salt-call command.
$ salt-call state.apply

This will cause the minion to check in with the master and ensure it is in the correct "state".

Use cron to initiate a highstate

If you would like the Salt Minion to regularly check in with the master you can use cron to run the salt-call command:
0 0 * * * salt-call state.apply

The above cron entry will run a highstate every day at midnight.
NOTE: When executing Salt using cron, keep in mind that the default PATH for cron may not include the path for any scripts or commands used by Salt, and it may be necessary to set the PATH accordingly in the crontab:
PATH=/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/opt/bin

0 0 * * * salt-call state.apply

Hardening Salt

This topic contains tips you can use to secure and harden your Salt environment. How you best secure and harden your Salt environment depends heavily on how you use Salt, where you use Salt, how your team is structured, where you get data from, and what kinds of access (internal and external) you require.

General hardening tips

o Restrict who can directly log into your Salt master system.
o Use SSH keys secured with a passphrase to gain access to the Salt master system.
o Track and secure SSH keys and any other login credentials you and your team need to gain access to the Salt master system.
o Use a hardened bastion server or a VPN to restrict direct access to the Salt master from the internet.
o Don\(aqt expose the Salt master any more than what is required.
o Harden the system as you would with any high-priority target.
o Keep the system patched and up-to-date.
o Use tight firewall rules.

Salt hardening tips

o Subscribe to salt-users or salt-announce so you know when new Salt releases are available. Keep your systems up-to-date with the latest patches.
o Use Salt\(aqs Client ACL system to avoid having to give out root access in order to run Salt commands.
o Use Salt\(aqs Client ACL system to restrict which users can run what commands.
o Use external Pillar to pull data into Salt from external sources so that non-sysadmins (other teams, junior admins, developers, etc) can provide configuration data without needing access to the Salt master.
o Make heavy use of SLS files that are version-controlled and go through a peer-review/code-review process before they\(aqre deployed and run in production. This is good advice even for "one-off" CLI commands because it helps mitigate typos and mistakes.
o Use salt-api, SSL, and restrict authentication with the external auth system if you need to expose your Salt master to external services.
o Make use of Salt\(aqs event system and reactor to allow minions to signal the Salt master without requiring direct access.
o Run the salt-master daemon as non-root.
o Disable which modules are loaded onto minions with the disable_modules setting. (for example, disable the cmd module if it makes sense in your environment.)
o Look through the fully-commented sample master and minion config files. There are many options for securing an installation.
o Run masterless-mode minions on particularly sensitive minions. There is also salt-ssh or the modules.sudo if you need to further restrict a minion.

Security disclosure policy

email
gpg key ID
4EA0793D
gpg key fingerprint
8ABE 4EFC F0F4 B24B FF2A AF90 D570 F2D3 4EA0 793D
gpg public key:
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The SaltStack Security Team is available at for security-related bug reports or questions.
We request the disclosure of any security-related bugs or issues be reported non-publicly until such time as the issue can be resolved and a security-fix release can be prepared. At that time we will release the fix and make a public announcement with upgrade instructions and download locations.

Security response procedure

SaltStack takes security and the trust of our customers and users very seriously. Our disclosure policy is intended to resolve security issues as quickly and safely as is possible.
1. A security report sent to is assigned to a team member. This person is the primary contact for questions and will coordinate the fix, release, and announcement.
2. The reported issue is reproduced and confirmed. A list of affected projects and releases is made.
3. Fixes are implemented for all affected projects and releases that are actively supported. Back-ports of the fix are made to any old releases that are actively supported.
4. Packagers are notified via the salt-packagers mailing list that an issue was reported and resolved, and that an announcement is incoming.
5. A new release is created and pushed to all affected repositories. The release documentation provides a full description of the issue, plus any upgrade instructions or other relevant details.
6. An announcement is made to the salt-users and salt-announce mailing lists. The announcement contains a description of the issue and a link to the full release documentation and download locations.

Receiving security announcements

The fastest place to receive security announcements is via the salt-announce mailing list. This list is low-traffic.

Salt Transport

One of fundamental features of Salt is remote execution. Salt has two basic "channels" for communicating with minions. Each channel requires a client (minion) and a server (master) implementation to work within Salt. These pairs of channels will work together to implement the specific message passing required by the channel interface.

Pub Channel

The pub channel, or publish channel, is how a master sends a job (payload) to a minion. This is a basic pub/sub paradigm, which has specific targeting semantics. All data which goes across the publish system should be encrypted such that only members of the Salt cluster can decrypt the publishes.

Req Channel

The req channel is how the minions send data to the master. This interface is primarily used for fetching files and returning job returns. The req channels have two basic interfaces when talking to the master. send is the basic method that guarantees the message is encrypted at least so that only minions attached to the same master can read it-- but no guarantee of minion-master confidentiality, whereas the crypted_transfer_decode_dictentry method does guarantee minion-master confidentiality.

Zeromq Transport

NOTE: Zeromq is the current default transport within Salt
Zeromq is a messaging library with bindings into many languages. Zeromq implements a socket interface for message passing, with specific semantics for the socket type.

Pub Channel

The pub channel is implemented using zeromq\(aqs pub/sub sockets. By default we don\(aqt use zeromq\(aqs filtering, which means that all publish jobs are sent to all minions and filtered minion side. Zeromq does have publisher side filtering which can be enabled in salt using zmq_filtering.

Req Channel

The req channel is implemented using zeromq\(aqs req/rep sockets. These sockets enforce a send/recv pattern, which forces salt to serialize messages through these socket pairs. This means that although the interface is asynchronous on the minion we cannot send a second message until we have received the reply of the first message.

TCP Transport

The tcp transport is an implementation of Salt\(aqs channels using raw tcp sockets. Since this isn\(aqt using a pre-defined messaging library we will describe the wire protocol, message semantics, etc. in this document.
The tcp transport is enabled by changing the transport setting to tcp on each Salt minion and Salt master.
transport: tcp

WARNING: We currently recommend that when using Syndics that all Masters and Minions use the same transport. We\(aqre investigating a report of an error when using mixed transport types at very heavy loads.

Wire Protocol

This implementation over TCP focuses on flexibility over absolute efficiency. This means we are okay to spend a couple of bytes of wire space for flexibility in the future. That being said, the wire framing is quite efficient and looks like:
msgpack({\(aqhead\(aq: SOMEHEADER, \(aqbody\(aq: SOMEBODY})

Since msgpack is an iterably parsed serialization, we can simply write the serialized payload to the wire. Within that payload we have two items "head" and "body". Head contains header information (such as "message id"). The Body contains the actual message that we are sending. With this flexible wire protocol we can implement any message semantics that we\(aqd like-- including multiplexed message passing on a single socket.

TLS Support

New in version 2016.11.1.
The TCP transport allows for the master/minion communication to be optionally wrapped in a TLS connection. Enabling this is simple, the master and minion need to be using the tcp connection, then the ssl option is enabled. The ssl option is passed as a dict and corresponds to the options passed to the Python ssl.wrap_socket <https://docs.python.org/2/library/ssl.html#ssl.wrap_socket> function.
A simple setup looks like this, on the Salt Master add the ssl option to the master configuration file:
ssl:
  keyfile: <path_to_keyfile>
  certfile: <path_to_certfile>
  ssl_version: PROTOCOL_TLSv1_2

The minimal ssl option in the minion configuration file looks like this:
ssl: True
# Versions below 2016.11.4:
ssl: {}

Specific options can be sent to the minion also, as defined in the Python ssl.wrap_socket function.
NOTE: While setting the ssl_version is not required, we recommend it. Some older versions of python do not support the latest TLS protocol and if this is the case for your version of python we strongly recommend upgrading your version of Python.

Crypto

The current implementation uses the same crypto as the zeromq transport.

Pub Channel

For the pub channel we send messages without "message ids" which the remote end interprets as a one-way send.
NOTE: As of today we send all publishes to all minions and rely on minion-side filtering.

Req Channel

For the req channel we send messages with a "message id". This "message id" allows us to multiplex messages across the socket.

The RAET Transport

NOTE: The RAET transport is in very early development, it is functional but no promises are yet made as to its reliability or security. As for reliability and security, the encryption used has been audited and our tests show that raet is reliable. With this said we are still conducting more security audits and pushing the reliability. This document outlines the encryption used in RAET
New in version 2014.7.0.
The Reliable Asynchronous Event Transport, or RAET, is an alternative transport medium developed specifically with Salt in mind. It has been developed to allow queuing to happen up on the application layer and comes with socket layer encryption. It also abstracts a great deal of control over the socket layer and makes it easy to bubble up errors and exceptions.
RAET also offers very powerful message routing capabilities, allowing for messages to be routed between processes on a single machine all the way up to processes on multiple machines. Messages can also be restricted, allowing processes to be sent messages of specific types from specific sources allowing for trust to be established.

Using RAET in Salt

Using RAET in Salt is easy, the main difference is that the core dependencies change, instead of needing pycrypto, M2Crypto, ZeroMQ, and PYZMQ, the packages libsodium, libnacl, ioflo, and raet are required. Encryption is handled very cleanly by libnacl, while the queueing and flow control is handled by ioflo. Distribution packages are forthcoming, but libsodium can be easily installed from source, or many distributions do ship packages for it. The libnacl and ioflo packages can be easily installed from pypi, distribution packages are in the works.
Once the new deps are installed the 2014.7 release or higher of Salt needs to be installed.
Once installed, modify the configuration files for the minion and master to set the transport to raet:
/etc/salt/master:
transport: raet

/etc/salt/minion:
transport: raet

Now start salt as it would normally be started, the minion will connect to the master and share long term keys, which can then in turn be managed via salt-key. Remote execution and salt states will function in the same way as with Salt over ZeroMQ.

Limitations

The 2014.7 release of RAET is not complete! The Syndic and Multi Master have not been completed yet and these are slated for completion in the 2015.5.0 release.
Also, Salt-Raet allows for more control over the client but these hooks have not been implemented yet, thereforre the client still uses the same system as the ZeroMQ client. This means that the extra reliability that RAET exposes has not yet been implemented in the CLI client.

Why?

Customer and User Request

Why make an alternative transport for Salt? There are many reasons, but the primary motivation came from customer requests, many large companies came with requests to run Salt over an alternative transport, the reasoning was varied, from performance and scaling improvements to licensing concerns. These customers have partnered with SaltStack to make RAET a reality.

More Capabilities

RAET has been designed to allow salt to have greater communication capabilities. It has been designed to allow for development into features which out ZeroMQ topologies can\(aqt match.
Many of the proposed features are still under development and will be announced as they enter proof of concept phases, but these features include salt-fuse - a filesystem over salt, salt-vt - a parallel api driven shell over the salt transport and many others.

RAET Reliability

RAET is reliable, hence the name (Reliable Asynchronous Event Transport).
The concern posed by some over RAET reliability is based on the fact that RAET uses UDP instead of TCP and UDP does not have built in reliability.
RAET itself implements the needed reliability layers that are not natively present in UDP, this allows RAET to dynamically optimize packet delivery in a way that keeps it both reliable and asynchronous.

RAET and ZeroMQ

When using RAET, ZeroMQ is not required. RAET is a complete networking replacement. It is noteworthy that RAET is not a ZeroMQ replacement in a general sense, the ZeroMQ constructs are not reproduced in RAET, but they are instead implemented in such a way that is specific to Salt\(aqs needs.
RAET is primarily an async communication layer over truly async connections, defaulting to UDP. ZeroMQ is over TCP and abstracts async constructs within the socket layer.
Salt is not dropping ZeroMQ support and has no immediate plans to do so.

Encryption

RAET uses Dan Bernstein\(aqs NACL encryption libraries and CurveCP handshake. The libnacl python binding binds to both libsodium and tweetnacl to execute the underlying cryptography. This allows us to completely rely on an externally developed cryptography system.

Programming Intro

Intro to RAET Programming

NOTE: This page is still under construction
The first thing to cover is that RAET does not present a socket api, it presents, and queueing api, all messages in RAET are made available to via queues. This is the single most differentiating factor with RAET vs other networking libraries, instead of making a socket, a stack is created. Instead of calling send() or recv(), messages are placed on the stack to be sent and messages that are received appear on the stack.
Different kinds of stacks are also available, currently two stacks exist, the UDP stack, and the UXD stack. The UDP stack is used to communicate over udp sockets, and the UXD stack is used to communicate over Unix Domain Sockets.
The UDP stack runs a context for communicating over networks, while the UXD stack has contexts for communicating between processes.

UDP Stack Messages

To create a UDP stack in RAET, simply create the stack, manage the queues, and process messages:
from salt.transport.road.raet import stacking
from salt.transport.road.raet import estating

udp_stack = stacking.StackUdp(ha=(\(aq127.0.0.1\(aq, 7870)) r_estate = estating.Estate(stack=stack, name=\(aqfoo\(aq, ha=(\(aq192.168.42.42\(aq, 7870)) msg = {\(aqhello\(aq: \(aqworld\(aq} udp_stack.transmit(msg, udp_stack.estates[r_estate.name]) udp_stack.serviceAll()

Master Tops System

In 0.10.4 the external_nodes system was upgraded to allow for modular subsystems to be used to generate the top file data for a highstate run on the master.
The old external_nodes option has been removed. The master tops system provides a pluggable and extendable replacement for it, allowing for multiple different subsystems to provide top file data.
Using the new master_tops option is simple:
master_tops:
  ext_nodes: cobbler-external-nodes

for Cobbler or:
master_tops:
  reclass:
    inventory_base_uri: /etc/reclass
    classes_uri: roles

for Reclass.
master_tops:
  varstack: /path/to/the/config/file/varstack.yaml

for Varstack.
It\(aqs also possible to create custom master_tops modules. Simply place them into salt://_tops in the Salt fileserver and use the saltutil.sync_tops runner to sync them. If this runner function is not available, they can manually be placed into extmods/tops, relative to the master cachedir (in most cases the full path will be /var/cache/salt/master/extmods/tops).
Custom tops modules are written like any other execution module, see the source for the two modules above for examples of fully functional ones. Below is a bare-bones example:
/etc/salt/master:
master_tops:
  customtop: True

customtop.py: (custom master_tops module)
import logging
import sys
# Define the module\(aqs virtual name
__virtualname__ = \(aqcustomtop\(aq

log = logging.getLogger(__name__)

def __virtual__(): return __virtualname__

def top(**kwargs): log.debug(\(aqCalling top in customtop\(aq) return {\(aqbase\(aq: [\(aqtest\(aq]}
salt minion state.show_top should then display something like:
$ salt minion state.show_top

minion ---------- base: - test
NOTE: If a master_tops module returns top file data for a given minion, it will be added to the states configured in the top file. It will not replace it altogether. The 2018.3.0 release adds additional functionality allowing a minion to treat master_tops as the single source of truth, irrespective of the top file.

Returners

By default the return values of the commands sent to the Salt minions are returned to the Salt master, however anything at all can be done with the results data.
By using a Salt returner, results data can be redirected to external data-stores for analysis and archival.
Returners pull their configuration values from the Salt minions. Returners are only configured once, which is generally at load time.
The returner interface allows the return data to be sent to any system that can receive data. This means that return data can be sent to a Redis server, a MongoDB server, a MySQL server, or any system.
SEE ALSO: Full list of builtin returners

Using Returners

All Salt commands will return the command data back to the master. Specifying returners will ensure that the data is _also_ sent to the specified returner interfaces.
Specifying what returners to use is done when the command is invoked:
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return redis_return

This command will ensure that the redis_return returner is used.
It is also possible to specify multiple returners:
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return mongo_return,redis_return,cassandra_return

In this scenario all three returners will be called and the data from the test.ping command will be sent out to the three named returners.

Writing a Returner

Returners are Salt modules that allow the redirection of results data to targets other than the Salt Master.

Returners Are Easy To Write!

Writing a Salt returner is straightforward.
A returner is a Python module containing at minimum a returner function. Other optional functions can be included to add support for master_job_cache, external-job-cache, and Event Returners.
returner
The returner function must accept a single argument. The argument contains return data from the called minion function. If the minion function test.ping is called, the value of the argument will be a dictionary. Run the following command from a Salt master to get a sample of the dictionary:
salt-call --local --metadata test.ping --out=pprint

import redis
import salt.utils.json

def returner(ret): \(aq\(aq\(aq Return information to a redis server \(aq\(aq\(aq # Get a redis connection serv = redis.Redis( host=\(aqredis-serv.example.com\(aq, port=6379, db=\(aq0\(aq) serv.sadd("%(id)s:jobs" % ret, ret[\(aqjid\(aq]) serv.set("%(jid)s:%(id)s" % ret, salt.utils.json.dumps(ret[\(aqreturn\(aq])) serv.sadd(\(aqjobs\(aq, ret[\(aqjid\(aq]) serv.sadd(ret[\(aqjid\(aq], ret[\(aqid\(aq])
The above example of a returner set to send the data to a Redis server serializes the data as JSON and sets it in redis.

Using Custom Returner Modules

Place custom returners in a _returners/ directory within the file_roots specified by the master config file.
Custom returners are distributed when any of the following are called:
o state.apply
o saltutil.sync_returners
o saltutil.sync_all
Any custom returners which have been synced to a minion that are named the same as one of Salt\(aqs default set of returners will take the place of the default returner with the same name.

Naming the Returner

Note that a returner\(aqs default name is its filename (i.e. foo.py becomes returner foo), but that its name can be overridden by using a __virtual__ function. A good example of this can be found in the redis returner, which is named redis_return.py but is loaded as simply redis:
try:
    import redis
    HAS_REDIS = True
except ImportError:
    HAS_REDIS = False

__virtualname__ = \(aqredis\(aq
def __virtual__(): if not HAS_REDIS: return False return __virtualname__

Master Job Cache Support

master_job_cache, external-job-cache, and Event Returners. Salt\(aqs master_job_cache allows returners to be used as a pluggable replacement for the default_job_cache. In order to do so, a returner must implement the following functions:
NOTE: The code samples contained in this section were taken from the cassandra_cql returner.
prep_jid
Ensures that job ids (jid) don\(aqt collide, unless passed_jid is provided.
nocache is an optional boolean that indicates if return data should be cached. passed_jid is a caller provided jid which should be returned unconditionally.
def prep_jid(nocache, passed_jid=None):  # pylint: disable=unused-argument
    \(aq\(aq\(aq
    Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
    \(aq\(aq\(aq
    return passed_jid if passed_jid is not None else salt.utils.jid.gen_jid()

save_load
Save job information. The jid is generated by prep_jid and should be considered a unique identifier for the job. The jid, for example, could be used as the primary/unique key in a database. The load is what is returned to a Salt master by a minion. minions is a list of minions that the job was run against. The following code example stores the load as a JSON string in the salt.jids table.
import salt.utils.json

def save_load(jid, load, minions=None): \(aq\(aq\(aq Save the load to the specified jid id \(aq\(aq\(aq query = \(aq\(aq\(aqINSERT INTO salt.jids ( jid, load ) VALUES ( \(aq{0}\(aq, \(aq{1}\(aq );\(aq\(aq\(aq.format(jid, salt.utils.json.dumps(load))
# cassandra_cql.cql_query may raise a CommandExecutionError try: __salt__[\(aqcassandra_cql.cql_query\(aq](query) except CommandExecutionError: log.critical(\(aqCould not save load in jids table.\(aq) raise except Exception as e: log.critical( \(aqUnexpected error while inserting into jids: {0}\(aq.format(e) ) raise
get_load
must accept a job id (jid) and return the job load stored by save_load, or an empty dictionary when not found.
def get_load(jid):
    \(aq\(aq\(aq
    Return the load data that marks a specified jid
    \(aq\(aq\(aq
    query = \(aq\(aq\(aqSELECT load FROM salt.jids WHERE jid = \(aq{0}\(aq;\(aq\(aq\(aq.format(jid)

ret = {}
# cassandra_cql.cql_query may raise a CommandExecutionError try: data = __salt__[\(aqcassandra_cql.cql_query\(aq](query) if data: load = data[0].get(\(aqload\(aq) if load: ret = json.loads(load) except CommandExecutionError: log.critical(\(aqCould not get load from jids table.\(aq) raise except Exception as e: log.critical(\(aq\(aq\(aqUnexpected error while getting load from jids: {0}\(aq\(aq\(aq.format(str(e))) raise
return ret

External Job Cache Support

Salt\(aqs external-job-cache extends the master_job_cache. External Job Cache support requires the following functions in addition to what is required for Master Job Cache support:
get_jid
Return a dictionary containing the information (load) returned by each minion when the specified job id was executed.
Sample:
{
    "local": {
        "master_minion": {
            "fun_args": [],
            "jid": "20150330121011408195",
            "return": true,
            "retcode": 0,
            "success": true,
            "cmd": "_return",
            "_stamp": "2015-03-30T12:10:12.708663",
            "fun": "test.ping",
            "id": "master_minion"
        }
    }
}

get_fun
Return a dictionary of minions that called a given Salt function as their last function call.
Sample:
{
    "local": {
        "minion1": "test.ping",
        "minion3": "test.ping",
        "minion2": "test.ping"
    }
}

get_jids
Return a list of all job ids.
Sample:
{
    "local": [
        "20150330121011408195",
        "20150330195922139916"
    ]
}

get_minions
Returns a list of minions
Sample:
{
     "local": [
         "minion3",
         "minion2",
         "minion1",
         "master_minion"
     ]
}

Please refer to one or more of the existing returners (i.e. mysql, cassandra_cql) if you need further clarification.

