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Advanced IP routing and network device configuration tools


networking and traffic control tools


ss - another utility to investigate sockets


ss [options] [ FILTER ]


ss is used to dump socket statistics. It allows showing information similar to netstat. It can display more TCP and state information than other tools.


When no option is used ss displays a list of open non-listening sockets (e.g. TCP/UNIX/UDP) that have established connection.
-h, --help Show summary of options.
-V, --version
Output version information.
-H, --no-header
Suppress header line.
-O, --oneline
Print each socket’s data on a single line.
-n, --numeric
Do not try to resolve service names. Show exact bandwidth values, instead of human-readable.
-r, --resolve
Try to resolve numeric address/ports.
-a, --all Display both listening and non-listening (for TCP this means established connections) sockets.
-l, --listening
Display only listening sockets (these are omitted by default).
-o, --options
Show timer information. For TCP protocol, the output format is:
the name of the timer, there are five kind of timer names:
on : means one of these timers: TCP retrans timer, TCP early retrans timer and tail loss probe timer
keepalive: tcp keep alive timer
timewait: timewait stage timer
persist: zero window probe timer
unknown: none of the above timers
how long time the timer will expire
how many times the retransmission occured
-e, --extended
Show detailed socket information. The output format is:
uid:<uid_number> ino:<inode_number> sk:<cookie>
the user id the socket belongs to
the socket’s inode number in VFS
an uuid of the socket
-m, --memory
Show socket memory usage. The output format is:
the memory allocated for receiving packet
the total memory can be allocated for receiving packet
the memory used for sending packet (which has been sent to layer 3)
the total memory can be allocated for sending packet
the memory allocated by the socket as cache, but not used for receiving/sending packet yet. If need memory to send/receive packet, the memory in this cache will be used before allocate additional memory.
The memory allocated for sending packet (which has not been sent to layer 3)
The memory used for storing socket option, e.g., the key for TCP MD5 signature
The memory used for the sk backlog queue. On a process context, if the process is receiving packet, and a new packet is received, it will be put into the sk backlog queue, so it can be received by the process immediately
the number of packets dropped before they are de-multiplexed into the socket
-p, --processes
Show process using socket.
-i, --info Show internal TCP information. Below fields may appear:
ts show string "ts" if the timestamp option is set
sack show string "sack" if the sack option is set
ecn show string "ecn" if the explicit congestion notification option is set
show string "ecnseen" if the saw ecn flag is found in received packets
show string "fastopen" if the fastopen option is set
the congestion algorithm name, the default congestion algorithm is "cubic"
if window scale option is used, this field shows the send scale factor and receive scale factor
tcp re-transmission timeout value, the unit is millisecond
used for exponential backoff re-transmission, the actual re-transmission timeout value is icsk_rto << icsk_backoff
rtt is the average round trip time, rttvar is the mean deviation of rtt, their units are millisecond
ack timeout, unit is millisecond, used for delay ack mode
max segment size
congestion window size
path MTU value
tcp congestion window slow start threshold
bytes acked
bytes received
segments sent out
segments received
send <send_bps>bps
egress bps
how long time since the last packet sent, the unit is millisecond
how long time since the last packet received, the unit is millisecond
how long time since the last ack received, the unit is millisecond
pacing_rate <pacing_rate>bps/<max_pacing_rate>bps
the pacing rate and max pacing rate
a helper variable for TCP internal auto tuning socket receive buffer
--tos Show ToS and priority information. Below fields may appear:
tos IPv4 Type-of-Service byte
tclass IPv6 Traffic Class byte
Class id set by net_cls cgroup. If class is zero this shows priority set by SO_PRIORITY.
-K, --kill Attempts to forcibly close sockets. This option displays sockets that are successfully closed and silently skips sockets that the kernel does not support closing. It supports IPv4 and IPv6 sockets only.
-s, --summary
Print summary statistics. This option does not parse socket lists obtaining summary from various sources. It is useful when amount of sockets is so huge that parsing /proc/net/tcp is painful.
-E, --events
Continually display sockets as they are destroyed
-Z, --context
As the -p option but also shows process security context.
For netlink(7) sockets the initiating process context is displayed as follows:
1. If valid pid show the process context.
2. If destination is kernel (pid = 0) show kernel initial context.
3. If a unique identifier has been allocated by the kernel or netlink user, show context as "unavailable". This will generally indicate that a process has more than one netlink socket active.
-z, --contexts
As the -Z option but also shows the socket context. The socket context is taken from the associated inode and is not the actual socket context held by the kernel. Sockets are typically labeled with the context of the creating process, however the context shown will reflect any policy role, type and/or range transition rules applied, and is therefore a useful reference.
Switch to the specified network namespace name.
-b, --bpf Show socket BPF filters (only administrators are allowed to get these information).
-4, --ipv4 Display only IP version 4 sockets (alias for -f inet).
-6, --ipv6 Display only IP version 6 sockets (alias for -f inet6).
-0, --packet
Display PACKET sockets (alias for -f link).
-t, --tcp Display TCP sockets.
-u, --udp Display UDP sockets.
-d, --dccp Display DCCP sockets.
-w, --raw Display RAW sockets.
-x, --unix Display Unix domain sockets (alias for -f unix).
-S, --sctp Display SCTP sockets.
--vsock Display vsock sockets (alias for -f vsock).
--xdp Display XDP sockets (alias for -f xdp).
-f FAMILY, --family=FAMILY
Display sockets of type FAMILY. Currently the following families are supported: unix, inet, inet6, link, netlink, vsock, xdp.
-A QUERY, --query=QUERY, --socket=QUERY
List of socket tables to dump, separated by commas. The following identifiers are understood: all, inet, tcp, udp, raw, unix, packet, netlink, unix_dgram, unix_stream, unix_seqpacket, packet_raw, packet_dgram, dccp, sctp, vsock_stream, vsock_dgram, xdp Any item in the list may optionally be prefixed by an exclamation mark (!) to exclude that socket table from being dumped.
-D FILE, --diag=FILE
Do not display anything, just dump raw information about TCP sockets to FILE after applying filters. If FILE is - stdout is used.
-F FILE, --filter=FILE
Read filter information from FILE. Each line of FILE is interpreted like single command line option. If FILE is - stdin is used.
Please take a look at the official documentation for details regarding filters.


STATE-FILTER allows to construct arbitrary set of states to match. Its syntax is sequence of keywords state and exclude followed by identifier of state.
Available identifiers are:
All standard TCP states: established, syn-sent, syn-recv, fin-wait-1, fin-wait-2, time-wait, closed, close-wait, last-ack, listening and closing.
all - for all the states
connected - all the states except for listening and closed
synchronized - all the connected states except for syn-sent
bucket - states, which are maintained as minisockets, i.e. time-wait and syn-recv
big - opposite to bucket


ss -t -a
Display all TCP sockets.
ss -t -a -Z
Display all TCP sockets with process SELinux security contexts.
ss -u -a
Display all UDP sockets.
ss -o state established ’( dport = :ssh or sport = :ssh )’
Display all established ssh connections.
ss -x src /tmp/.X11-unix/*
Find all local processes connected to X server.
ss -o state fin-wait-1 ’( sport = :http or sport = :https )’ dst 193.233.7/24
List all the tcp sockets in state FIN-WAIT-1 for our apache to network 193.233.7/24 and look at their timers.
ss -a -A ’all,!tcp’
List sockets in all states from all socket tables but TCP.



ss was written by Alexey Kuznetsov, <>.
This manual page was written by Michael Prokop <> for the Debian project (but may be used by others).


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