Event Support

An event_return function must be added to the returner module to allow events to be logged from a master via the returner. A list of events are passed to the function by the master.
The following example was taken from the MySQL returner. In this example, each event is inserted into the salt_events table keyed on the event tag. The tag contains the jid and therefore is guaranteed to be unique.
import salt.utils.json

def event_return(events): \(aq\(aq\(aq Return event to mysql server
Requires that configuration be enabled via \(aqevent_return\(aq option in master config. \(aq\(aq\(aq with _get_serv(events, commit=True) as cur: for event in events: tag = event.get(\(aqtag\(aq, \(aq\(aq) data = event.get(\(aqdata\(aq, \(aq\(aq) sql = \(aq\(aq\(aqINSERT INTO `salt_events` (`tag`, `data`, `master_id` ) VALUES (%s, %s, %s)\(aq\(aq\(aq cur.execute(sql, (tag, salt.utils.json.dumps(data), __opts__[\(aqid\(aq]))

Testing the Returner

The returner, prep_jid, save_load, get_load, and event_return functions can be tested by configuring the master_job_cache and Event Returners in the master config file and submitting a job to test.ping each minion from the master.
Once you have successfully exercised the Master Job Cache functions, test the External Job Cache functions using the ret execution module.
salt-call ret.get_jids cassandra_cql --output=json
salt-call ret.get_fun cassandra_cql test.ping --output=json
salt-call ret.get_minions cassandra_cql --output=json
salt-call ret.get_jid cassandra_cql 20150330121011408195 --output=json

Event Returners

For maximum visibility into the history of events across a Salt infrastructure, all events seen by a salt master may be logged to one or more returners.
To enable event logging, set the event_return configuration option in the master config to the returner(s) which should be designated as the handler for event returns.
NOTE: Not all returners support event returns. Verify a returner has an event_return() function before using.
NOTE: On larger installations, many hundreds of events may be generated on a busy master every second. Be certain to closely monitor the storage of a given returner as Salt can easily overwhelm an underpowered server with thousands of returns.

Full List of Returners

returner modules

carbon_return Take data from salt and "return" it into a carbon receiver
cassandra_cql_return Return data to a cassandra server
cassandra_return Return data to a Cassandra ColumnFamily
couchbase_return Simple returner for Couchbase.
couchdb_return Simple returner for CouchDB.
django_return A returner that will inform a Django system that returns are available using Django\(aqs signal system.
elasticsearch_return Return data to an elasticsearch server for indexing.
etcd_return Return data to an etcd server or cluster
highstate_return Return the results of a highstate (or any other state function that returns data in a compatible format) via an HTML email or HTML file.
hipchat_return Return salt data via hipchat.
influxdb_return Return data to an influxdb server.
kafka_return Return data to a Kafka topic
librato_return Salt returner to return highstate stats to Librato
local The local returner is used to test the returner interface, it just prints the return data to the console to verify that it is being passed properly
local_cache Return data to local job cache
mattermost_returner Return salt data via mattermost
memcache_return Return data to a memcache server
mongo_future_return Return data to a mongodb server
mongo_return Return data to a mongodb server
multi_returner Read/Write multiple returners
mysql Return data to a mysql server
nagios_return Return salt data to Nagios
odbc Return data to an ODBC compliant server.
pgjsonb Return data to a PostgreSQL server with json data stored in Pg\(aqs jsonb data type
postgres Return data to a postgresql server
postgres_local_cache Use a postgresql server for the master job cache.
pushover_returner Return salt data via pushover ( http://www.pushover.net)
rawfile_json Take data from salt and "return" it into a raw file containing the json, with one line per event.
redis_return Return data to a redis server
sentry_return Salt returner that reports execution results back to sentry.
slack_returner Return salt data via slack
sms_return Return data by SMS.
smtp_return Return salt data via email
splunk Send json response data to Splunk via the HTTP Event Collector Requires the following config values to be specified in config or pillar:
sqlite3_return Insert minion return data into a sqlite3 database
syslog_return Return data to the host operating system\(aqs syslog facility
telegram_return Return salt data via Telegram.
xmpp_return Return salt data via xmpp
zabbix_return Return salt data to Zabbix

salt.returners.carbon_return

Take data from salt and "return" it into a carbon receiver
Add the following configuration to the minion configuration file:
carbon.host: <server ip address>
carbon.port: 2003

Errors when trying to convert data to numbers may be ignored by setting carbon.skip_on_error to True:
carbon.skip_on_error: True

By default, data will be sent to carbon using the plaintext protocol. To use the pickle protocol, set carbon.mode to pickle:
carbon.mode: pickle

You can also specify the pattern used for the metric base path (except for virt modules metrics):
carbon.metric_base_pattern: carbon.[minion_id].[module].[function]
These tokens can used :
[module]: salt module [function]: salt function [minion_id]: minion id
Default is :
carbon.metric_base_pattern: [module].[function].[minion_id]
Carbon settings may also be configured as:
carbon:
  host: <server IP or hostname>
  port: <carbon port>
  skip_on_error: True
  mode: (pickle|text)
  metric_base_pattern: <pattern> | [module].[function].[minion_id]

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:
alternative.carbon:
  host: <server IP or hostname>
  port: <carbon port>
  skip_on_error: True
  mode: (pickle|text)

To use the carbon returner, append \(aq--return carbon\(aq to the salt command.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return carbon

To use the alternative configuration, append \(aq--return_config alternative\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2015.5.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return carbon --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs \(aq{"key:": "value"}\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2016.3.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return carbon --return_kwargs \(aq{"skip_on_error": False}\(aq

salt.returners.carbon_return.event_return(events)
Return event data to remote carbon server
Provide a list of events to be stored in carbon
salt.returners.carbon_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.carbon_return.returner(ret)
Return data to a remote carbon server using the text metric protocol
Each metric will look like:
[module].[function].[minion_id].[metric path [...]].[metric name]

salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return

Return data to a cassandra server
New in version 2015.5.0.
maintainer
Corin Kochenower< >
maturity
new as of 2015.2
depends
salt.modules.cassandra_cql
depends
DataStax Python Driver for Apache Cassandra https://github.com/datastax/python-driver pip install cassandra-driver
platform
all
configuration
To enable this returner, the minion will need the DataStax Python Driver for Apache Cassandra ( https://github.com/datastax/python-driver ) installed and the following values configured in the minion or master config. The list of cluster IPs must include at least one cassandra node IP address. No assumption or default will be used for the cluster IPs. The cluster IPs will be tried in the order listed. The port, username, and password values shown below will be the assumed defaults if you do not provide values.:
cassandra:
  cluster:
    - 192.168.50.11
    - 192.168.50.12
    - 192.168.50.13
  port: 9042
  username: salt
  password: salt

Use the following cassandra database schema:
CREATE KEYSPACE IF NOT EXISTS salt
    WITH replication = {\(aqclass\(aq: \(aqSimpleStrategy\(aq, \(aqreplication_factor\(aq : 1};

CREATE USER IF NOT EXISTS salt WITH PASSWORD \(aqsalt\(aq NOSUPERUSER;
GRANT ALL ON KEYSPACE salt TO salt;
USE salt;
CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS salt.salt_returns ( jid text, minion_id text, fun text, alter_time timestamp, full_ret text, return text, success boolean, PRIMARY KEY (jid, minion_id, fun) ) WITH CLUSTERING ORDER BY (minion_id ASC, fun ASC); CREATE INDEX IF NOT EXISTS salt_returns_minion_id ON salt.salt_returns (minion_id); CREATE INDEX IF NOT EXISTS salt_returns_fun ON salt.salt_returns (fun);
CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS salt.jids ( jid text PRIMARY KEY, load text );
CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS salt.minions ( minion_id text PRIMARY KEY, last_fun text ); CREATE INDEX IF NOT EXISTS minions_last_fun ON salt.minions (last_fun);
CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS salt.salt_events ( id timeuuid, tag text, alter_time timestamp, data text, master_id text, PRIMARY KEY (id, tag) ) WITH CLUSTERING ORDER BY (tag ASC); CREATE INDEX tag ON salt.salt_events (tag);
Required python modules: cassandra-driver
To use the cassandra returner, append \(aq--return cassandra_cql\(aq to the salt command. ex:
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return_cql cassandra

Note: if your Cassandra instance has not been tuned much you may benefit from altering some timeouts in cassandra.yaml like so:
# How long the coordinator should wait for read operations to complete
read_request_timeout_in_ms: 5000
# How long the coordinator should wait for seq or index scans to complete
range_request_timeout_in_ms: 20000
# How long the coordinator should wait for writes to complete
write_request_timeout_in_ms: 20000
# How long the coordinator should wait for counter writes to complete
counter_write_request_timeout_in_ms: 10000
# How long a coordinator should continue to retry a CAS operation
# that contends with other proposals for the same row
cas_contention_timeout_in_ms: 5000
# How long the coordinator should wait for truncates to complete
# (This can be much longer, because unless auto_snapshot is disabled
# we need to flush first so we can snapshot before removing the data.)
truncate_request_timeout_in_ms: 60000
# The default timeout for other, miscellaneous operations
request_timeout_in_ms: 20000

As always, your mileage may vary and your Cassandra cluster may have different needs. SaltStack has seen situations where these timeouts can resolve some stacktraces that appear to come from the Datastax Python driver.
salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return.event_return(events)
Return event to one of potentially many clustered cassandra nodes
Requires that configuration be enabled via \(aqevent_return\(aq option in master config.
Cassandra does not support an auto-increment feature due to the highly inefficient nature of creating a monotonically increasing number across all nodes in a distributed database. Each event will be assigned a uuid by the connecting client.
salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return.get_fun(fun)
Return a dict of the last function called for all minions
salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return.get_jid(jid)
Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed
salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return.get_jids()
Return a list of all job ids
salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return.get_load(jid)
Return the load data that marks a specified jid
salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return.get_minions()
Return a list of minions
salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return.prep_jid(nocache, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return.returner(ret)
Return data to one of potentially many clustered cassandra nodes
salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None)
Save the load to the specified jid id

salt.returners.cassandra_return

Return data to a Cassandra ColumnFamily
Here\(aqs an example Keyspace / ColumnFamily setup that works with this returner:
create keyspace salt;
use salt;
create column family returns
  with key_validation_class=\(aqUTF8Type\(aq
  and comparator=\(aqUTF8Type\(aq
  and default_validation_class=\(aqUTF8Type\(aq;

Required python modules: pycassa To use the cassandra returner, append \(aq--return cassandra\(aq to the salt command. ex: salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return cassandra
salt.returners.cassandra_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.cassandra_return.returner(ret)
Return data to a Cassandra ColumnFamily

salt.returners.couchbase_return

Simple returner for Couchbase. Optional configuration settings are listed below, along with sane defaults.
couchbase.host:   \(aqsalt\(aq
couchbase.port:   8091
couchbase.bucket: \(aqsalt\(aq
couchbase.ttl: 24
couchbase.password: \(aqpassword\(aq
couchbase.skip_verify_views: False

To use the couchbase returner, append \(aq--return couchbase\(aq to the salt command. ex:
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return couchbase

To use the alternative configuration, append \(aq--return_config alternative\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2015.5.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return couchbase --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs \(aq{"key:": "value"}\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2016.3.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return couchbase --return_kwargs \(aq{"bucket": "another-salt"}\(aq

All of the return data will be stored in documents as follows:

JID

load: load obj tgt_minions: list of minions targeted nocache: should we not cache the return data

JID/MINION_ID

return: return_data full_ret: full load of job return
salt.returners.couchbase_return.get_jid(jid)
Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed
salt.returners.couchbase_return.get_jids()
Return a list of all job ids
salt.returners.couchbase_return.get_load(jid)
Return the load data that marks a specified jid
salt.returners.couchbase_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Return a job id and prepare the job id directory This is the function responsible for making sure jids don\(aqt collide (unless its passed a jid) So do what you have to do to make sure that stays the case
salt.returners.couchbase_return.returner(load)
Return data to couchbase bucket
salt.returners.couchbase_return.save_load(jid, clear_load, minion=None)
Save the load to the specified jid
salt.returners.couchbase_return.save_minions(jid, minions, syndic_id=None)
Save/update the minion list for a given jid. The syndic_id argument is included for API compatibility only.

salt.returners.couchdb_return

Simple returner for CouchDB. Optional configuration settings are listed below, along with sane defaults:
couchdb.db: \(aqsalt\(aq
couchdb.url: \(aqhttp://salt:5984/\(aq

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:
alternative.couchdb.db: \(aqsalt\(aq
alternative.couchdb.url: \(aqhttp://salt:5984/\(aq

To use the couchdb returner, append --return couchdb to the salt command. Example:
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return couchdb

To use the alternative configuration, append --return_config alternative to the salt command.
New in version 2015.5.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return couchdb --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs \(aq{"key:": "value"}\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2016.3.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return couchdb --return_kwargs \(aq{"db": "another-salt"}\(aq

On concurrent database access

As this returner creates a couchdb document with the salt job id as document id and as only one document with a given id can exist in a given couchdb database, it is advised for most setups that every minion be configured to write to it own database (the value of couchdb.db may be suffixed with the minion id), otherwise multi-minion targeting can lead to losing output:
o the first returning minion is able to create a document in the database
o other minions fail with {\(aqerror\(aq: \(aqHTTP Error 409: Conflict\(aq}
salt.returners.couchdb_return.ensure_views()
This function makes sure that all the views that should exist in the design document do exist.
salt.returners.couchdb_return.get_fun(fun)
Return a dict with key being minion and value being the job details of the last run of function \(aqfun\(aq.
salt.returners.couchdb_return.get_jid(jid)
Get the document with a given JID.
salt.returners.couchdb_return.get_jids()
List all the jobs that we have..
salt.returners.couchdb_return.get_minions()
Return a list of minion identifiers from a request of the view.
salt.returners.couchdb_return.get_valid_salt_views()
Returns a dict object of views that should be part of the salt design document.
salt.returners.couchdb_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.couchdb_return.returner(ret)
Take in the return and shove it into the couchdb database.
salt.returners.couchdb_return.set_salt_view()
Helper function that sets the salt design document. Uses get_valid_salt_views and some hardcoded values.

salt.returners.django_return

A returner that will inform a Django system that returns are available using Django\(aqs signal system.
It is up to the Django developer to register necessary handlers with the signals provided by this returner and process returns as necessary.
The easiest way to use signals is to import them from this returner directly and then use a decorator to register them.
An example Django module that registers a function called \(aqreturner_callback\(aq with this module\(aqs \(aqreturner\(aq function:
import salt.returners.django_return
from django.dispatch import receiver

@receiver(salt.returners.django_return, sender=returner) def returner_callback(sender, ret): print(\(aqI received {0} from {1}\(aq.format(ret, sender))
salt.returners.django_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom ID
salt.returners.django_return.returner(ret)
Signal a Django server that a return is available
salt.returners.django_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None)
Save the load to the specified jid

salt.returners.elasticsearch_return

Return data to an elasticsearch server for indexing.
maintainer
Jurnell Cockhren < >, Arnold Bechtoldt < >
maturity
New
depends
elasticsearch-py
platform
all
To enable this returner the elasticsearch python client must be installed on the desired minions (all or some subset).
Please see documentation of elasticsearch execution module for a valid connection configuration.
WARNING: The index that you wish to store documents will be created by Elasticsearch automatically if doesn\(aqt exist yet. It is highly recommended to create predefined index templates with appropriate mapping(s) that will be used by Elasticsearch upon index creation. Otherwise you will have problems as described in #20826.
To use the returner per salt call:
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return elasticsearch

In order to have the returner apply to all minions:
ext_job_cache: elasticsearch

Minion configuration:
debug_returner_payload\(aq: False
Output the payload being posted to the log file in debug mode
doc_type: \(aqdefault\(aq
Document type to use for normal return messages
functions_blacklist
Optional list of functions that should not be returned to elasticsearch
index_date: False
Use a dated index (e.g. <index>-2016.11.29)
master_event_index: \(aqsalt-master-event-cache\(aq
Index to use when returning master events
master_event_doc_type: \(aqefault\(aq
Document type to use got master events
master_job_cache_index: \(aqsalt-master-job-cache\(aq
Index to use for master job cache
master_job_cache_doc_type: \(aqdefault\(aq
Document type to use for master job cache
number_of_shards: 1
Number of shards to use for the indexes
number_of_replicas: 0
Number of replicas to use for the indexes
NOTE: The following options are valid for \(aqstate.apply\(aq, \(aqstate.sls\(aq and \(aqstate.highstate\(aq functions only.
states_count: False
Count the number of states which succeeded or failed and return it in top-level item called \(aqcounts\(aq. States reporting None (i.e. changes would be made but it ran in test mode) are counted as successes.
states_order_output: False
Prefix the state UID (e.g. file_|-yum_configured_|-/etc/yum.conf_|-managed) with a zero-padded version of the \(aq__run_num__\(aq value to allow for easier sorting. Also store the state function (i.e. file.managed) into a new key \(aq_func\(aq. Change the index to be \(aq<index>-ordered\(aq (e.g. salt-state_apply-ordered).
states_single_index: False
Store results for state.apply, state.sls and state.highstate in the salt-state_apply index (or -ordered/-<date>) indexes if enabled
elasticsearch:
    hosts:
      - "10.10.10.10:9200"
      - "10.10.10.11:9200"
      - "10.10.10.12:9200"
    index_date: True
    number_of_shards: 5
    number_of_replicas: 1
    debug_returner_payload: True
    states_count: True
    states_order_output: True
    states_single_index: True
    functions_blacklist:
      - test.ping
      - saltutil.find_job

salt.returners.elasticsearch_return.event_return(events)
Return events to Elasticsearch
Requires that the event_return configuration be set in master config.
salt.returners.elasticsearch_return.get_load(jid)
Return the load data that marks a specified jid
New in version 2015.8.1.
salt.returners.elasticsearch_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.elasticsearch_return.returner(ret)
Process the return from Salt
salt.returners.elasticsearch_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None)
Save the load to the specified jid id
New in version 2015.8.1.

salt.returners.etcd_return

Return data to an etcd server or cluster
depends
o python-etcd
In order to return to an etcd server, a profile should be created in the master configuration file:
my_etcd_config:
  etcd.host: 127.0.0.1
  etcd.port: 2379

It is technically possible to configure etcd without using a profile, but this is not considered to be a best practice, especially when multiple etcd servers or clusters are available.
etcd.host: 127.0.0.1
etcd.port: 2379

Additionally, two more options must be specified in the top-level configuration in order to use the etcd returner:
etcd.returner: my_etcd_config
etcd.returner_root: /salt/return

The etcd.returner option specifies which configuration profile to use. The etcd.returner_root option specifies the path inside etcd to use as the root of the returner system.
Once the etcd options are configured, the returner may be used:
CLI Example: salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return etcd
A username and password can be set:
etcd.username: larry  # Optional; requires etcd.password to be set
etcd.password: 123pass  # Optional; requires etcd.username to be set

You can also set a TTL (time to live) value for the returner:
etcd.ttl: 5

Authentication with username and password, and ttl, currently requires the master branch of python-etcd.
You may also specify different roles for read and write operations. First, create the profiles as specified above. Then add:
etcd.returner_read_profile: my_etcd_read
etcd.returner_write_profile: my_etcd_write

salt.returners.etcd_return.clean_old_jobs()
Included for API consistency
salt.returners.etcd_return.get_fun(fun)
Return a dict of the last function called for all minions
salt.returners.etcd_return.get_jid(jid)
Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed
salt.returners.etcd_return.get_jids()
Return a list of all job ids
salt.returners.etcd_return.get_load(jid)
Return the load data that marks a specified jid
salt.returners.etcd_return.get_minions()
Return a list of minions
salt.returners.etcd_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.etcd_return.returner(ret)
Return data to an etcd server or cluster
salt.returners.etcd_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None)
Save the load to the specified jid

salt.returners.highstate_return module

Return the results of a highstate (or any other state function that returns data in a compatible format) via an HTML email or HTML file.
New in version 2017.7.0.
Similar results can be achieved by using the smtp returner with a custom template, except an attempt at writing such a template for the complex data structure returned by highstate function had proven to be a challenge, not to mention that the smtp module doesn\(aqt support sending HTML mail at the moment.
The main goal of this returner was to produce an easy to read email similar to the output of highstate outputter used by the CLI.
This returner could be very useful during scheduled executions, but could also be useful for communicating the results of a manual execution.
Returner configuration is controlled in a standard fashion either via highstate group or an alternatively named group.
salt \(aq*\(aq state.highstate --return highstate

To use the alternative configuration, append \(aq--return_config config-name\(aq
salt \(aq*\(aq state.highstate --return highstate --return_config simple

Here is an example of what the configuration might look like:
simple.highstate:
  report_failures: True
  report_changes: True
  report_everything: False
  failure_function: pillar.items
  success_function: pillar.items
  report_format: html
  report_delivery: smtp
  smtp_success_subject: \(aqsuccess minion {id} on host {host}\(aq
  smtp_failure_subject: \(aqfailure minion {id} on host {host}\(aq
  smtp_server: smtp.example.com
  smtp_recipients: , 
  smtp_sender: 

The report_failures, report_changes, and report_everything flags provide filtering of the results. If you want an email to be sent every time, then report_everything is your choice. If you want to be notified only when changes were successfully made use report_changes. And report_failures will generate an email if there were failures.
The configuration allows you to run a salt module function in case of success (success_function) or failure (failure_function).
Any salt function, including ones defined in the _module folder of your salt repo, could be used here and its output will be displayed under the \(aqextra\(aq heading of the email.
Supported values for report_format are html, json, and yaml. The latter two are typically used for debugging purposes, but could be used for applying a template at some later stage.
The values for report_delivery are smtp or file. In case of file delivery the only other applicable option is file_output.
In case of smtp delivery, smtp_* options demonstrated by the example above could be used to customize the email.
As you might have noticed, the success and failure subjects contain {id} and {host} values. Any other grain name could be used. As opposed to using {{grains[\(aqid\(aq]}}, which will be rendered by the master and contain master\(aqs values at the time of pillar generation, these will contain minion values at the time of execution.
salt.returners.highstate_return.returner(ret)
Check highstate return information and possibly fire off an email or save a file.

salt.returners.hipchat_return

Return salt data via hipchat.
New in version 2015.5.0.
The following fields can be set in the minion conf file:
hipchat.room_id (required)
hipchat.api_key (required)
hipchat.api_version (required)
hipchat.api_url (optional)
hipchat.from_name (required)
hipchat.color (optional)
hipchat.notify (optional)
hipchat.profile (optional)
hipchat.url (optional)

NOTE: When using Hipchat\(aqs API v2, api_key needs to be assigned to the room with the "Label" set to what you would have been set in the hipchat.from_name field. The v2 API disregards the from_name in the data sent for the room notification and uses the Label assigned through the Hipchat control panel.
Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:
hipchat.room_id
hipchat.api_key
hipchat.api_version
hipchat.api_url
hipchat.from_name

Hipchat settings may also be configured as:
hipchat:
  room_id: RoomName
  api_url: https://hipchat.myteam.con
  api_key: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
  api_version: v1
  from_name: 

alternative.hipchat: room_id: RoomName api_key: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx api_version: v1 from_name:
hipchat_profile: hipchat.api_key: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx hipchat.api_version: v1 hipchat.from_name:
hipchat: profile: hipchat_profile room_id: RoomName
alternative.hipchat: profile: hipchat_profile room_id: RoomName
hipchat: room_id: RoomName api_key: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx api_version: v1 api_url: api.hipchat.com from_name:
To use the HipChat returner, append \(aq--return hipchat\(aq to the salt command.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return hipchat

To use the alternative configuration, append \(aq--return_config alternative\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2015.5.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return hipchat --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs \(aq{"key:": "value"}\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2016.3.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return hipchat --return_kwargs \(aq{"room_id": "another-room"}\(aq

salt.returners.hipchat_return.event_return(events)
Return event data to hipchat
salt.returners.hipchat_return.returner(ret)
Send an hipchat message with the return data from a job

salt.returners.influxdb_return

Return data to an influxdb server.
New in version 2015.8.0.
To enable this returner the minion will need the python client for influxdb installed and the following values configured in the minion or master config, these are the defaults:
influxdb.db: \(aqsalt\(aq
influxdb.user: \(aqsalt\(aq
influxdb.password: \(aqsalt\(aq
influxdb.host: \(aqlocalhost\(aq
influxdb.port: 8086

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:
alternative.influxdb.db: \(aqsalt\(aq
alternative.influxdb.user: \(aqsalt\(aq
alternative.influxdb.password: \(aqsalt\(aq
alternative.influxdb.host: \(aqlocalhost\(aq
alternative.influxdb.port: 6379

To use the influxdb returner, append \(aq--return influxdb\(aq to the salt command.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return influxdb

To use the alternative configuration, append \(aq--return_config alternative\(aq to the salt command.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return influxdb --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs \(aq{"key:": "value"}\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2016.3.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return influxdb --return_kwargs \(aq{"db": "another-salt"}\(aq

salt.returners.influxdb_return.get_fun(fun)
Return a dict of the last function called for all minions
salt.returners.influxdb_return.get_jid(jid)
Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed
salt.returners.influxdb_return.get_jids()
Return a list of all job ids
salt.returners.influxdb_return.get_load(jid)
Return the load data that marks a specified jid
salt.returners.influxdb_return.get_minions()
Return a list of minions
salt.returners.influxdb_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.influxdb_return.returner(ret)
Return data to a influxdb data store
salt.returners.influxdb_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None)
Save the load to the specified jid

salt.returners.kafka_return

Return data to a Kafka topic
maintainer
Christer Edwards ( )
maturity
0.1
depends
kafka-python
platform
all
To enable this returner install kafka-python and enable the following settings in the minion config:
returner.kafka.hostnames:
o "server1"
o "server2"
o "server3"
returner.kafka.topic: \(aqtopic\(aq
To use the kafka returner, append \(aq--return kafka\(aq to the Salt command, eg; salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return kafka
salt.returners.kafka_return.returner(ret)
Return information to a Kafka server

salt.returners.librato_return

Salt returner to return highstate stats to Librato
To enable this returner the minion will need the Librato client importable on the Python path and the following values configured in the minion or master config.
The Librato python client can be found at: https://github.com/librato/python-librato
librato.email: 
librato.api_token: abc12345def

This return supports multi-dimension metrics for Librato. To enable support for more metrics, the tags JSON object can be modified to include other tags.
Adding EC2 Tags example: If ec2_tags:region were desired within the tags for multi-dimension. The tags could be modified to include the ec2 tags. Multiple dimensions are added simply by adding more tags to the submission.
pillar_data = __salt__[\(aqpillar.raw\(aq]()
q.add(metric.name, value, tags={\(aqName\(aq: ret[\(aqid\(aq],\(aqRegion\(aq: pillar_data[\(aqec2_tags\(aq][\(aqName\(aq]})

salt.returners.librato_return.returner(ret)
Parse the return data and return metrics to Librato.

salt.returners.local

The local returner is used to test the returner interface, it just prints the return data to the console to verify that it is being passed properly
To use the local returner, append \(aq--return local\(aq to the salt command. ex:
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return local

salt.returners.local.event_return(event)
Print event return data to the terminal to verify functionality
salt.returners.local.returner(ret)
Print the return data to the terminal to verify functionality

salt.returners.local_cache

Return data to local job cache
salt.returners.local_cache.clean_old_jobs()
Clean out the old jobs from the job cache
salt.returners.local_cache.get_endtime(jid)
Retrieve the stored endtime for a given job
Returns False if no endtime is present
salt.returners.local_cache.get_jid(jid)
Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed
salt.returners.local_cache.get_jids()
Return a dict mapping all job ids to job information
salt.returners.local_cache.get_jids_filter(count, filter_find_job=True)
Return a list of all jobs information filtered by the given criteria. :param int count: show not more than the count of most recent jobs :param bool filter_find_jobs: filter out \(aqsaltutil.find_job\(aq jobs
salt.returners.local_cache.get_load(jid)
Return the load data that marks a specified jid
salt.returners.local_cache.load_reg()
Load the register from msgpack files
salt.returners.local_cache.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None, recurse_count=0)
Return a job id and prepare the job id directory.
This is the function responsible for making sure jids don\(aqt collide (unless it is passed a jid). So do what you have to do to make sure that stays the case
salt.returners.local_cache.returner(load)
Return data to the local job cache
salt.returners.local_cache.save_load(jid, clear_load, minions=None, recurse_count=0)
Save the load to the specified jid
minions argument is to provide a pre-computed list of matched minions for the job, for cases when this function can\(aqt compute that list itself (such as for salt-ssh)
salt.returners.local_cache.save_minions(jid, minions, syndic_id=None)
Save/update the serialized list of minions for a given job
salt.returners.local_cache.save_reg(data)
Save the register to msgpack files
salt.returners.local_cache.update_endtime(jid, time)
Update (or store) the end time for a given job
Endtime is stored as a plain text string

salt.returners.mattermost_returner module

Return salt data via mattermost
New in version 2017.7.0.
The following fields can be set in the minion conf file:
mattermost.hook (required)
mattermost.username (optional)
mattermost.channel (optional)

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:
mattermost.channel
mattermost.hook
mattermost.username

mattermost settings may also be configured as:
mattermost:
  channel: RoomName
  hook: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
  username: user

To use the mattermost returner, append \(aq--return mattermost\(aq to the salt command.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return mattermost

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs \(aq{\(aqkey:\(aq: \(aqvalue\(aq}\(aq to the salt command.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return mattermost --return_kwargs \(aq{\(aqchannel\(aq: \(aq#random\(aq}\(aq

salt.returners.mattermost_returner.event_return(events)
Send the events to a mattermost room.
Parameters
events -- List of events
Returns
Boolean if messages were sent successfully.
salt.returners.mattermost_returner.post_message(channel, message, username, api_url, hook)
Send a message to a mattermost room.
Parameters
o channel -- The room name.
o message -- The message to send to the mattermost room.
o username -- Specify who the message is from.
o hook -- The mattermost hook, if not specified in the configuration.
Returns
Boolean if message was sent successfully.
salt.returners.mattermost_returner.returner(ret)
Send an mattermost message with the data

salt.returners.memcache_return

Return data to a memcache server
To enable this returner the minion will need the python client for memcache installed and the following values configured in the minion or master config, these are the defaults.
memcache.host: \(aqlocalhost\(aq
memcache.port: \(aq11211\(aq

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location.
alternative.memcache.host: \(aqlocalhost\(aq
alternative.memcache.port: \(aq11211\(aq

python2-memcache uses \(aqlocalhost\(aq and \(aq11211\(aq as syntax on connection.
To use the memcache returner, append \(aq--return memcache\(aq to the salt command.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return memcache

To use the alternative configuration, append \(aq--return_config alternative\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2015.5.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return memcache --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs \(aq{"key:": "value"}\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2016.3.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return memcache --return_kwargs \(aq{"host": "hostname.domain.com"}\(aq

salt.returners.memcache_return.get_fun(fun)
Return a dict of the last function called for all minions
salt.returners.memcache_return.get_jid(jid)
Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed
salt.returners.memcache_return.get_jids()
Return a list of all job ids
salt.returners.memcache_return.get_load(jid)
Return the load data that marks a specified jid
salt.returners.memcache_return.get_minions()
Return a list of minions
salt.returners.memcache_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.memcache_return.returner(ret)
Return data to a memcache data store
salt.returners.memcache_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None)
Save the load to the specified jid

salt.returners.mongo_future_return

Return data to a mongodb server
Required python modules: pymongo
This returner will send data from the minions to a MongoDB server. MongoDB server can be configured by using host, port, db, user and password settings or by connection string URI (for pymongo > 2.3). To configure the settings for your MongoDB server, add the following lines to the minion config files:
mongo.db: <database name>
mongo.host: <server ip address>
mongo.user: <MongoDB username>
mongo.password: <MongoDB user password>
mongo.port: 27017

Or single URI:
mongo.uri: URI

where uri is in the format:
mongodb://[username:password@]host1[:port1][,host2[:port2],...[,hostN[:portN]]][/[database][?options]]

Example:
mongodb://db1.example.net:27017/mydatabase
mongodb://db1.example.net:27017,db2.example.net:2500/?replicaSet=test
mongodb://db1.example.net:27017,db2.example.net:2500/?replicaSet=test&connectTimeoutMS=300000

More information on URI format can be found in https://docs.mongodb.com/manual/reference/connection-string/
You can also ask for indexes creation on the most common used fields, which should greatly improve performance. Indexes are not created by default.
mongo.indexes: true

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:
alternative.mongo.db: <database name>
alternative.mongo.host: <server ip address>
alternative.mongo.user: <MongoDB username>
alternative.mongo.password: <MongoDB user password>
alternative.mongo.port: 27017

Or single URI:
alternative.mongo.uri: URI

This mongo returner is being developed to replace the default mongodb returner in the future and should not be considered API stable yet.
To use the mongo returner, append \(aq--return mongo\(aq to the salt command.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return mongo

To use the alternative configuration, append \(aq--return_config alternative\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2015.5.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return mongo --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs \(aq{"key:": "value"}\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2016.3.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return mongo --return_kwargs \(aq{"db": "another-salt"}\(aq

salt.returners.mongo_future_return.event_return(events)
Return events to Mongodb server
salt.returners.mongo_future_return.get_fun(fun)
Return the most recent jobs that have executed the named function
salt.returners.mongo_future_return.get_jid(jid)
Return the return information associated with a jid
salt.returners.mongo_future_return.get_jids()
Return a list of job ids
salt.returners.mongo_future_return.get_load(jid)
Return the load associated with a given job id
salt.returners.mongo_future_return.get_minions()
Return a list of minions
salt.returners.mongo_future_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.mongo_future_return.returner(ret)
Return data to a mongodb server
salt.returners.mongo_future_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None)
Save the load for a given job id

salt.returners.mongo_return

Return data to a mongodb server
Required python modules: pymongo
This returner will send data from the minions to a MongoDB server. To configure the settings for your MongoDB server, add the following lines to the minion config files.
mongo.db: <database name>
mongo.host: <server ip address>
mongo.user: <MongoDB username>
mongo.password: <MongoDB user password>
mongo.port: 27017

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location.
alternative.mongo.db: <database name>
alternative.mongo.host: <server ip address>
alternative.mongo.user: <MongoDB username>
alternative.mongo.password: <MongoDB user password>
alternative.mongo.port: 27017

To use the mongo returner, append \(aq--return mongo\(aq to the salt command.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return mongo_return

To use the alternative configuration, append \(aq--return_config alternative\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2015.5.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return mongo_return --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs \(aq{"key:": "value"}\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2016.3.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return mongo --return_kwargs \(aq{"db": "another-salt"}\(aq

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs \(aq{"key:": "value"}\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2016.3.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return mongo --return_kwargs \(aq{"db": "another-salt"}\(aq

salt.returners.mongo_return.get_fun(fun)
Return the most recent jobs that have executed the named function
salt.returners.mongo_return.get_jid(jid)
Return the return information associated with a jid
salt.returners.mongo_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.mongo_return.returner(ret)
Return data to a mongodb server

salt.returners.multi_returner

Read/Write multiple returners
salt.returners.multi_returner.clean_old_jobs()
Clean out the old jobs from all returners (if you have it)
salt.returners.multi_returner.get_jid(jid)
Merge the return data from all returners
salt.returners.multi_returner.get_jids()
Return all job data from all returners
salt.returners.multi_returner.get_load(jid)
Merge the load data from all returners
salt.returners.multi_returner.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Call both with prep_jid on all returners in multi_returner
TODO: finish this, what do do when you get different jids from 2 returners... since our jids are time based, this make this problem hard, because they aren\(aqt unique, meaning that we have to make sure that no one else got the jid and if they did we spin to get a new one, which means "locking" the jid in 2 returners is non-trivial
salt.returners.multi_returner.returner(load)
Write return to all returners in multi_returner
salt.returners.multi_returner.save_load(jid, clear_load, minions=None)
Write load to all returners in multi_returner

salt.returners.mysql

Return data to a mysql server
maintainer
Dave Boucha < >, Seth House < >
maturity
mature
depends
python-mysqldb
platform
all
To enable this returner, the minion will need the python client for mysql installed and the following values configured in the minion or master config. These are the defaults:
mysql.host: \(aqsalt\(aq
mysql.user: \(aqsalt\(aq
mysql.pass: \(aqsalt\(aq
mysql.db: \(aqsalt\(aq
mysql.port: 3306

SSL is optional. The defaults are set to None. If you do not want to use SSL, either exclude these options or set them to None.
mysql.ssl_ca: None
mysql.ssl_cert: None
mysql.ssl_key: None

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration with alternative.. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location. As stated above, SSL configuration is optional. The following ssl options are simply for illustration purposes:
alternative.mysql.host: \(aqsalt\(aq
alternative.mysql.user: \(aqsalt\(aq
alternative.mysql.pass: \(aqsalt\(aq
alternative.mysql.db: \(aqsalt\(aq
alternative.mysql.port: 3306
alternative.mysql.ssl_ca: \(aq/etc/pki/mysql/certs/localhost.pem\(aq
alternative.mysql.ssl_cert: \(aq/etc/pki/mysql/certs/localhost.crt\(aq
alternative.mysql.ssl_key: \(aq/etc/pki/mysql/certs/localhost.key\(aq

Should you wish the returner data to be cleaned out every so often, set keep_jobs to the number of hours for the jobs to live in the tables. Setting it to 0 or leaving it unset will cause the data to stay in the tables.
Should you wish to archive jobs in a different table for later processing, set archive_jobs to True. Salt will create 3 archive tables
o jids_archive
o salt_returns_archive
o salt_events_archive
and move the contents of jids, salt_returns, and salt_events that are more than keep_jobs hours old to these tables.
Use the following mysql database schema:
CREATE DATABASE  `salt`
  DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8
  DEFAULT COLLATE utf8_general_ci;

USE `salt`;
-- -- Table structure for table `jids` --
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `jids`; CREATE TABLE `jids` ( `jid` varchar(255) NOT NULL, `load` mediumtext NOT NULL, UNIQUE KEY `jid` (`jid`) ) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8; CREATE INDEX jid ON jids(jid) USING BTREE;
-- -- Table structure for table `salt_returns` --
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `salt_returns`; CREATE TABLE `salt_returns` ( `fun` varchar(50) NOT NULL, `jid` varchar(255) NOT NULL, `return` mediumtext NOT NULL, `id` varchar(255) NOT NULL, `success` varchar(10) NOT NULL, `full_ret` mediumtext NOT NULL, `alter_time` TIMESTAMP DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, KEY `id` (`id`), KEY `jid` (`jid`), KEY `fun` (`fun`) ) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;
-- -- Table structure for table `salt_events` --
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `salt_events`; CREATE TABLE `salt_events` ( `id` BIGINT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT, `tag` varchar(255) NOT NULL, `data` mediumtext NOT NULL, `alter_time` TIMESTAMP DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, `master_id` varchar(255) NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (`id`), KEY `tag` (`tag`) ) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;
Required python modules: MySQLdb
To use the mysql returner, append \(aq--return mysql\(aq to the salt command.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return mysql

To use the alternative configuration, append \(aq--return_config alternative\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2015.5.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return mysql --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs \(aq{"key:": "value"}\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2016.3.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return mysql --return_kwargs \(aq{"db": "another-salt"}\(aq

salt.returners.mysql.clean_old_jobs()
Called in the master\(aqs event loop every loop_interval. Archives and/or deletes the events and job details from the database. :return:
salt.returners.mysql.event_return(events)
Return event to mysql server
Requires that configuration be enabled via \(aqevent_return\(aq option in master config.
salt.returners.mysql.get_fun(fun)
Return a dict of the last function called for all minions
salt.returners.mysql.get_jid(jid)
Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed
salt.returners.mysql.get_jids()
Return a list of all job ids
salt.returners.mysql.get_jids_filter(count, filter_find_job=True)
Return a list of all job ids :param int count: show not more than the count of most recent jobs :param bool filter_find_jobs: filter out \(aqsaltutil.find_job\(aq jobs
salt.returners.mysql.get_load(jid)
Return the load data that marks a specified jid
salt.returners.mysql.get_minions()
Return a list of minions
salt.returners.mysql.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.mysql.returner(ret)
Return data to a mysql server
salt.returners.mysql.save_load(jid, load, minions=None)
Save the load to the specified jid id

salt.returners.nagios_return

Return salt data to Nagios
The following fields can be set in the minion conf file:
nagios.url (required)
nagios.token (required)
nagios.service (optional)
nagios.check_type (optional)

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:
nagios.url
nagios.token
nagios.service

Nagios settings may also be configured as:
  nagios:
      url: http://localhost/nrdp
      token: r4nd0mt0k3n
      service: service-check

alternative.nagios: url: http://localhost/nrdp token: r4nd0mt0k3n service: another-service-check
To use the Nagios returner, append \(aq--return nagios\(aq to the salt command. ex:
.. code-block:: bash
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return nagios
To use the alternative configuration, append \(aq--return_config alternative\(aq to the salt command. ex:
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return nagios --return_config alternative
To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs \(aq{"key:": "value"}\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2016.3.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return nagios --return_kwargs \(aq{"service": "service-name"}\(aq

salt.returners.nagios_return.returner(ret)
Send a message to Nagios with the data

salt.returners.odbc

Return data to an ODBC compliant server. This driver was developed with Microsoft SQL Server in mind, but theoretically could be used to return data to any compliant ODBC database as long as there is a working ODBC driver for it on your minion platform.
maintainer
C.
R. Oldham ( )
maturity
New
depends
unixodbc, pyodbc, freetds (for SQL Server)
platform
all
To enable this returner the minion will need
On Linux: unixodbc ( http://www.unixodbc.org) pyodbc (pip install pyodbc) The FreeTDS ODBC driver for SQL Server ( http://www.freetds.org) or another compatible ODBC driver
On Windows: TBD
unixODBC and FreeTDS need to be configured via /etc/odbcinst.ini and /etc/odbc.ini.
/etc/odbcinst.ini:
[TDS]
Description=TDS
Driver=/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/odbc/libtdsodbc.so

(Note the above Driver line needs to point to the location of the FreeTDS shared library. This example is for Ubuntu 14.04.)
/etc/odbc.ini:
[TS]
Description = "Salt Returner"
Driver=TDS
Server = <your server ip or fqdn>
Port = 1433
Database = salt
Trace = No

Also you need the following values configured in the minion or master config. Configure as you see fit:
returner.odbc.dsn: \(aqTS\(aq
returner.odbc.user: \(aqsalt\(aq
returner.odbc.passwd: \(aqsalt\(aq

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:
alternative.returner.odbc.dsn: \(aqTS\(aq
alternative.returner.odbc.user: \(aqsalt\(aq
alternative.returner.odbc.passwd: \(aqsalt\(aq

Running the following commands against Microsoft SQL Server in the desired database as the appropriate user should create the database tables correctly. Replace with equivalent SQL for other ODBC-compliant servers
  --
  -- Table structure for table \(aqjids\(aq
  --

if OBJECT_ID(\(aqdbo.jids\(aq, \(aqU\(aq) is not null DROP TABLE dbo.jids
CREATE TABLE dbo.jids ( jid varchar(255) PRIMARY KEY, load varchar(MAX) NOT NULL );
-- -- Table structure for table \(aqsalt_returns\(aq -- IF OBJECT_ID(\(aqdbo.salt_returns\(aq, \(aqU\(aq) IS NOT NULL DROP TABLE dbo.salt_returns;
CREATE TABLE dbo.salt_returns ( added datetime not null default (getdate()), fun varchar(100) NOT NULL, jid varchar(255) NOT NULL, retval varchar(MAX) NOT NULL, id varchar(255) NOT NULL, success bit default(0) NOT NULL, full_ret varchar(MAX) );
CREATE INDEX salt_returns_added on dbo.salt_returns(added); CREATE INDEX salt_returns_id on dbo.salt_returns(id); CREATE INDEX salt_returns_jid on dbo.salt_returns(jid); CREATE INDEX salt_returns_fun on dbo.salt_returns(fun);
To use this returner, append \(aq--return odbc\(aq to the salt command.
.. code-block:: bash
salt \(aq*\(aq status.diskusage --return odbc
To use the alternative configuration, append \(aq--return_config alternative\(aq to the salt command.
.. versionadded:: 2015.5.0
.. code-block:: bash
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return odbc --return_config alternative
To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs \(aq{"key:": "value"}\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2016.3.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return odbc --return_kwargs \(aq{"dsn": "dsn-name"}\(aq

salt.returners.odbc.get_fun(fun)
Return a dict of the last function called for all minions
salt.returners.odbc.get_jid(jid)
Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed
salt.returners.odbc.get_jids()
Return a list of all job ids
salt.returners.odbc.get_load(jid)
Return the load data that marks a specified jid
salt.returners.odbc.get_minions()
Return a list of minions
salt.returners.odbc.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.odbc.returner(ret)
Return data to an odbc server
salt.returners.odbc.save_load(jid, load, minions=None)
Save the load to the specified jid id

salt.returners.pgjsonb

Return data to a PostgreSQL server with json data stored in Pg\(aqs jsonb data type
maintainer
Dave Boucha < >, Seth House < >, C. R. Oldham < >
maturity
Stable
depends
python-psycopg2
platform
all
NOTE: There are three PostgreSQL returners. Any can function as an external master job cache. but each has different features. SaltStack recommends returners.pgjsonb if you are working with a version of PostgreSQL that has the appropriate native binary JSON types. Otherwise, review returners.postgres and returners.postgres_local_cache to see which module best suits your particular needs.
To enable this returner, the minion will need the python client for PostgreSQL installed and the following values configured in the minion or master config. These are the defaults:
returner.pgjsonb.host: \(aqsalt\(aq
returner.pgjsonb.user: \(aqsalt\(aq
returner.pgjsonb.pass: \(aqsalt\(aq
returner.pgjsonb.db: \(aqsalt\(aq
returner.pgjsonb.port: 5432

SSL is optional. The defaults are set to None. If you do not want to use SSL, either exclude these options or set them to None.
returner.pgjsonb.sslmode: None
returner.pgjsonb.sslcert: None
returner.pgjsonb.sslkey: None
returner.pgjsonb.sslrootcert: None
returner.pgjsonb.sslcrl: None

New in version 2017.5.0.
Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration with alternative.. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location. As stated above, SSL configuration is optional. The following ssl options are simply for illustration purposes:
alternative.pgjsonb.host: \(aqsalt\(aq
alternative.pgjsonb.user: \(aqsalt\(aq
alternative.pgjsonb.pass: \(aqsalt\(aq
alternative.pgjsonb.db: \(aqsalt\(aq
alternative.pgjsonb.port: 5432
alternative.pgjsonb.ssl_ca: \(aq/etc/pki/mysql/certs/localhost.pem\(aq
alternative.pgjsonb.ssl_cert: \(aq/etc/pki/mysql/certs/localhost.crt\(aq
alternative.pgjsonb.ssl_key: \(aq/etc/pki/mysql/certs/localhost.key\(aq

Should you wish the returner data to be cleaned out every so often, set keep_jobs to the number of hours for the jobs to live in the tables. Setting it to 0 or leaving it unset will cause the data to stay in the tables.
Should you wish to archive jobs in a different table for later processing, set archive_jobs to True. Salt will create 3 archive tables;
o jids_archive
o salt_returns_archive
o salt_events_archive
and move the contents of jids, salt_returns, and salt_events that are more than keep_jobs hours old to these tables.
New in version Fluorine.
Use the following Pg database schema:
CREATE DATABASE  salt
  WITH ENCODING \(aqutf-8\(aq;

-- -- Table structure for table `jids` -- DROP TABLE IF EXISTS jids; CREATE TABLE jids ( jid varchar(255) NOT NULL primary key, load jsonb NOT NULL ); CREATE INDEX idx_jids_jsonb on jids USING gin (load) WITH (fastupdate=on);
-- -- Table structure for table `salt_returns` --
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS salt_returns; CREATE TABLE salt_returns ( fun varchar(50) NOT NULL, jid varchar(255) NOT NULL, return jsonb NOT NULL, id varchar(255) NOT NULL, success varchar(10) NOT NULL, full_ret jsonb NOT NULL, alter_time TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE DEFAULT NOW());
CREATE INDEX idx_salt_returns_id ON salt_returns (id); CREATE INDEX idx_salt_returns_jid ON salt_returns (jid); CREATE INDEX idx_salt_returns_fun ON salt_returns (fun); CREATE INDEX idx_salt_returns_return ON salt_returns USING gin (return) with (fastupdate=on); CREATE INDEX idx_salt_returns_full_ret ON salt_returns USING gin (full_ret) with (fastupdate=on);
-- -- Table structure for table `salt_events` --
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS salt_events; DROP SEQUENCE IF EXISTS seq_salt_events_id; CREATE SEQUENCE seq_salt_events_id; CREATE TABLE salt_events ( id BIGINT NOT NULL UNIQUE DEFAULT nextval(\(aqseq_salt_events_id\(aq), tag varchar(255) NOT NULL, data jsonb NOT NULL, alter_time TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE DEFAULT NOW(), master_id varchar(255) NOT NULL);
CREATE INDEX idx_salt_events_tag on salt_events (tag); CREATE INDEX idx_salt_events_data ON salt_events USING gin (data) with (fastupdate=on);
Required python modules: Psycopg2
To use this returner, append \(aq--return pgjsonb\(aq to the salt command.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return pgjsonb

To use the alternative configuration, append \(aq--return_config alternative\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2015.5.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return pgjsonb --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs \(aq{"key:": "value"}\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2016.3.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return pgjsonb --return_kwargs \(aq{"db": "another-salt"}\(aq

salt.returners.pgjsonb.clean_old_jobs()
Called in the master\(aqs event loop every loop_interval. Archives and/or deletes the events and job details from the database. :return:
salt.returners.pgjsonb.event_return(events)
Return event to Pg server
Requires that configuration be enabled via \(aqevent_return\(aq option in master config.
salt.returners.pgjsonb.get_fun(fun)
Return a dict of the last function called for all minions
salt.returners.pgjsonb.get_jid(jid)
Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed
salt.returners.pgjsonb.get_jids()
Return a list of all job ids
salt.returners.pgjsonb.get_load(jid)
Return the load data that marks a specified jid
salt.returners.pgjsonb.get_minions()
Return a list of minions
salt.returners.pgjsonb.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.pgjsonb.returner(ret)
Return data to a Pg server
salt.returners.pgjsonb.save_load(jid, load, minions=None)
Save the load to the specified jid id

salt.returners.postgres

Return data to a postgresql server
NOTE: There are three PostgreSQL returners. Any can function as an external master job cache. but each has different features. SaltStack recommends returners.pgjsonb if you are working with a version of PostgreSQL that has the appropriate native binary JSON types. Otherwise, review returners.postgres and returners.postgres_local_cache to see which module best suits your particular needs.
maintainer
None
maturity
New
depends
psycopg2
platform
all
To enable this returner the minion will need the psycopg2 installed and the following values configured in the minion or master config:
returner.postgres.host: \(aqsalt\(aq
returner.postgres.user: \(aqsalt\(aq
returner.postgres.passwd: \(aqsalt\(aq
returner.postgres.db: \(aqsalt\(aq
returner.postgres.port: 5432

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:
alternative.returner.postgres.host: \(aqsalt\(aq
alternative.returner.postgres.user: \(aqsalt\(aq
alternative.returner.postgres.passwd: \(aqsalt\(aq
alternative.returner.postgres.db: \(aqsalt\(aq
alternative.returner.postgres.port: 5432

Running the following commands as the postgres user should create the database correctly:
psql << EOF
CREATE ROLE salt WITH PASSWORD \(aqsalt\(aq;
CREATE DATABASE salt WITH OWNER salt;
EOF

psql -h localhost -U salt << EOF -- -- Table structure for table \(aqjids\(aq --
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS jids; CREATE TABLE jids ( jid varchar(20) PRIMARY KEY, load text NOT NULL );
-- -- Table structure for table \(aqsalt_returns\(aq --
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS salt_returns; CREATE TABLE salt_returns ( fun varchar(50) NOT NULL, jid varchar(255) NOT NULL, return text NOT NULL, full_ret text, id varchar(255) NOT NULL, success varchar(10) NOT NULL, alter_time TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE DEFAULT now() );
CREATE INDEX idx_salt_returns_id ON salt_returns (id); CREATE INDEX idx_salt_returns_jid ON salt_returns (jid); CREATE INDEX idx_salt_returns_fun ON salt_returns (fun); CREATE INDEX idx_salt_returns_updated ON salt_returns (alter_time);
-- -- Table structure for table `salt_events` --
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS salt_events; DROP SEQUENCE IF EXISTS seq_salt_events_id; CREATE SEQUENCE seq_salt_events_id; CREATE TABLE salt_events ( id BIGINT NOT NULL UNIQUE DEFAULT nextval(\(aqseq_salt_events_id\(aq), tag varchar(255) NOT NULL, data text NOT NULL, alter_time TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE DEFAULT NOW(), master_id varchar(255) NOT NULL );
CREATE INDEX idx_salt_events_tag on salt_events (tag);
EOF
Required python modules: psycopg2
To use the postgres returner, append \(aq--return postgres\(aq to the salt command.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return postgres

To use the alternative configuration, append \(aq--return_config alternative\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2015.5.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return postgres --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs \(aq{"key:": "value"}\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2016.3.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return postgres --return_kwargs \(aq{"db": "another-salt"}\(aq

salt.returners.postgres.event_return(events)
Return event to Pg server
Requires that configuration be enabled via \(aqevent_return\(aq option in master config.
salt.returners.postgres.get_fun(fun)
Return a dict of the last function called for all minions
salt.returners.postgres.get_jid(jid)
Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed
salt.returners.postgres.get_jids()
Return a list of all job ids
salt.returners.postgres.get_load(jid)
Return the load data that marks a specified jid
salt.returners.postgres.get_minions()
Return a list of minions
salt.returners.postgres.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.postgres.returner(ret)
Return data to a postgres server
salt.returners.postgres.save_load(jid, load, minions=None)
Save the load to the specified jid id

salt.returners.postgres_local_cache

Use a postgresql server for the master job cache. This helps the job cache to cope with scale.
NOTE: There are three PostgreSQL returners. Any can function as an external master job cache. but each has different features. SaltStack recommends returners.pgjsonb if you are working with a version of PostgreSQL that has the appropriate native binary JSON types. Otherwise, review returners.postgres and returners.postgres_local_cache to see which module best suits your particular needs.
maintainer
maturity
Stable
depends
psycopg2
platform
all
To enable this returner the minion will need the psycopg2 installed and the following values configured in the master config:
master_job_cache: postgres_local_cache
master_job_cache.postgres.host: \(aqsalt\(aq
master_job_cache.postgres.user: \(aqsalt\(aq
master_job_cache.postgres.passwd: \(aqsalt\(aq
master_job_cache.postgres.db: \(aqsalt\(aq
master_job_cache.postgres.port: 5432

Running the following command as the postgres user should create the database correctly:
psql << EOF
CREATE ROLE salt WITH PASSWORD \(aqsalt\(aq;
CREATE DATABASE salt WITH OWNER salt;
EOF

In case the postgres database is a remote host, you\(aqll need this command also:
ALTER ROLE salt WITH LOGIN;

and then:
psql -h localhost -U salt << EOF
--
-- Table structure for table \(aqjids\(aq
--

DROP TABLE IF EXISTS jids; CREATE TABLE jids ( jid varchar(20) PRIMARY KEY, started TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE DEFAULT now(), tgt_type text NOT NULL, cmd text NOT NULL, tgt text NOT NULL, kwargs text NOT NULL, ret text NOT NULL, username text NOT NULL, arg text NOT NULL, fun text NOT NULL );
-- -- Table structure for table \(aqsalt_returns\(aq -- -- note that \(aqsuccess\(aq must not have NOT NULL constraint, since -- some functions don\(aqt provide it.
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS salt_returns; CREATE TABLE salt_returns ( added TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE DEFAULT now(), fun text NOT NULL, jid varchar(20) NOT NULL, return text NOT NULL, id text NOT NULL, success boolean ); CREATE INDEX ON salt_returns (added); CREATE INDEX ON salt_returns (id); CREATE INDEX ON salt_returns (jid); CREATE INDEX ON salt_returns (fun);
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS salt_events; CREATE TABLE salt_events ( id SERIAL, tag text NOT NULL, data text NOT NULL, alter_time TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE DEFAULT now(), master_id text NOT NULL ); CREATE INDEX ON salt_events (tag); CREATE INDEX ON salt_events (data); CREATE INDEX ON salt_events (id); CREATE INDEX ON salt_events (master_id); EOF
Required python modules: psycopg2
salt.returners.postgres_local_cache.clean_old_jobs()
Clean out the old jobs from the job cache
salt.returners.postgres_local_cache.event_return(events)
Return event to a postgres server
Require that configuration be enabled via \(aqevent_return\(aq option in master config.
salt.returners.postgres_local_cache.get_jid(jid)
Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed
salt.returners.postgres_local_cache.get_jids()
Return a list of all job ids For master job cache this also formats the output and returns a string
salt.returners.postgres_local_cache.get_load(jid)
Return the load data that marks a specified jid
salt.returners.postgres_local_cache.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Return a job id and prepare the job id directory This is the function responsible for making sure jids don\(aqt collide (unless its passed a jid). So do what you have to do to make sure that stays the case
salt.returners.postgres_local_cache.returner(load)
Return data to a postgres server
salt.returners.postgres_local_cache.save_load(jid, clear_load, minions=None)
Save the load to the specified jid id

salt.returners.pushover_returner

Return salt data via pushover ( http://www.pushover.net)
New in version 2016.3.0.
The following fields can be set in the minion conf file:
pushover.user (required)
pushover.token (required)
pushover.title (optional)
pushover.device (optional)
pushover.priority (optional)
pushover.expire (optional)
pushover.retry (optional)
pushover.profile (optional)

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:
alternative.pushover.user
alternative.pushover.token
alternative.pushover.title
alternative.pushover.device
alternative.pushover.priority
alternative.pushover.expire
alternative.pushover.retry

PushOver settings may also be configured as:
  pushover:
      user: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
      token: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
      title: Salt Returner
      device: phone
      priority: -1
      expire: 3600
      retry: 5

alternative.pushover: user: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx token: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx title: Salt Returner device: phone priority: 1 expire: 4800 retry: 2
pushover_profile: pushover.token: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
pushover: user: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx profile: pushover_profile
alternative.pushover: user: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx profile: pushover_profile
To use the PushOver returner, append \(aq--return pushover\(aq to the salt command. ex:
.. code-block:: bash
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return pushover
To use the alternative configuration, append \(aq--return_config alternative\(aq to the salt command. ex:
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return pushover --return_config alternative
To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs \(aq{"key:": "value"}\(aq to the salt command.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return pushover --return_kwargs \(aq{"title": "Salt is awesome!"}\(aq

salt.returners.pushover_returner.returner(ret)
Send an PushOver message with the data

salt.returners.rawfile_json

Take data from salt and "return" it into a raw file containing the json, with one line per event.
Add the following to the minion or master configuration file.
rawfile_json.filename: <path_to_output_file>

Default is /var/log/salt/events.
Common use is to log all events on the master. This can generate a lot of noise, so you may wish to configure batch processing and/or configure the event_return_whitelist or event_return_blacklist to restrict the events that are written.
salt.returners.rawfile_json.event_return(events)
Write event data (return data and non-return data) to file on the master.
salt.returners.rawfile_json.returner(ret)
Write the return data to a file on the minion.

salt.returners.redis_return

Return data to a redis server
To enable this returner the minion will need the python client for redis installed and the following values configured in the minion or master config, these are the defaults:
redis.db: \(aq0\(aq
redis.host: \(aqsalt\(aq
redis.port: 6379

New in version 2018.3.1: Alternatively a UNIX socket can be specified by unix_socket_path:
redis.db: \(aq0\(aq
redis.unix_socket_path: /var/run/redis/redis.sock

Cluster Mode Example:
redis.db: \(aq0\(aq
redis.cluster_mode: true
redis.cluster.skip_full_coverage_check: true
redis.cluster.startup_nodes:
  - host: redis-member-1
    port: 6379
  - host: redis-member-2
    port: 6379

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:
alternative.redis.db: \(aq0\(aq
alternative.redis.host: \(aqsalt\(aq
alternative.redis.port: 6379

To use the redis returner, append \(aq--return redis\(aq to the salt command.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return redis

To use the alternative configuration, append \(aq--return_config alternative\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2015.5.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return redis --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs \(aq{"key:": "value"}\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2016.3.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return redis --return_kwargs \(aq{"db": "another-salt"}\(aq

Redis Cluster Mode Options:
cluster_mode: False
Whether cluster_mode is enabled or not
cluster.startup_nodes:
A list of host, port dictionaries pointing to cluster members. At least one is required but multiple nodes are better
cache.redis.cluster.startup_nodes
  - host: redis-member-1
    port: 6379
  - host: redis-member-2
    port: 6379

cluster.skip_full_coverage_check: False
Some cluster providers restrict certain redis commands such as CONFIG for enhanced security. Set this option to true to skip checks that required advanced privileges.
NOTE: Most cloud hosted redis clusters will require this to be set to True
salt.returners.redis_return.clean_old_jobs()
Clean out minions\(aqs return data for old jobs.
Normally, hset \(aqret:<jid>\(aq are saved with a TTL, and will eventually get cleaned by redis.But for jobs with some very late minion return, the corresponding hset\(aqs TTL will be refreshed to a too late timestamp, we\(aqll do manually cleaning here.
salt.returners.redis_return.get_fun(fun)
Return a dict of the last function called for all minions
salt.returners.redis_return.get_jid(jid)
Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed
salt.returners.redis_return.get_jids()
Return a dict mapping all job ids to job information
salt.returners.redis_return.get_load(jid)
Return the load data that marks a specified jid
salt.returners.redis_return.get_minions()
Return a list of minions
salt.returners.redis_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.redis_return.returner(ret)
Return data to a redis data store
salt.returners.redis_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None)
Save the load to the specified jid

salt.returners.sentry_return

Salt returner that reports execution results back to sentry. The returner will inspect the payload to identify errors and flag them as such.
Pillar needs something like:
raven:
  servers:
    - http://192.168.1.1
    - https://sentry.example.com
  public_key: deadbeefdeadbeefdeadbeefdeadbeef
  secret_key: beefdeadbeefdeadbeefdeadbeefdead
  project: 1
  tags:
    - os
    - master
    - saltversion
    - cpuarch

or using a dsn:
raven:
  dsn: /12345" class="out link">https://aaaa:/12345
  tags:
    - os
    - master
    - saltversion
    - cpuarch

The pillar can be hidden on sentry return by setting hide_pillar: true.
The tags list (optional) specifies grains items that will be used as sentry tags, allowing tagging of events in the sentry ui.
To report only errors to sentry, set report_errors_only: true.
salt.returners.sentry_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.sentry_return.returner(ret)
Log outcome to sentry. The returner tries to identify errors and report them as such. All other messages will be reported at info level. Failed states will be appended as separate list for convenience.

salt.returners.slack_returner

Return salt data via slack
New in version 2015.5.0.
The following fields can be set in the minion conf file:
slack.channel (required)
slack.api_key (required)
slack.username (required)
slack.as_user (required to see the profile picture of your bot)
slack.profile (optional)
slack.changes(optional, only show changes and failed states)
slack.only_show_failed(optional, only show failed states)
slack.yaml_format(optional, format the json in yaml format)

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:
slack.channel
slack.api_key
slack.username
slack.as_user

Slack settings may also be configured as:
slack:
    channel: RoomName
    api_key: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
    username: user
    as_user: true

alternative.slack: room_id: RoomName api_key: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx from_name:
slack_profile: slack.api_key: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx slack.from_name:
slack: profile: slack_profile channel: RoomName
alternative.slack: profile: slack_profile channel: RoomName
To use the Slack returner, append \(aq--return slack\(aq to the salt command.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return slack

To use the alternative configuration, append \(aq--return_config alternative\(aq to the salt command.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return slack --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs \(aq{"key:": "value"}\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2016.3.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return slack --return_kwargs \(aq{"channel": "#random"}\(aq

salt.returners.slack_returner.returner(ret)
Send an slack message with the data

salt.returners.sms_return

Return data by SMS.
New in version 2015.5.0.
maintainer
Damian Myerscough
maturity
new
depends
twilio
platform
all
To enable this returner the minion will need the python twilio library installed and the following values configured in the minion or master config:
twilio.sid: \(aqXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX\(aq
twilio.token: \(aqXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX\(aq
twilio.to: \(aq+1415XXXXXXX\(aq
twilio.from: \(aq+1650XXXXXXX\(aq

To use the sms returner, append \(aq--return sms\(aq to the salt command.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return sms

salt.returners.sms_return.returner(ret)
Return a response in an SMS message

salt.returners.smtp_return

Return salt data via email
The following fields can be set in the minion conf file. Fields are optional unless noted otherwise.
o from (required) The name/address of the email sender.
o
to (required) The names/addresses of the email recipients;
comma-delimited. For example: ,.
o host (required) The SMTP server hostname or address.
o port The SMTP server port; defaults to 25.
o
username The username used to authenticate to the server. If specified a
password is also required. It is recommended but not required to also use TLS with this option.
o password The password used to authenticate to the server.
o tls Whether to secure the connection using TLS; defaults to False
o subject The email subject line.
o
fields Which fields from the returned data to include in the subject line
of the email; comma-delimited. For example: id,fun. Please note, the subject line is not encrypted.
o
gpgowner A user\(aqs ~/.gpg directory. This must contain a gpg
public key matching the address the mail is sent to. If left unset, no encryption will be used. Requires python-gnupg to be installed.
o template The path to a file to be used as a template for the email body.
o
renderer A Salt renderer, or render-pipe, to use to render the email
template. Default jinja.
Below is an example of the above settings in a Salt Minion configuration file:
smtp.from: 
smtp.to: 
smtp.host: localhost
smtp.port: 1025

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location. For example:
alternative.smtp.username: saltdev
alternative.smtp.password: saltdev
alternative.smtp.tls: True

To use the SMTP returner, append \(aq--return smtp\(aq to the salt command.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return smtp

To use the alternative configuration, append \(aq--return_config alternative\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2015.5.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return smtp --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs \(aq{"key:": "value"}\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2016.3.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return smtp --return_kwargs \(aq{"to": ""}\(aq

An easy way to test the SMTP returner is to use the development SMTP server built into Python. The command below will start a single-threaded SMTP server that prints any email it receives to the console.
python -m smtpd -n -c DebuggingServer localhost:1025

New in version 2016.11.0.
It is possible to send emails with selected Salt events by configuring event_return option for Salt Master. For example:
event_return: smtp

event_return_whitelist: - salt/key
smtp.from: smtp.to: smtp.host: localhost smtp.subject: \(aqSalt Master {{act}}ed key from Minion ID: {{id}}\(aq smtp.template: /srv/salt/templates/email.j2
Also you need to create additional file /srv/salt/templates/email.j2 with email body template:
act: {{act}}
id: {{id}}
result: {{result}}

This configuration enables Salt Master to send an email when accepting or rejecting minions keys.
salt.returners.smtp_return.event_return(events)
Return event data via SMTP
salt.returners.smtp_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.smtp_return.returner(ret)
Send an email with the data

salt.returners.splunk module

Send json response data to Splunk via the HTTP Event Collector Requires the following config values to be specified in config or pillar:
splunk_http_forwarder:
  token: <splunk_http_forwarder_token>
  indexer: <hostname/IP of Splunk indexer>
  sourcetype: <Destination sourcetype for data>
  index: <Destination index for data>

Run a test by using salt-call test.ping --return splunk
Written by Scott Pack (github.com/scottjpack)
class salt.returners.splunk.http_event_collector(token, http_event_server, host=u\(aq\(aq, http_event_port=u\(aq8088\(aq, http_event_server_ssl=True, max_bytes=100000)
batchEvent(payload, eventtime=u\(aq\(aq)
flushBatch()
sendEvent(payload, eventtime=u\(aq\(aq)
salt.returners.splunk.returner(ret)
Send a message to Splunk via the HTTP Event Collector

salt.returners.sqlite3

Insert minion return data into a sqlite3 database
maintainer
Mickey Malone < >
maturity
New
depends
None
platform
All
Sqlite3 is a serverless database that lives in a single file. In order to use this returner the database file must exist, have the appropriate schema defined, and be accessible to the user whom the minion process is running as. This returner requires the following values configured in the master or minion config:
sqlite3.database: /usr/lib/salt/salt.db
sqlite3.timeout: 5.0

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:
alternative.sqlite3.database: /usr/lib/salt/salt.db
alternative.sqlite3.timeout: 5.0

Use the commands to create the sqlite3 database and tables:
sqlite3 /usr/lib/salt/salt.db << EOF
--
-- Table structure for table \(aqjids\(aq
--

CREATE TABLE jids ( jid TEXT PRIMARY KEY, load TEXT NOT NULL );
-- -- Table structure for table \(aqsalt_returns\(aq --
CREATE TABLE salt_returns ( fun TEXT KEY, jid TEXT KEY, id TEXT KEY, fun_args TEXT, date TEXT NOT NULL, full_ret TEXT NOT NULL, success TEXT NOT NULL ); EOF
To use the sqlite returner, append \(aq--return sqlite3\(aq to the salt command.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return sqlite3

To use the alternative configuration, append \(aq--return_config alternative\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2015.5.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return sqlite3 --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs \(aq{"key:": "value"}\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2016.3.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return sqlite3 --return_kwargs \(aq{"db": "/var/lib/salt/another-salt.db"}\(aq

salt.returners.sqlite3_return.get_fun(fun)
Return a dict of the last function called for all minions
salt.returners.sqlite3_return.get_jid(jid)
Return the information returned from a specified jid
salt.returners.sqlite3_return.get_jids()
Return a list of all job ids
salt.returners.sqlite3_return.get_load(jid)
Return the load from a specified jid
salt.returners.sqlite3_return.get_minions()
Return a list of minions
salt.returners.sqlite3_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.sqlite3_return.returner(ret)
Insert minion return data into the sqlite3 database
salt.returners.sqlite3_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None)
Save the load to the specified jid

salt.returners.syslog_return

Return data to the host operating system\(aqs syslog facility
To use the syslog returner, append \(aq--return syslog\(aq to the salt command.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return syslog

The following fields can be set in the minion conf file:
syslog.level (optional, Default: LOG_INFO)
syslog.facility (optional, Default: LOG_USER)
syslog.tag (optional, Default: salt-minion)
syslog.options (list, optional, Default: [])

Available levels, facilities, and options can be found in the syslog docs for your python version.
NOTE: The default tag comes from sys.argv[0] which is usually "salt-minion" but could be different based on the specific environment.
Configuration example:
syslog.level: \(aqLOG_ERR\(aq
syslog.facility: \(aqLOG_DAEMON\(aq
syslog.tag: \(aqmysalt\(aq
syslog.options:
  - LOG_PID

Of course you can also nest the options:
syslog:
  level: \(aqLOG_ERR\(aq
  facility: \(aqLOG_DAEMON\(aq
  tag: \(aqmysalt\(aq
  options:
    - LOG_PID

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:
alternative.syslog.level: \(aqLOG_WARN\(aq
alternative.syslog.facility: \(aqLOG_NEWS\(aq

To use the alternative configuration, append --return_config alternative to the salt command.
New in version 2015.5.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return syslog --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs \(aq{"key:": "value"}\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2016.3.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return syslog --return_kwargs \(aq{"level": "LOG_DEBUG"}\(aq

NOTE: Syslog server implementations may have limits on the maximum record size received by the client. This may lead to job return data being truncated in the syslog server\(aqs logs. For example, for rsyslog on RHEL-based systems, the default maximum record size is approximately 2KB (which return data can easily exceed). This is configurable in rsyslog.conf via the $MaxMessageSize config parameter. Please consult your syslog implmentation\(aqs documentation to determine how to adjust this limit.
salt.returners.syslog_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.syslog_return.returner(ret)
Return data to the local syslog

salt.returners.telegram_return

Return salt data via Telegram.
The following fields can be set in the minion conf file:
telegram.chat_id (required)
telegram.token (required)

Telegram settings may also be configured as:
telegram:
  chat_id: 000000000
  token: 000000000:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

To use the Telegram return, append \(aq--return telegram\(aq to the salt command.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return telegram

salt.returners.telegram_return.returner(ret)
Send a Telegram message with the data.
Parameters
ret -- The data to be sent.
Returns
Boolean if message was sent successfully.

salt.returners.xmpp_return

Return salt data via xmpp
depends
sleekxmpp >= 1.3.1
The following fields can be set in the minion conf file:
xmpp.jid (required)
xmpp.password (required)
xmpp.recipient (required)
xmpp.profile (optional)

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:
xmpp.jid
xmpp.password
xmpp.recipient
xmpp.profile

XMPP settings may also be configured as:
xmpp:
    jid: /resource
    password: password
    recipient: 

alternative.xmpp: jid: /resource password: password recipient:
xmpp_profile: xmpp.jid: /resource xmpp.password: password
xmpp: profile: xmpp_profile recipient:
alternative.xmpp: profile: xmpp_profile recipient:
To use the XMPP returner, append \(aq--return xmpp\(aq to the salt command.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return xmpp

To use the alternative configuration, append \(aq--return_config alternative\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2015.5.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return xmpp --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs \(aq{"key:": "value"}\(aq to the salt command.
New in version 2016.3.0.
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return xmpp --return_kwargs \(aq{"recipient": ""}\(aq

class salt.returners.xmpp_return.SendMsgBot(jid, password, recipient, msg)
start(event)
salt.returners.xmpp_return.returner(ret)
Send an xmpp message with the data

salt.returners.zabbix_return module

Return salt data to Zabbix
The following Type: "Zabbix trapper" with "Type of information" Text items are required:
Key: salt.trap.info
Key: salt.trap.average
Key: salt.trap.warning
Key: salt.trap.high
Key: salt.trap.disaster

To use the Zabbix returner, append \(aq--return zabbix\(aq to the salt command. ex:
salt \(aq*\(aq test.ping --return zabbix

salt.returners.zabbix_return.returner(ret)
salt.returners.zabbix_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None)
salt.returners.zabbix_return.zabbix_send(key, host, output)
salt.returners.zabbix_return.zbx()

Renderers

The Salt state system operates by gathering information from common data types such as lists, dictionaries, and strings that would be familiar to any developer.
Salt Renderers translate input from the format in which it is written into Python data structures.
The default renderer is set in the master/minion configuration file using the renderer config option, which defaults to jinja|yaml.

Two Kinds of Renderers

Renderers fall into one of two categories, based on what they output: text or data. The one exception to this would be the pure python renderer, which can be used in either capacity.

Text Renderers

A text renderer returns text. These include templating engines such as jinja, mako, and genshi, as well as the gpg renderer. The following are all text renderers:
o aws_kms
o cheetah
o genshi
o gpg
o jinja
o mako
o nacl
o pass
o py
o wempy

Data Renderers

A data renderer returns a Python data structure (typically a dictionary). The following are all data renderers:
o dson
o hjson
o json5
o json
o pydsl
o pyobjects
o py
o stateconf
o yamlex
o yaml

Overriding the Default Renderer

It can sometimes be beneficial to write an SLS file using a renderer other than the default one. This can be done by using a "shebang"-like syntax on the first line of the SLS file:
Here is an example of using the pure python renderer to install a package:
#!py

def run(): \(aq\(aq\(aq Install version 1.5-1.el7 of package "python-foo" \(aq\(aq\(aq return { \(aqinclude\(aq: [\(aqpython\(aq], \(aqpython-foo\(aq: { \(aqpkg.installed\(aq: [ {\(aqversion\(aq: \(aq1.5-1.el7\(aq}, ] } }
This would be equivalent to the following:
include:
  - python

python-foo: pkg.installed: - version: \(aq1.5-1.el7\(aq

Composing Renderers (a.k.a. The Render Pipeline )

A render pipeline can be composed from other renderers by connecting them in a series of "pipes" (i.e. |). The renderers will be evaluated from left to right, with each renderer receiving the result of the previous renderer\(aqs execution.
Take for example the default renderer (jinja|yaml). The file is evaluated first a jinja template, and the result of that template is evaluated as a YAML document.
Other render pipeline combinations include:
yaml Just YAML, no templating.
mako|yaml
This passes the input to the mako renderer, with its output fed into the yaml renderer.
jinja|mako|yaml
This one allows you to use both jinja and mako templating syntax in the input and then parse the final rendered output as YAML.
The following is a contrived example SLS file using the jinja|mako|yaml render pipeline:
#!jinja|mako|yaml

An_Example: cmd.run: - name: | echo "Using Salt ${grains[\(aqsaltversion\(aq]}" \ "from path {{grains[\(aqsaltpath\(aq]}}." - cwd: /
<%doc> ${...} is Mako\(aqs notation, and so is this comment. </%doc> {# Similarly, {{...}} is Jinja\(aqs notation, and so is this comment. #}
IMPORTANT: Keep in mind that not all renderers can be used alone or with any other renderers. For example, text renderers shouldn\(aqt be used alone as their outputs are just strings, which still need to be parsed by another renderer to turn them into Python data structures.
For example, it would not make sense to use yaml|jinja because the output of the yaml renderer is a Python data structure, and the jinja renderer only accepts text as input.
Therefore, when combining renderers, you should know what each renderer accepts as input and what it returns as output. One way of thinking about it is that you can chain together multiple text renderers, but the pipeline must end in a data renderer. Similarly, since the text renderers in Salt don\(aqt accept data structures as input, a text renderer should usually not come after a data renderer. It\(aqs technically possible to write a renderer that takes a data structure as input and returns a string, but no such renderer is distributed with Salt.

Writing Renderers

A custom renderer must be a Python module which implements a render function. This function must implement three positional arguments:
1. data - Can be called whatever you like. This is the input to be rendered.
2. saltenv
3. sls
The first is the important one, and the 2nd and 3rd must be included since Salt needs to pass this info to each render, even though it is only used by template renderers.
Renderers should be written so that the data argument can accept either strings or file-like objects as input. For example:
import mycoolmodule
from salt.ext import six

def render(data, saltenv=\(aqbase\(aq, sls=\(aq\(aq, **kwargs): if not isinstance(data, six.string_types): # Read from file-like object data = data.read()
return mycoolmodule.do_something(data)
Custom renderers should be placed within salt://_renderers/, so that they can be synced to minions. They are synced when any of the following are run:
o state.apply
o saltutil.sync_renderers
o saltutil.sync_all
Any custom renderers which have been synced to a minion, that are named the same as one of Salt\(aqs default set of renderers, will take the place of the default renderer with the same name.
NOTE: Renderers can also be synced from salt://_renderers/ to the Master using either the saltutil.sync_renderers or saltutil.sync_all runner function.

Examples

The best place to find examples of renderers is in the Salt source code.
Documentation for renderers included with Salt can be found here:
Here is a simple YAML renderer example:
import salt.utils.yaml
from salt.utils.yamlloader import SaltYamlSafeLoader
from salt.ext import six

def render(yaml_data, saltenv=\(aq\(aq, sls=\(aq\(aq, **kws): if not isinstance(yaml_data, six.string_types): yaml_data = yaml_data.read() data = salt.utils.yaml.safe_load(yaml_data) return data if data else {}

Full List of Renderers

renderer modules

cheetah Cheetah Renderer for Salt
dson DSON Renderer for Salt
genshi Genshi Renderer for Salt
gpg Renderer that will decrypt GPG ciphers
hjson hjson renderer for Salt
jinja Jinja loading utils to enable a more powerful backend for jinja templates
json JSON Renderer for Salt
json5 JSON5 Renderer for Salt
mako Mako Renderer for Salt
msgpack
pass Pass Renderer for Salt
py Pure python state renderer
pydsl A Python-based DSL
pyobjects Python renderer that includes a Pythonic Object based interface
stateconf A flexible renderer that takes a templating engine and a data format
wempy
yaml YAML Renderer for Salt
yamlex

salt.renderers.cheetah

Cheetah Renderer for Salt
salt.renderers.cheetah.render(cheetah_data, saltenv=u\(aqbase\(aq, sls=u\(aq\(aq, method=u\(aqxml\(aq, **kws)
Render a Cheetah template.
Return type
A Python data structure

salt.renderers.dson

DSON Renderer for Salt
This renderer is intended for demonstration purposes. Information on the DSON spec can be found here.
This renderer requires Dogeon (installable via pip)
salt.renderers.dson.render(dson_input, saltenv=u\(aqbase\(aq, sls=u\(aq\(aq, **kwargs)
Accepts DSON data as a string or as a file object and runs it through the JSON parser.
Return type
A Python data structure

salt.renderers.genshi

Genshi Renderer for Salt
salt.renderers.genshi.render(genshi_data, saltenv=u\(aqbase\(aq, sls=u\(aq\(aq, method=u\(aqxml\(aq, **kws)
Render a Genshi template. A method should be passed in as part of the kwargs. If no method is passed in, xml is assumed. Valid methods are:
Note that the text method will call NewTextTemplate. If oldtext is desired, it must be called explicitly
Return type
A Python data structure

salt.renderers.gpg

Renderer that will decrypt GPG ciphers
Any key in the SLS file can be a GPG cipher, and this renderer will decrypt it before passing it off to Salt. This allows you to safely store secrets in source control, in such a way that only your Salt master can decrypt them and distribute them only to the minions that need them.
The typical use-case would be to use ciphers in your pillar data, and keep a secret key on your master. You can put the public key in source control so that developers can add new secrets quickly and easily.
This renderer requires the gpg binary. No python libraries are required as of the 2015.8.0 release.

Setup

To set things up, first generate a keypair. On the master, run the following:
# mkdir -p /etc/salt/gpgkeys
# chmod 0700 /etc/salt/gpgkeys
# gpg --gen-key --homedir /etc/salt/gpgkeys

Do not supply a password for the keypair, and use a name that makes sense for your application. Be sure to back up the gpgkeys directory someplace safe!
NOTE: Unfortunately, there are some scenarios - for example, on virtual machines which don’t have real hardware - where insufficient entropy causes key generation to be extremely slow. In these cases, there are usually means of increasing the system entropy. On virtualised Linux systems, this can often be achieved by installing the rng-tools package.

Export the Public Key

# gpg --homedir /etc/salt/gpgkeys --armor --export <KEY-NAME> > exported_pubkey.gpg

Import the Public Key

To encrypt secrets, copy the public key to your local machine and run:
$ gpg --import exported_pubkey.gpg

To generate a cipher from a secret:
$ echo -n "supersecret" | gpg --armor --batch --trust-model always --encrypt -r <KEY-name>

To apply the renderer on a file-by-file basis add the following line to the top of any pillar with gpg data in it:
#!yaml|gpg

Now with your renderer configured, you can include your ciphers in your pillar data like so:
#!yaml|gpg

a-secret: | -----BEGIN PGP MESSAGE----- Version: GnuPG v1
hQEMAweRHKaPCfNeAQf9GLTN16hCfXAbPwU6BbBK0unOc7i9/etGuVc5CyU9Q6um QuetdvQVLFO/HkrC4lgeNQdM6D9E8PKonMlgJPyUvC8ggxhj0/IPFEKmrsnv2k6+ cnEfmVexS7o/U1VOVjoyUeliMCJlAz/30RXaME49Cpi6No2+vKD8a4q4nZN1UZcG RhkhC0S22zNxOXQ38TBkmtJcqxnqT6YWKTUsjVubW3bVC+u2HGqJHu79wmwuN8tz m4wBkfCAd8Eyo2jEnWQcM4TcXiF01XPL4z4g1/9AAxh+Q4d8RIRP4fbw7ct4nCJv Gr9v2DTF7HNigIMl4ivMIn9fp+EZurJNiQskLgNbktJGAeEKYkqX5iCuB1b693hJ FKlwHiJt5yA8X2dDtfk8/Ph1Jx2TwGS+lGjlZaNqp3R1xuAZzXzZMLyZDe5+i3RJ skqmFTbOiA===Eqsm -----END PGP MESSAGE-----

Encrypted CLI Pillar Data

New in version 2016.3.0.
Functions like state.highstate and state.sls allow for pillar data to be passed on the CLI.
salt myminion state.highstate pillar="{\(aqmypillar\(aq: \(aqfoo\(aq}"

Starting with the 2016.3.0 release of Salt, it is now possible for this pillar data to be GPG-encrypted, and to use the GPG renderer to decrypt it.

Replacing Newlines

To pass encrypted pillar data on the CLI, the ciphertext must have its newlines replaced with a literal backslash-n (\n), as newlines are not supported within Salt CLI arguments. There are a number of ways to do this:
With awk or Perl:
# awk
ciphertext=`echo -n "supersecret" | gpg --armor --batch --trust-model always --encrypt -r  | awk \(aq{printf "%s\\n",$0} END {print ""}\(aq`
# Perl
ciphertext=`echo -n "supersecret" | gpg --armor --batch --trust-model always --encrypt -r  | perl -pe \(aqs/\n/\\n/g\(aq`

With Python:
import subprocess

secret, stderr = subprocess.Popen( [\(aqgpg\(aq, \(aq--armor\(aq, \(aq--batch\(aq, \(aq--trust-model\(aq, \(aqalways\(aq, \(aq--encrypt\(aq, \(aq-r\(aq, \(aq\(aq], stdin=subprocess.PIPE, stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.PIPE).communicate(input=\(aqsupersecret\(aq)
if secret: print(secret.replace(\(aq\n\(aq, r\(aq\n\(aq)) else: raise ValueError(\(aqNo ciphertext found: {0}\(aq.format(stderr))
ciphertext=`python /path/to/script.py`

The ciphertext can be included in the CLI pillar data like so:
salt myminion state.sls secretstuff pillar_enc=gpg pillar="{secret_pillar: \(aq$ciphertext\(aq}"

The pillar_enc=gpg argument tells Salt that there is GPG-encrypted pillar data, so that the CLI pillar data is passed through the GPG renderer, which will iterate recursively though the CLI pillar dictionary to decrypt any encrypted values.

Encrypting the Entire CLI Pillar Dictionary

If several values need to be encrypted, it may be more convenient to encrypt the entire CLI pillar dictionary. Again, this can be done in several ways:
With awk or Perl:
# awk
ciphertext=`echo -n "{\(aqsecret_a\(aq: \(aqCorrectHorseBatteryStaple\(aq, \(aqsecret_b\(aq: \(aqGPG is fun!\(aq}" | gpg --armor --batch --trust-model always --encrypt -r  | awk \(aq{printf "%s\\n",$0} END {print ""}\(aq`
# Perl
ciphertext=`echo -n "{\(aqsecret_a\(aq: \(aqCorrectHorseBatteryStaple\(aq, \(aqsecret_b\(aq: \(aqGPG is fun!\(aq}" | gpg --armor --batch --trust-model always --encrypt -r  | perl -pe \(aqs/\n/\\n/g\(aq`

With Python:
import subprocess

pillar_data = {\(aqsecret_a\(aq: \(aqCorrectHorseBatteryStaple\(aq, \(aqsecret_b\(aq: \(aqGPG is fun!\(aq}
secret, stderr = subprocess.Popen( [\(aqgpg\(aq, \(aq--armor\(aq, \(aq--batch\(aq, \(aq--trust-model\(aq, \(aqalways\(aq, \(aq--encrypt\(aq, \(aq-r\(aq, \(aq\(aq], stdin=subprocess.PIPE, stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.PIPE).communicate(input=repr(pillar_data))
if secret: print(secret.replace(\(aq\n\(aq, r\(aq\n\(aq)) else: raise ValueError(\(aqNo ciphertext found: {0}\(aq.format(stderr))
ciphertext=`python /path/to/script.py`

With the entire pillar dictionary now encrypted, it can be included in the CLI pillar data like so:
salt myminion state.sls secretstuff pillar_enc=gpg pillar="$ciphertext"

salt.renderers.gpg.render(gpg_data, saltenv=u\(aqbase\(aq, sls=u\(aq\(aq, argline=u\(aq\(aq, **kwargs)
Create a gpg object given a gpg_keydir, and then use it to try to decrypt the data to be rendered.

salt.renderers.hjson

hjson renderer for Salt
See the hjson documentation for more information
salt.renderers.hjson.render(hjson_data, saltenv=u\(aqbase\(aq, sls=u\(aq\(aq, **kws)
Accepts HJSON as a string or as a file object and runs it through the HJSON parser.
Return type
A Python data structure

salt.renderers.jinja

Jinja loading utils to enable a more powerful backend for jinja templates
For Jinja usage information see Understanding Jinja.
salt.renderers.jinja.render(template_file, saltenv=u\(aqbase\(aq, sls=u\(aq\(aq, argline=u\(aq\(aq, context=None, tmplpath=None, **kws)
Render the template_file, passing the functions and grains into the Jinja rendering system.
Return type
string
class salt.utils.jinja.SerializerExtension(environment)
Yaml and Json manipulation.
Format filters
Allows jsonifying or yamlifying any data structure. For example, this dataset:
data = {
    \(aqfoo\(aq: True,
    \(aqbar\(aq: 42,
    \(aqbaz\(aq: [1, 2, 3],
    \(aqqux\(aq: 2.0
}

yaml = {{ data|yaml }}
json = {{ data|json }}
python = {{ data|python }}
xml  = {{ {\(aqroot_node\(aq: data}|xml }}

will be rendered as:
yaml = {bar: 42, baz: [1, 2, 3], foo: true, qux: 2.0}
json = {"baz": [1, 2, 3], "foo": true, "bar": 42, "qux": 2.0}
python = {\(aqbar\(aq: 42, \(aqbaz\(aq: [1, 2, 3], \(aqfoo\(aq: True, \(aqqux\(aq: 2.0}
xml = """<<?xml version="1.0" ?>
         <root_node bar="42" foo="True" qux="2.0">
          <baz>1</baz>
          <baz>2</baz>
          <baz>3</baz>
         </root_node>"""

The yaml filter takes an optional flow_style parameter to control the default-flow-style parameter of the YAML dumper.
{{ data|yaml(False) }}

will be rendered as:
bar: 42
baz:
  - 1
  - 2
  - 3
foo: true
qux: 2.0

Load filters
Strings and variables can be deserialized with load_yaml and load_json tags and filters. It allows one to manipulate data directly in templates, easily:
{%- set yaml_src = "{foo: it works}"|load_yaml %}
{%- set json_src = "{\(aqbar\(aq: \(aqfor real\(aq}"|load_json %}
Dude, {{ yaml_src.foo }} {{ json_src.bar }}!

will be rendered as:
Dude, it works for real!

Load tags
Salt implements load_yaml and load_json tags. They work like the import tag, except that the document is also deserialized.
Syntaxes are {% load_yaml as [VARIABLE] %}[YOUR DATA]{% endload %} and {% load_json as [VARIABLE] %}[YOUR DATA]{% endload %}
For example:
{% load_yaml as yaml_src %}
    foo: it works
{% endload %}
{% load_json as json_src %}
    {
        "bar": "for real"
    }
{% endload %}
Dude, {{ yaml_src.foo }} {{ json_src.bar }}!

will be rendered as:
Dude, it works for real!

Import tags
External files can be imported and made available as a Jinja variable.
{% import_yaml "myfile.yml" as myfile %}
{% import_json "defaults.json" as defaults %}
{% import_text "completeworksofshakespeare.txt" as poems %}

Catalog
import_* and load_* tags will automatically expose their target variable to import. This feature makes catalog of data to handle.
for example:
# doc1.sls
{% load_yaml as var1 %}
    foo: it works
{% endload %}
{% load_yaml as var2 %}
    bar: for real
{% endload %}

# doc2.sls
{% from "doc1.sls" import var1, var2 as local2 %}
{{ var1.foo }} {{ local2.bar }}

** Escape Filters **
New in version 2017.7.0.
Allows escaping of strings so they can be interpreted literally by another function.
For example:
regex_escape = {{ \(aqhttps://example.com?foo=bar%20baz\(aq | regex_escape }}

will be rendered as:
regex_escape = https\:\/\/example\.com\?foo\=bar\%20baz

** Set Theory Filters **
New in version 2017.7.0.
Performs set math using Jinja filters.
For example:
unique = {{ [\(aqfoo\(aq, \(aqfoo\(aq, \(aqbar\(aq] | unique }}

will be rendered as:
unique = [\(aqfoo\(aq, \(aqbar\(aq]

salt.renderers.json

JSON Renderer for Salt
salt.renderers.json.render(json_data, saltenv=u\(aqbase\(aq, sls=u\(aq\(aq, **kws)
Accepts JSON as a string or as a file object and runs it through the JSON parser.
Return type
A Python data structure

salt.renderers.json5

JSON5 Renderer for Salt
New in version 2016.3.0.
JSON5 is an unofficial extension to JSON. See http://json5.org/ for more information.
This renderer requires the json5 python bindings, installable via pip.
salt.renderers.json5.render(json_data, saltenv=u\(aqbase\(aq, sls=u\(aq\(aq, **kws)
Accepts JSON as a string or as a file object and runs it through the JSON parser.
Return type
A Python data structure

salt.renderers.mako

Mako Renderer for Salt
salt.renderers.mako.render(template_file, saltenv=u\(aqbase\(aq, sls=u\(aq\(aq, context=None, tmplpath=None, **kws)
Render the template_file, passing the functions and grains into the Mako rendering system.
Return type
string

salt.renderers.msgpack

salt.renderers.msgpack.render(msgpack_data, saltenv=u\(aqbase\(aq, sls=u\(aq\(aq, **kws)
Accepts a message pack string or a file object, renders said data back to a python dict.
Return type
A Python data structure

salt.renderers.pass module

Pass Renderer for Salt

pass is an encrypted on-disk password store.
New in version 2017.7.0.

Setup

Note: <user> needs to be replaced with the user salt-master will be running as.
Have private gpg loaded into user\(aqs gpg keyring
load_private_gpg_key:
  cmd.run:
    - name: gpg --import <location_of_private_gpg_key>
    - unless: gpg --list-keys \(aq<gpg_name>\(aq

Said private key\(aqs public key should have been used when encrypting pass entries that are of interest for pillar data.
Fetch and keep local pass git repo up-to-date
update_pass:
  git.latest:
    - force_reset: True
    - name: <git_repo>
    - target: /<user>/.password-store
    - identity: <location_of_ssh_private_key>
    - require:
      - cmd: load_private_gpg_key

Install pass binary
pass:
  pkg.installed

salt.renderers.pass.render(pass_info, saltenv=u\(aqbase\(aq, sls=u\(aq\(aq, argline=u\(aq\(aq, **kwargs)
Fetch secret from pass based on pass_path

salt.renderers.py

Pure python state renderer

To use this renderer, the SLS file should contain a function called run which returns highstate data.
The highstate data is a dictionary containing identifiers as keys, and execution dictionaries as values. For example the following state declaration in YAML:
common_packages:
  pkg.installed:
   - pkgs:
      - curl
      - vim

tranlastes to:
{\(aqcommon_packages\(aq: {\(aqpkg.installed\(aq: [{\(aqpkgs\(aq: [\(aqcurl\(aq, \(aqvim\(aq]}]}}

In this module, a few objects are defined for you, giving access to Salt\(aqs execution functions, grains, pillar, etc. They are:
o __salt__ - Execution functions (i.e. __salt__[\(aqtest.echo\(aq](\(aqfoo\(aq))
o __grains__ - Grains (i.e. __grains__[\(aqos\(aq])
o __pillar__ - Pillar data (i.e. __pillar__[\(aqfoo\(aq])
o __opts__ - Minion configuration options
o __env__ - The effective salt fileserver environment (i.e. base). Also referred to as a "saltenv". __env__ should not be modified in a pure python SLS file. To use a different environment, the environment should be set when executing the state. This can be done in a couple different ways:
o Using the saltenv argument on the salt CLI (i.e. salt \(aq*\(aq state.sls foo.bar.baz saltenv=env_name).
o By adding a saltenv argument to an individual state within the SLS file. In other words, adding a line like this to the state\(aqs data structure: {\(aqsaltenv\(aq: \(aqenv_name\(aq}
o __sls__ - The SLS path of the file. For example, if the root of the base environment is /srv/salt, and the SLS file is /srv/salt/foo/bar/baz.sls, then __sls__ in that file will be foo.bar.baz.
When writing a reactor SLS file the global context data (same as context {{ data }} for states written with Jinja + YAML) is available. The following YAML + Jinja state declaration:
{% if data[\(aqid\(aq] == \(aqmysql1\(aq %}
highstate_run:
  local.state.apply:
    - tgt: mysql1
{% endif %}

translates to:
if data[\(aqid\(aq] == \(aqmysql1\(aq:
    return {\(aqhighstate_run\(aq: {\(aqlocal.state.apply\(aq: [{\(aqtgt\(aq: \(aqmysql1\(aq}]}}

Full Example

 #!py

def run(): config = {}
if __grains__[\(aqos\(aq] == \(aqUbuntu\(aq: user = \(aqubuntu\(aq group = \(aqubuntu\(aq home = \(aq/home/{0}\(aq.format(user) else: user = \(aqroot\(aq group = \(aqroot\(aq home = \(aq/root/\(aq
config[\(aqs3cmd\(aq] = { \(aqpkg\(aq: [ \(aqinstalled\(aq, {\(aqname\(aq: \(aqs3cmd\(aq}, ], }
config[home + \(aq/.s3cfg\(aq] = { \(aqfile.managed\(aq: [ {\(aqsource\(aq: \(aqsalt://s3cfg/templates/s3cfg\(aq}, {\(aqtemplate\(aq: \(aqjinja\(aq}, {\(aquser\(aq: user}, {\(aqgroup\(aq: group}, {\(aqmode\(aq: 600}, {\(aqcontext\(aq: { \(aqaws_key\(aq: __pillar__[\(aqAWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID\(aq], \(aqaws_secret_key\(aq: __pillar__[\(aqAWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY\(aq], }, }, ], }
return config
salt.renderers.py.render(template, saltenv=u\(aqbase\(aq, sls=u\(aq\(aq, tmplpath=None, **kws)
Render the python module\(aqs components
Return type
string

salt.renderers.pydsl

A Python-based DSL
maintainer
Jack Kuan < >
maturity
new
platform
all
The pydsl renderer allows one to author salt formulas (.sls files) in pure Python using a DSL that\(aqs easy to write and easy to read. Here\(aqs an example:
#!pydsl

apache = state(\(aqapache\(aq) apache.pkg.installed() apache.service.running() state(\(aq/var/www/index.html\(aq) \ .file(\(aqmanaged\(aq, source=\(aqsalt://webserver/index.html\(aq) \ .require(pkg=\(aqapache\(aq)
Notice that any Python code is allow in the file as it\(aqs really a Python module, so you have the full power of Python at your disposal. In this module, a few objects are defined for you, including the usual (with __ added) __salt__ dictionary, __grains__, __pillar__, __opts__, __env__, and __sls__, plus a few more: __file__ local file system path to the sls module.
__pydsl__ Salt PyDSL object, useful for configuring DSL behavior per sls rendering.
include Salt PyDSL function for creating include-declaration\(aqs.
extend Salt PyDSL function for creating extend-declaration\(aqs.
state Salt PyDSL function for creating ID-declaration\(aqs.
A state ID-declaration is created with a state(id) function call. Subsequent state(id) call with the same id returns the same object. This singleton access pattern applies to all declaration objects created with the DSL.
state(\(aqexample\(aq)
assert state(\(aqexample\(aq) is state(\(aqexample\(aq)
assert state(\(aqexample\(aq).cmd is state(\(aqexample\(aq).cmd
assert state(\(aqexample\(aq).cmd.running is state(\(aqexample\(aq).cmd.running

The id argument is optional. If omitted, an UUID will be generated and used as the id.
state(id) returns an object under which you can create a state-declaration object by accessing an attribute named after any state module available in Salt.
state(\(aqexample\(aq).cmd
state(\(aqexample\(aq).file
state(\(aqexample\(aq).pkg
...

Then, a function-declaration object can be created from a state-declaration object by one of the following two ways:
1. by calling a method named after the state function on the state-declaration object.
state(\(aqexample\(aq).file.managed(...)

2. by directly calling the attribute named for the state-declaration, and supplying the state function name as the first argument.
state(\(aqexample\(aq).file(\(aqmanaged\(aq, ...)

With either way of creating a function-declaration object, any function-arg-declaration\(aqs can be passed as keyword arguments to the call. Subsequent calls of a function-declaration will update the arg declarations.
state(\(aqexample\(aq).file(\(aqmanaged\(aq, source=\(aqsalt://webserver/index.html\(aq)
state(\(aqexample\(aq).file.managed(source=\(aqsalt://webserver/index.html\(aq)

As a shortcut, the special name argument can also be passed as the first or second positional argument depending on the first or second way of calling the state-declaration object. In the following two examples ls -la is the name argument.
state(\(aqexample\(aq).cmd.run(\(aqls -la\(aq, cwd=\(aq/\(aq)
state(\(aqexample\(aq).cmd(\(aqrun\(aq, \(aqls -la\(aq, cwd=\(aq/\(aq)

Finally, a requisite-declaration object with its requisite-reference\(aqs can be created by invoking one of the requisite methods (see State Requisites) on either a function-declaration object or a state-declaration object. The return value of a requisite call is also a function-declaration object, so you can chain several requisite calls together.
Arguments to a requisite call can be a list of state-declaration objects and/or a set of keyword arguments whose names are state modules and values are IDs of ID-declaration\(aqs or names of name-declaration\(aqs.
apache2 = state(\(aqapache2\(aq)
apache2.pkg.installed()
state(\(aqlibapache2-mod-wsgi\(aq).pkg.installed()

# you can call requisites on function declaration apache2.service.running() \ .require(apache2.pkg, pkg=\(aqlibapache2-mod-wsgi\(aq) \ .watch(file=\(aq/etc/apache2/httpd.conf\(aq)
# or you can call requisites on state declaration. # this actually creates an anonymous function declaration object # to add the requisites. apache2.service.require(state(\(aqlibapache2-mod-wsgi\(aq).pkg, pkg=\(aqapache2\(aq) \ .watch(file=\(aq/etc/apache2/httpd.conf\(aq)
# we still need to set the name of the function declaration. apache2.service.running()
include-declaration objects can be created with the include function, while extend-declaration objects can be created with the extend function, whose arguments are just function-declaration objects.
include(\(aqedit.vim\(aq, \(aqhttp.server\(aq)
extend(state(\(aqapache2\(aq).service.watch(file=\(aq/etc/httpd/httpd.conf\(aq)

The include function, by default, causes the included sls file to be rendered as soon as the include function is called. It returns a list of rendered module objects; sls files not rendered with the pydsl renderer return None\(aqs. This behavior creates no include-declaration\(aqs in the resulting high state data structure.
import types

# including multiple sls returns a list. _, mod = include(\(aqa-non-pydsl-sls\(aq, \(aqa-pydsl-sls\(aq)
assert _ is None assert isinstance(slsmods[1], types.ModuleType)
# including a single sls returns a single object mod = include(\(aqa-pydsl-sls\(aq)
# myfunc is a function that calls state(...) to create more states. mod.myfunc(1, 2, "three")
Notice how you can define a reusable function in your pydsl sls module and then call it via the module returned by include.
It\(aqs still possible to do late includes by passing the delayed=True keyword argument to include.
include(\(aqedit.vim\(aq, \(aqhttp.server\(aq, delayed=True)

Above will just create a include-declaration in the rendered result, and such call always returns None.

Special integration with the cmd state

Taking advantage of rendering a Python module, PyDSL allows you to declare a state that calls a pre-defined Python function when the state is executed.
greeting = "hello world"
def helper(something, *args, **kws):
    print greeting                # hello world
    print something, args, kws    # test123 [\(aqa\(aq, \(aqb\(aq, \(aqc\(aq] {\(aqx\(aq: 1, \(aqy\(aq: 2}

state().cmd.call(helper, "test123", \(aqa\(aq, \(aqb\(aq, \(aqc\(aq, x=1, y=2)
The cmd.call state function takes care of calling our helper function with the arguments we specified in the states, and translates the return value of our function into a structure expected by the state system. See salt.states.cmd.call() for more information.

Implicit ordering of states

Salt states are explicitly ordered via requisite-declaration\(aqs. However, with pydsl it\(aqs possible to let the renderer track the order of creation for function-declaration objects, and implicitly add require requisites for your states to enforce the ordering. This feature is enabled by setting the ordered option on __pydsl__.
NOTE: this feature is only available if your minions are using Python >= 2.7.
include(\(aqsome.sls.file\(aq)

A = state(\(aqA\(aq).cmd.run(cwd=\(aq/var/tmp\(aq) extend(A)
__pydsl__.set(ordered=True)
for i in range(10): i = six.text_type(i) state(i).cmd.run(\(aqecho \(aq+i, cwd=\(aq/\(aq) state(\(aq1\(aq).cmd.run(\(aqecho one\(aq) state(\(aq2\(aq).cmd.run(name=\(aqecho two\(aq)
Notice that the ordered option needs to be set after any extend calls. This is to prevent pydsl from tracking the creation of a state function that\(aqs passed to an extend call.
Above example should create states from 0 to 9 that will output 0, one, two, 3, ... 9, in that order.
It\(aqs important to know that pydsl tracks the creations of function-declaration objects, and automatically adds a require requisite to a function-declaration object that requires the last function-declaration object created before it in the sls file.
This means later calls (perhaps to update the function\(aqs function-arg-declaration) to a previously created function declaration will not change the order.

Render time state execution

When Salt processes a salt formula file, the file is rendered to salt\(aqs high state data representation by a renderer before the states can be executed. In the case of the pydsl renderer, the .sls file is executed as a python module as it is being rendered which makes it easy to execute a state at render time. In pydsl, executing one or more states at render time can be done by calling a configured ID-declaration object.
#!pydsl

s = state() # save for later invocation
# configure it s.cmd.run(\(aqecho at render time\(aq, cwd=\(aq/\(aq) s.file.managed(\(aqtarget.txt\(aq, source=\(aqsalt://source.txt\(aq)
s() # execute the two states now
Once an ID-declaration is called at render time it is detached from the sls module as if it was never defined.
NOTE: If implicit ordering is enabled (i.e., via __pydsl__.set(ordered=True)) then the first invocation of a ID-declaration object must be done before a new function-declaration is created.

Integration with the stateconf renderer

The salt.renderers.stateconf renderer offers a few interesting features that can be leveraged by the pydsl renderer. In particular, when using with the pydsl renderer, we are interested in stateconf\(aqs sls namespacing feature (via dot-prefixed id declarations), as well as, the automatic start and goal states generation.
Now you can use pydsl with stateconf like this:
#!pydsl|stateconf -ps

include(\(aqxxx\(aq, \(aqyyy\(aq)
# ensure that states in xxx run BEFORE states in this file. extend(state(\(aq.start\(aq).stateconf.require(stateconf=\(aqxxx::goal\(aq))
# ensure that states in yyy run AFTER states in this file. extend(state(\(aq.goal\(aq).stateconf.require_in(stateconf=\(aqyyy::start\(aq))
__pydsl__.set(ordered=True)
...
-s enables the generation of a stateconf start state, and -p lets us pipe high state data rendered by pydsl to stateconf. This example shows that by require-ing or require_in-ing the included sls\(aq start or goal states, it\(aqs possible to ensure that the included sls files can be made to execute before or after a state in the including sls file.

Importing custom Python modules

To use a custom Python module inside a PyDSL state, place the module somewhere that it can be loaded by the Salt loader, such as _modules in the /srv/salt directory.
Then, copy it to any minions as necessary by using saltutil.sync_modules.
To import into a PyDSL SLS, one must bypass the Python importer and insert it manually by getting a reference from Python\(aqs sys.modules dictionary.
For example:
#!pydsl|stateconf -ps

def main(): my_mod = sys.modules[\(aqsalt.loaded.ext.module.my_mod\(aq]
salt.renderers.pydsl.render(template, saltenv=u\(aqbase\(aq, sls=u\(aq\(aq, tmplpath=None, rendered_sls=None, **kws)

salt.renderers.pyobjects

Python renderer that includes a Pythonic Object based interface
maintainer
Evan Borgstrom < >
Let\(aqs take a look at how you use pyobjects in a state file. Here\(aqs a quick example that ensures the /tmp directory is in the correct state.
 #!pyobjects

File.managed("/tmp", user=\(aqroot\(aq, group=\(aqroot\(aq, mode=\(aq1777\(aq)
Nice and Pythonic!
By using the "shebang" syntax to switch to the pyobjects renderer we can now write our state data using an object based interface that should feel at home to python developers. You can import any module and do anything that you\(aqd like (with caution, importing sqlalchemy, django or other large frameworks has not been tested yet). Using the pyobjects renderer is exactly the same as using the built-in Python renderer with the exception that pyobjects provides you with an object based interface for generating state data.

Creating state data

Pyobjects takes care of creating an object for each of the available states on the minion. Each state is represented by an object that is the CamelCase version of its name (i.e. File, Service, User, etc), and these objects expose all of their available state functions (i.e. File.managed, Service.running, etc).
The name of the state is split based upon underscores (_), then each part is capitalized and finally the parts are joined back together.
Some examples:
o postgres_user becomes PostgresUser
o ssh_known_hosts becomes SshKnownHosts

Context Managers and requisites

How about something a little more complex. Here we\(aqre going to get into the core of how to use pyobjects to write states.
 #!pyobjects

with Pkg.installed("nginx"): Service.running("nginx", enable=True)
with Service("nginx", "watch_in"): File.managed("/etc/nginx/conf.d/mysite.conf", owner=\(aqroot\(aq, group=\(aqroot\(aq, mode=\(aq0444\(aq, source=\(aqsalt://nginx/mysite.conf\(aq)
The objects that are returned from each of the magic method calls are setup to be used a Python context managers (with) and when you use them as such all declarations made within the scope will automatically use the enclosing state as a requisite!
The above could have also been written use direct requisite statements as.
 #!pyobjects

Pkg.installed("nginx") Service.running("nginx", enable=True, require=Pkg("nginx")) File.managed("/etc/nginx/conf.d/mysite.conf", owner=\(aqroot\(aq, group=\(aqroot\(aq, mode=\(aq0444\(aq, source=\(aqsalt://nginx/mysite.conf\(aq, watch_in=Service("nginx"))
You can use the direct requisite statement for referencing states that are generated outside of the current file.
 #!pyobjects

# some-other-package is defined in some other state file Pkg.installed("nginx", require=Pkg("some-other-package"))
The last thing that direct requisites provide is the ability to select which of the SaltStack requisites you want to use (require, require_in, watch, watch_in, use & use_in) when using the requisite as a context manager.
 #!pyobjects

with Service("my-service", "watch_in"): ...
The above example would cause all declarations inside the scope of the context manager to automatically have their watch_in set to Service("my-service").

Including and Extending

To include other states use the include() function. It takes one name per state to include.
To extend another state use the extend() function on the name when creating a state.
 #!pyobjects

include(\(aqhttp\(aq, \(aqssh\(aq)
Service.running(extend(\(aqapache\(aq), watch=[File(\(aq/etc/httpd/extra/httpd-vhosts.conf\(aq)])

Importing from other state files

Like any Python project that grows you will likely reach a point where you want to create reusability in your state tree and share objects between state files, Map Data (described below) is a perfect example of this.
To facilitate this Python\(aqs import statement has been augmented to allow for a special case when working with a Salt state tree. If you specify a Salt url (salt://...) as the target for importing from then the pyobjects renderer will take care of fetching the file for you, parsing it with all of the pyobjects features available and then place the requested objects in the global scope of the template being rendered.
This works for all types of import statements; import X, from X import Y, and from X import Y as Z.
 #!pyobjects

import salt://myfile.sls from salt://something/data.sls import Object from salt://something/data.sls import Object as Other
See the Map Data section for a more practical use.
Caveats:
o Imported objects are ALWAYS put into the global scope of your template, regardless of where your import statement is.

Salt object

In the spirit of the object interface for creating state data pyobjects also provides a simple object interface to the __salt__ object.
A function named salt exists in scope for your sls files and will dispatch its attributes to the __salt__ dictionary.
The following lines are functionally equivalent:
 #!pyobjects

ret = salt.cmd.run(bar) ret = __salt__[\(aqcmd.run\(aq](bar)

Pillar, grain, mine & config data

Pyobjects provides shortcut functions for calling pillar.get, grains.get, mine.get & config.get on the __salt__ object. This helps maintain the readability of your state files.
Each type of data can be access by a function of the same name: pillar(), grains(), mine() and config().
The following pairs of lines are functionally equivalent:
 #!pyobjects

value = pillar(\(aqfoo:bar:baz\(aq, \(aqqux\(aq) value = __salt__[\(aqpillar.get\(aq](\(aqfoo:bar:baz\(aq, \(aqqux\(aq)
value = grains(\(aqpkg:apache\(aq) value = __salt__[\(aqgrains.get\(aq](\(aqpkg:apache\(aq)
value = mine(\(aqos:Fedora\(aq, \(aqnetwork.interfaces\(aq, \(aqgrain\(aq) value = __salt__[\(aqmine.get\(aq](\(aqos:Fedora\(aq, \(aqnetwork.interfaces\(aq, \(aqgrain\(aq)
value = config(\(aqfoo:bar:baz\(aq, \(aqqux\(aq) value = __salt__[\(aqconfig.get\(aq](\(aqfoo:bar:baz\(aq, \(aqqux\(aq)

Map Data

When building complex states or formulas you often need a way of building up a map of data based on grain data. The most common use of this is tracking the package and service name differences between distributions.
To build map data using pyobjects we provide a class named Map that you use to build your own classes with inner classes for each set of values for the different grain matches.
 #!pyobjects

class Samba(Map): merge = \(aqsamba:lookup\(aq # NOTE: priority is new to 2017.7.0 priority = (\(aqos_family\(aq, \(aqos\(aq)
class Ubuntu: __grain__ = \(aqos\(aq service = \(aqsmbd\(aq
class Debian: server = \(aqsamba\(aq client = \(aqsamba-client\(aq service = \(aqsamba\(aq
class RHEL: __match__ = \(aqRedHat\(aq server = \(aqsamba\(aq client = \(aqsamba\(aq service = \(aqsmb\(aq
NOTE: By default, the os_family grain will be used as the target for matching. This can be overridden by specifying a __grain__ attribute.
If a __match__ attribute is defined for a given class, then that value will be matched against the targeted grain, otherwise the class name\(aqs value will be be matched.
Given the above example, the following is true:
1. Minions with an os_family of Debian will be assigned the attributes defined in the Debian class.
2. Minions with an os grain of Ubuntu will be assigned the attributes defined in the Ubuntu class.
3. Minions with an os_family grain of RedHat will be assigned the attributes defined in the RHEL class.
That said, sometimes a minion may match more than one class. For instance, in the above example, Ubuntu minions will match both the Debian and Ubuntu classes, since Ubuntu has an os_family grain of Debian and an os grain of Ubuntu. As of the 2017.7.0 release, the order is dictated by the order of declaration, with classes defined later overriding earlier ones. Additionally, 2017.7.0 adds support for explicitly defining the ordering using an optional attribute called priority.
Given the above example, os_family matches will be processed first, with os matches processed after. This would have the effect of assigning smbd as the service attribute on Ubuntu minions. If the priority item was not defined, or if the order of the items in the priority tuple were reversed, Ubuntu minions would have a service attribute of samba, since os_family matches would have been processed second.
To use this new data you can import it into your state file and then access your attributes. To access the data in the map you simply access the attribute name on the base class that is extending Map. Assuming the above Map was in the file samba/map.sls, you could do the following.
 #!pyobjects

from salt://samba/map.sls import Samba
with Pkg.installed("samba", names=[Samba.server, Samba.client]): Service.running("samba", name=Samba.service)
class salt.renderers.pyobjects.PyobjectsModule(name, attrs)
This provides a wrapper for bare imports.
salt.renderers.pyobjects.load_states()
This loads our states into the salt __context__
salt.renderers.pyobjects.render(template, saltenv=u\(aqbase\(aq, sls=u\(aq\(aq, salt_data=True, **kwargs)

salt.renderers.stateconf

maintainer
Jack Kuan < >
maturity
new
platform
all
This module provides a custom renderer that processes a salt file with a specified templating engine (e.g. Jinja) and a chosen data renderer (e.g. YAML), extracts arguments for any stateconf.set state, and provides the extracted arguments (including Salt-specific args, such as require, etc) as template context. The goal is to make writing reusable/configurable/parameterized salt files easier and cleaner.
To use this renderer, either set it as the default renderer via the renderer option in master/minion\(aqs config, or use the shebang line in each individual sls file, like so: #!stateconf. Note, due to the way this renderer works, it must be specified as the first renderer in a render pipeline. That is, you cannot specify #!mako|yaml|stateconf, for example. Instead, you specify them as renderer arguments: #!stateconf mako . yaml.
Here\(aqs a list of features enabled by this renderer.
o Prefixes any state id (declaration or reference) that starts with a dot (.) to avoid duplicated state ids when the salt file is included by other salt files.
For example, in the salt://some/file.sls, a state id such as .sls_params will be turned into some.file::sls_params. Example:
#!stateconf yaml . jinja

.vim: pkg.installed
Above will be translated into:
some.file::vim:
  pkg.installed:
    - name: vim

Notice how that if a state under a dot-prefixed state id has no name argument then one will be added automatically by using the state id with the leading dot stripped off.
The leading dot trick can be used with extending state ids as well, so you can include relatively and extend relatively. For example, when extending a state in salt://some/other_file.sls, e.g.:
#!stateconf yaml . jinja

include: - .file
extend: .file::sls_params: stateconf.set: - name1: something
Above will be pre-processed into:
include:
  - some.file

extend: some.file::sls_params: stateconf.set: - name1: something
o Adds a sls_dir context variable that expands to the directory containing the rendering salt file. So, you can write salt://{{sls_dir}}/... to reference templates files used by your salt file.
o Recognizes the special state function, stateconf.set, that configures a default list of named arguments usable within the template context of the salt file. Example:
#!stateconf yaml . jinja

.sls_params: stateconf.set: - name1: value1 - name2: value2 - name3: - value1 - value2 - value3 - require_in: - cmd: output
# --- end of state config ---
.output: cmd.run: - name: | echo \(aqname1={{sls_params.name1}} name2={{sls_params.name2}} name3[1]={{sls_params.name3[1]}} \(aq
This even works with include + extend so that you can override the default configured arguments by including the salt file and then extend the stateconf.set states that come from the included salt file. (IMPORTANT: Both the included and the extending sls files must use the stateconf renderer for this ``extend`` to work!)
Notice that the end of configuration marker (# --- end of state config --) is needed to separate the use of \(aqstateconf.set\(aq form the rest of your salt file. The regex that matches such marker can be configured via the stateconf_end_marker option in your master or minion config file.
Sometimes, it is desirable to set a default argument value that\(aqs based on earlier arguments in the same stateconf.set. For example, it may be tempting to do something like this:
#!stateconf yaml . jinja

.apache: stateconf.set: - host: localhost - port: 1234 - url: \(aqhttp://{{host}}:{{port}}/\(aq
# --- end of state config ---
.test: cmd.run: - name: echo \(aq{{apache.url}}\(aq - cwd: /
However, this won\(aqt work. It can however be worked around like so:
#!stateconf yaml . jinja

.apache: stateconf.set: - host: localhost - port: 1234 {# - url: \(aqhttp://{{host}}:{{port}}/\(aq #}
# --- end of state config --- # {{ apache.setdefault(\(aqurl\(aq, "http://%(host)s:%(port)s/" % apache) }}
.test: cmd.run: - name: echo \(aq{{apache.url}}\(aq - cwd: /
o Adds support for relative include and exclude of .sls files. Example:
#!stateconf yaml . jinja

include: - .apache - .db.mysql - ..app.django
exclude: - sls: .users
If the above is written in a salt file at salt://some/where.sls then it will include salt://some/apache.sls, salt://some/db/mysql.sls and salt://app/django.sls, and exclude salt://some/users.ssl. Actually, it does that by rewriting the above include and exclude into:
include:
  - some.apache
  - some.db.mysql
  - app.django

exclude: - sls: some.users
o Optionally (enabled by default, disable via the -G renderer option, e.g. in the shebang line: #!stateconf -G), generates a stateconf.set goal state (state id named as .goal by default, configurable via the master/minion config option, stateconf_goal_state) that requires all other states in the salt file. Note, the .goal state id is subject to dot-prefix rename rule mentioned earlier.
Such goal state is intended to be required by some state in an including salt file. For example, in your webapp salt file, if you include a sls file that is supposed to setup Tomcat, you might want to make sure that all states in the Tomcat sls file will be executed before some state in the webapp sls file.
o Optionally (enable via the -o renderer option, e.g. in the shebang line: #!stateconf -o), orders the states in a sls file by adding a require requisite to each state such that every state requires the state defined just before it. The order of the states here is the order they are defined in the sls file. (Note: this feature is only available if your minions are using Python >= 2.7. For Python2.6, it should also work if you install the ordereddict module from PyPI)
By enabling this feature, you are basically agreeing to author your sls files in a way that gives up the explicit (or implicit?) ordering imposed by the use of require, watch, require_in or watch_in requisites, and instead, you rely on the order of states you define in the sls files. This may or may not be a better way for you. However, if there are many states defined in a sls file, then it tends to be easier to see the order they will be executed with this feature.
You are still allowed to use all the requisites, with a few restrictions. You cannot require or watch a state defined after the current state. Similarly, in a state, you cannot require_in or watch_in a state defined before it. Breaking any of the two restrictions above will result in a state loop. The renderer will check for such incorrect uses if this feature is enabled.
Additionally, names declarations cannot be used with this feature because the way they are compiled into low states make it impossible to guarantee the order in which they will be executed. This is also checked by the renderer. As a workaround for not being able to use names, you can achieve the same effect, by generate your states with the template engine available within your sls file.
Finally, with the use of this feature, it becomes possible to easily make an included sls file execute all its states after some state (say, with id X) in the including sls file. All you have to do is to make state, X, require_in the first state defined in the included sls file.
When writing sls files with this renderer, one should avoid using what can be defined in a name argument of a state as the state\(aqs id. That is, avoid writing states like this:
/path/to/some/file:
  file.managed:
    - source: salt://some/file

cp /path/to/some/file file2: cmd.run: - cwd: / - require: - file: /path/to/some/file
Instead, define the state id and the name argument separately for each state. Also, the ID should be something meaningful and easy to reference within a requisite (which is a good habit anyway, and such extra indirection would also makes the sls file easier to modify later). Thus, the above states should be written like this:
add-some-file:
  file.managed:
    - name: /path/to/some/file
    - source: salt://some/file

copy-files: cmd.run: - name: cp /path/to/some/file file2 - cwd: / - require: - file: add-some-file
Moreover, when referencing a state from a requisite, you should reference the state\(aqs id plus the state name rather than the state name plus its name argument. (Yes, in the above example, you can actually require the file: /path/to/some/file, instead of the file: add-some-file). The reason is that this renderer will re-write or rename state id\(aqs and their references for state id\(aqs prefixed with .. So, if you reference name then there\(aqs no way to reliably rewrite such reference.

salt.renderers.wempy

salt.renderers.wempy.render(template_file, saltenv=u\(aqbase\(aq, sls=u\(aq\(aq, argline=u\(aq\(aq, context=None, **kws)
Render the data passing the functions and grains into the rendering system
Return type
string

salt.renderers.yaml

Understanding YAML

The default renderer for SLS files is the YAML renderer. YAML is a markup language with many powerful features. However, Salt uses a small subset of YAML that maps over very commonly used data structures, like lists and dictionaries. It is the job of the YAML renderer to take the YAML data structure and compile it into a Python data structure for use by Salt.
Though YAML syntax may seem daunting and terse at first, there are only three very simple rules to remember when writing YAML for SLS files.

Rule One: Indentation

YAML uses a fixed indentation scheme to represent relationships between data layers. Salt requires that the indentation for each level consists of exactly two spaces. Do not use tabs.

Rule Two: Colons

Python dictionaries are, of course, simply key-value pairs. Users from other languages may recognize this data type as hashes or associative arrays.
Dictionary keys are represented in YAML as strings terminated by a trailing colon. Values are represented by either a string following the colon, separated by a space:
my_key: my_value

In Python, the above maps to:
{\(aqmy_key\(aq: \(aqmy_value\(aq}

Dictionaries can be nested:
first_level_dict_key:
  second_level_dict_key: value_in_second_level_dict

And in Python:
{\(aqfirst_level_dict_key\(aq: {\(aqsecond_level_dict_key\(aq: \(aqvalue_in_second_level_dict\(aq }

Rule Three: Dashes

To represent lists of items, a single dash followed by a space is used. Multiple items are a part of the same list as a function of their having the same level of indentation.
- list_value_one
- list_value_two
- list_value_three

Lists can be the value of a key-value pair. This is quite common in Salt:
my_dictionary:
  - list_value_one
  - list_value_two
  - list_value_three

Reference

YAML Renderer for Salt
For YAML usage information see Understanding YAML.
salt.renderers.yaml.get_yaml_loader(argline)
Return the ordered dict yaml loader
salt.renderers.yaml.render(yaml_data, saltenv=u\(aqbase\(aq, sls=u\(aq\(aq, argline=u\(aq\(aq, **kws)
Accepts YAML as a string or as a file object and runs it through the YAML parser.
Return type
A Python data structure

salt.renderers.yamlex

YAMLEX renderer is a replacement of the YAML renderer. It\(aqs 100% YAML with a pinch of Salt magic:
o All mappings are automatically OrderedDict
o All strings are automatically str obj
o data aggregation with !aggregation yaml tag, based on the salt.utils.aggregation module.
o data aggregation over documents for pillar
Instructed aggregation within the !aggregation and the !reset tags:
#!yamlex
foo: !aggregate first
foo: !aggregate second
bar: !aggregate {first: foo}
bar: !aggregate {second: bar}
baz: !aggregate 42
qux: !aggregate default
!reset qux: !aggregate my custom data

is roughly equivalent to
foo: [first, second]
bar: {first: foo, second: bar}
baz: [42]
qux: [my custom data]

Reference

salt.renderers.yamlex.render(sls_data, saltenv=u\(aqbase\(aq, sls=u\(aq\(aq, **kws)
Accepts YAML_EX as a string or as a file object and runs it through the YAML_EX parser.
Return type
A Python data structure

USING SALT

This section describes the fundamental components and concepts that you need to understand to use Salt.

Grains

Salt comes with an interface to derive information about the underlying system. This is called the grains interface, because it presents salt with grains of information. Grains are collected for the operating system, domain name, IP address, kernel, OS type, memory, and many other system properties.
The grains interface is made available to Salt modules and components so that the right salt minion commands are automatically available on the right systems.
Grain data is relatively static, though if system information changes (for example, if network settings are changed), or if a new value is assigned to a custom grain, grain data is refreshed.
NOTE: Grains resolve to lowercase letters. For example, FOO, and foo target the same grain.

Listing Grains

Available grains can be listed by using the \(aqgrains.ls\(aq module:
salt \(aq*\(aq grains.ls

Grains data can be listed by using the \(aqgrains.items\(aq module:
salt \(aq*\(aq grains.items

Using grains in a state

To use a grain in a state you can access it via {{ grains[\(aqkey\(aq] }}.

Grains in the Minion Config

Grains can also be statically assigned within the minion configuration file. Just add the option grains and pass options to it:
grains:
  roles:
    - webserver
    - memcache
  deployment: datacenter4
  cabinet: 13
  cab_u: 14-15

Then status data specific to your servers can be retrieved via Salt, or used inside of the State system for matching. It also makes targeting, in the case of the example above, simply based on specific data about your deployment.

Grains in /etc/salt/grains

If you do not want to place your custom static grains in the minion config file, you can also put them in /etc/salt/grains on the minion. They are configured in the same way as in the above example, only without a top-level grains: key:
roles:
  - webserver
  - memcache
deployment: datacenter4
cabinet: 13
cab_u: 14-15

NOTE: Grains in /etc/salt/grains are ignored if you specify the same grains in the minion config.
NOTE: Grains are static, and since they are not often changed, they will need a grains refresh when they are updated. You can do this by calling: salt minion saltutil.refresh_modules
NOTE: You can equally configure static grains for Proxy Minions. As multiple Proxy Minion processes can run on the same machine, you need to index the files using the Minion ID, under /etc/salt/proxy.d/<minion ID>/grains. For example, the grains for the Proxy Minion router1 can be defined under /etc/salt/proxy.d/router1/grains, while the grains for the Proxy Minion switch7 can be put in /etc/salt/proxy.d/switch7/grains.

Matching Grains in the Top File

With correctly configured grains on the Minion, the top file used in Pillar or during Highstate can be made very efficient. For example, consider the following configuration:
\(aqroles:webserver\(aq:
  - match: grain
  - state0

\(aqroles:memcache\(aq: - match: grain - state1 - state2
For this example to work, you would need to have defined the grain role for the minions you wish to match.

Writing Grains

The grains are derived by executing all of the "public" functions (i.e. those which do not begin with an underscore) found in the modules located in the Salt\(aqs core grains code, followed by those in any custom grains modules. The functions in a grains module must return a Python dictionary, where the dictionary keys are the names of grains, and each key\(aqs value is that value for that grain.
Custom grains modules should be placed in a subdirectory named _grains located under the file_roots specified by the master config file. The default path would be /srv/salt/_grains. Custom grains modules will be distributed to the minions when state.highstate is run, or by executing the saltutil.sync_grains or saltutil.sync_all functions.
Grains modules are easy to write, and (as noted above) only need to return a dictionary. For example:
def yourfunction():
     # initialize a grains dictionary
     grains = {}
     # Some code for logic that sets grains like
     grains[\(aqyourcustomgrain\(aq] = True
     grains[\(aqanothergrain\(aq] = \(aqsomevalue\(aq
     return grains

The name of the function does not matter and will not factor into the grains data at all; only the keys/values returned become part of the grains.

When to Use a Custom Grain

Before adding new grains, consider what the data is and remember that grains should (for the most part) be static data.
If the data is something that is likely to change, consider using Pillar or an execution module instead. If it\(aqs a simple set of key/value pairs, pillar is a good match. If compiling the information requires that system commands be run, then putting this information in an execution module is likely a better idea.
Good candidates for grains are data that is useful for targeting minions in the top file or the Salt CLI. The name and data structure of the grain should be designed to support many platforms, operating systems or applications. Also, keep in mind that Jinja templating in Salt supports referencing pillar data as well as invoking functions from execution modules, so there\(aqs no need to place information in grains to make it available to Jinja templates. For example:
...
...
{{ salt[\(aqmodule.function_name\(aq](\(aqargument_1\(aq, \(aqargument_2\(aq) }}
{{ pillar[\(aqmy_pillar_key\(aq] }}
...
...

WARNING: Custom grains will not be available in the top file until after the first highstate. To make custom grains available on a minion\(aqs first highstate, it is recommended to use this example to ensure that the custom grains are synced when the minion starts.

Loading Custom Grains

If you have multiple functions specifying grains that are called from a main function, be sure to prepend grain function names with an underscore. This prevents Salt from including the loaded grains from the grain functions in the final grain data structure. For example, consider this custom grain file:
#!/usr/bin/env python
def _my_custom_grain():
    my_grain = {\(aqfoo\(aq: \(aqbar\(aq, \(aqhello\(aq: \(aqworld\(aq}
    return my_grain


def main(): # initialize a grains dictionary grains = {} grains[\(aqmy_grains\(aq] = _my_custom_grain() return grains
The output of this example renders like so:
# salt-call --local grains.items
local:
    ----------
    <Snipped for brevity>
    my_grains:
        ----------
        foo:
            bar
        hello:
            world

However, if you don\(aqt prepend the my_custom_grain function with an underscore, the function will be rendered twice by Salt in the items output: once for the my_custom_grain call itself, and again when it is called in the main function:
# salt-call --local grains.items
local:
----------
    <Snipped for brevity>
    foo:
        bar
    <Snipped for brevity>
    hello:
        world
    <Snipped for brevity>
    my_grains:
        ----------
        foo:
            bar
        hello:
            world

Precedence

Core grains can be overridden by custom grains. As there are several ways of defining custom grains, there is an order of precedence which should be kept in mind when defining them. The order of evaluation is as follows:
1. Core grains.
2. Custom grains in /etc/salt/grains.
3. Custom grains in /etc/salt/minion.
4. Custom grain modules in _grains directory, synced to minions.
Each successive evaluation overrides the previous ones, so any grains defined by custom grains modules synced to minions that have the same name as a core grain will override that core grain. Similarly, grains from /etc/salt/minion override both core grains and custom grain modules, and grains in _grains will override any grains of the same name.
For custom grains, if the function takes an argument grains, then the previously rendered grains will be passed in. Because the rest of the grains could be rendered in any order, the only grains that can be relied upon to be passed in are core grains. This was added in the Fluorine release.

Examples of Grains

The core module in the grains package is where the main grains are loaded by the Salt minion and provides the principal example of how to write grains:

Syncing Grains

Syncing grains can be done a number of ways, they are automatically synced when state.highstate is called, or (as noted above) the grains can be manually synced and reloaded by calling the saltutil.sync_grains or saltutil.sync_all functions.
NOTE: When the grains_cache is set to False, the grains dictionary is built and stored in memory on the minion. Every time the minion restarts or saltutil.refresh_grains is run, the grain dictionary is rebuilt from scratch.

Storing Static Data in the Pillar

Pillar is an interface for Salt designed to offer global values that can be distributed to minions. Pillar data is managed in a similar way as the Salt State Tree.
Pillar was added to Salt in version 0.9.8
NOTE: Storing sensitive data
Pillar data is compiled on the master. Additionally, pillar data for a given minion is only accessible by the minion for which it is targeted in the pillar configuration. This makes pillar useful for storing sensitive data specific to a particular minion.

Declaring the Master Pillar

The Salt Master server maintains a pillar_roots setup that matches the structure of the file_roots used in the Salt file server. Like file_roots, the pillar_roots option maps environments to directories. The pillar data is then mapped to minions based on matchers in a top file which is laid out in the same way as the state top file. Salt pillars can use the same matcher types as the standard top file.
conf_master:pillar_roots is configured just like file_roots. For example:
pillar_roots:
  base:
    - /srv/pillar

This example configuration declares that the base environment will be located in the /srv/pillar directory. It must not be in a subdirectory of the state tree.
The top file used matches the name of the top file used for States, and has the same structure:
/srv/pillar/top.sls
base:
  \(aq*\(aq:
    - packages

In the above top file, it is declared that in the base environment, the glob matching all minions will have the pillar data found in the packages pillar available to it. Assuming the pillar_roots value of /srv/pillar taken from above, the packages pillar would be located at /srv/pillar/packages.sls.
Any number of matchers can be added to the base environment. For example, here is an expanded version of the Pillar top file stated above:
/srv/pillar/top.sls:
base:
  \(aq*\(aq:
    - packages
  \(aqweb*\(aq:
    - vim

In this expanded top file, minions that match web* will have access to the /srv/pillar/packages.sls file, as well as the /srv/pillar/vim.sls file.
Another example shows how to use other standard top matching types to deliver specific salt pillar data to minions with different properties.
Here is an example using the grains matcher to target pillars to minions by their os grain:
dev:
  \(aqos:Debian\(aq:
    - match: grain
    - servers

Pillar definitions can also take a keyword argument ignore_missing. When the value of ignore_missing is True, all errors for missing pillar files are ignored. The default value for ignore_missing is False.
Here is an example using the ignore_missing keyword parameter to ignore errors for missing pillar files:
base:
  \(aq*\(aq:
    - servers
    - systems
    - ignore_missing: True

Assuming that the pillar servers exists in the fileserver backend and the pillar systems doesn\(aqt, all pillar data from servers pillar is delivered to minions and no error for the missing pillar systems is noted under the key _errors in the pillar data delivered to minions.
Should the ignore_missing keyword parameter have the value False, an error for the missing pillar systems would produce the value Specified SLS \(aqservers\(aq in environment \(aqbase\(aq is not available on the salt master under the key _errors in the pillar data delivered to minions.
/srv/pillar/packages.sls
{% if grains[\(aqos\(aq] == \(aqRedHat\(aq %}
apache: httpd
git: git
{% elif grains[\(aqos\(aq] == \(aqDebian\(aq %}
apache: apache2
git: git-core
{% endif %}

company: Foo Industries
IMPORTANT: See Is Targeting using Grain Data Secure? for important security information.
The above pillar sets two key/value pairs. If a minion is running RedHat, then the apache key is set to httpd and the git key is set to the value of git. If the minion is running Debian, those values are changed to apache2 and git-core respectively. All minions that have this pillar targeting to them via a top file will have the key of company with a value of Foo Industries.
Consequently this data can be used from within modules, renderers, State SLS files, and more via the shared pillar dictionary:
apache:
  pkg.installed:
    - name: {{ pillar[\(aqapache\(aq] }}

git:
  pkg.installed:
    - name: {{ pillar[\(aqgit\(aq] }}

Finally, the above states can utilize the values provided to them via Pillar. All pillar values targeted to a minion are available via the \(aqpillar\(aq dictionary. As seen in the above example, Jinja substitution can then be utilized to access the keys and values in the Pillar dictionary.
Note that you cannot just list key/value-information in top.sls. Instead, target a minion to a pillar file and then list the keys and values in the pillar. Here is an example top file that illustrates this point:
base:
  \(aq*\(aq:
     - common_pillar

And the actual pillar file at \(aq/srv/pillar/common_pillar.sls\(aq:
foo: bar
boo: baz

NOTE: When working with multiple pillar environments, assuming that each pillar environment has its own top file, the jinja placeholder {{ saltenv }} can be used in place of the environment name:
{{ saltenv }}:
  \(aq*\(aq:
     - common_pillar

Yes, this is {{ saltenv }}, and not {{ pillarenv }}. The reason for this is because the Pillar top files are parsed using some of the same code which parses top files when running states, so the pillar environment takes the place of {{ saltenv }} in the jinja context.

Dynamic Pillar Environments

If environment __env__ is specified in pillar_roots, all environments that are not explicitly specified in pillar_roots will map to the directories from __env__. This allows one to use dynamic git branch based environments for state/pillar files with the same file-based pillar applying to all environments. For example:
pillar_roots:
  __env__:
    - /srv/pillar

ext_pillar: - git: - __env__ https://example.com/git-pillar.git
New in version 2017.7.5,2018.3.1.

Pillar Namespace Flattening

The separate pillar SLS files all merge down into a single dictionary of key-value pairs. When the same key is defined in multiple SLS files, this can result in unexpected behavior if care is not taken to how the pillar SLS files are laid out.
For example, given a top.sls containing the following:
base:
  \(aq*\(aq:
    - packages
    - services

with packages.sls containing:
bind: bind9

and services.sls containing:
bind: named

Then a request for the bind pillar key will only return named. The bind9 value will be lost, because services.sls was evaluated later.
NOTE: Pillar files are applied in the order they are listed in the top file. Therefore conflicting keys will be overwritten in a \(aqlast one wins\(aq manner! For example, in the above scenario conflicting key values in services will overwrite those in packages because it\(aqs at the bottom of the list.
It can be better to structure your pillar files with more hierarchy. For example the package.sls file could be configured like so:
packages:
  bind: bind9

This would make the packages pillar key a nested dictionary containing a bind key.

Pillar Dictionary Merging

If the same pillar key is defined in multiple pillar SLS files, and the keys in both files refer to nested dictionaries, then the content from these dictionaries will be recursively merged.
For example, keeping the top.sls the same, assume the following modifications to the pillar SLS files:
packages.sls:
bind:
  package-name: bind9
  version: 9.9.5

services.sls:
bind:
  port: 53
  listen-on: any

The resulting pillar dictionary will be:
$ salt-call pillar.get bind
local:
    ----------
    listen-on:
        any
    package-name:
        bind9
    port:
        53
    version:
        9.9.5

Since both pillar SLS files contained a bind key which contained a nested dictionary, the pillar dictionary\(aqs bind key contains the combined contents of both SLS files\(aq bind keys.

Including Other Pillars

New in version 0.16.0.
Pillar SLS files may include other pillar files, similar to State files. Two syntaxes are available for this purpose. The simple form simply includes the additional pillar as if it were part of the same file:
include:
  - users

The full include form allows two additional options -- passing default values to the templating engine for the included pillar file as well as an optional key under which to nest the results of the included pillar:
include:
  - users:
      defaults:
          sudo: [\(aqbob\(aq, \(aqpaul\(aq]
      key: users

With this form, the included file (users.sls) will be nested within the \(aqusers\(aq key of the compiled pillar. Additionally, the \(aqsudo\(aq value will be available as a template variab